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Cyclone Favio

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Intense Tropical Cyclone Favio
Intense tropical cyclone (SWIO scale)
Category 4 (Saffir–Simpson scale)
Cyclone Favio 20 feb 2007 1115Z.jpg
Cyclone Favio on February 20
Formed February 11, 2007
Dissipated February 23, 2007
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained: 220 km/h (140 mph)
Lowest pressure 925 hPa (mbar); 27.32 inHg
Fatalities 10
Damage $71 million (2007 USD)
Areas affected Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Malawi
Part of the 2006–07 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

Cyclone Favio was the first known tropical cyclone that passed south of Madagascar to strike Africa as an intense tropical cyclone.[1] Early on February 11, 2007, a zone of disturbed weather formed east of Madagascar. Four days later, Favio was named as intensified to a moderate tropical storm while moving southwest. On February 18, the storm was upgraded into a severe tropical storm. Then, it turned west in the general direction of Mozambique. Continuing to intensify, Favio was upgraded to a tropical cyclone early on February 19. Subsequently, the storm began to undergo rapid deepening; the small storm reached intense tropical cyclone status the next day before peaking in intensity. However, the cyclone had weakened somewhat prior to making landfall on February 22 in the Inhambane Province in Mozambique. It rapidly weakened over land and dissipated the next day.

While strengthening, Favio brought heavy rains to southern Madagascar. After making landfall, Intense Tropical Cyclone Favio brought widespread damage to Vilanculos in Mozambique, where the cyclone killed four people and injured at least 70 in the town. About 80% of the town was destroyed. Overall, a total of ten people were killed by the storm and nearly 100 others were injured, and combined with an earlier flood, the storm caused $71 million (2007 US$]]) in damage. Around 130,000 homes suffered damage and 130 schools were leveled by the tropical cyclone. Across the nation, a total of 33,000 people were left homeless during the system. Cyclone Favio destroyed 277,000 ha (684,480 acres) of crops. In Zimbabwe, 400 electricity poles were downed. During the aftermath of the storm, a number of agencies provided assistance to victims of Cyclone Favio in Mozambique. One agency donated $626,500, helping transport 50,000 mosquito nets to the devastated area. A total of 5,500 bars of soap, 1,600 buckets, 50 baths, and over 180 latrines were distributed to the victims of the devastated area. In all, the government was praised for how well they handled the disaster.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Cyclone Favio originated from a zone of disturbed weather that was first classified by the Météo-France office on Réunion (MFR) at 1200 UTC February 11, 2007.[2] Twelve hours later, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued their first advisory on the system.[1][3] Midday on February 12, MFR upgraded the system into a tropical disturbance and noted that its rating at that time on the Dvorak technique was 2.0.[2]

According to the JTWC, an area of convection developed 340 mi (545 km) south-southwest of Diego Garcia.[1] Initially, however, the convection was not very concentrated near the center. However, sea surface temperatures in the area were somewhat warm so gradual intensification was predicted and the storm was projected to become a severe tropical storm within 48 hours.[4] Situated in an environment of low wind shear and good outflow, thunderstorm activity soon increased and thus started to consolidate around the storm's atmospheric circulation. Continuing to encounter more favorable conditions, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) on February 14.[1] Meanwhile, MFR upgraded the system into a tropical depression.[2] Eighteen hours later, the system was named Favio by the Meteorological Services of Mauritius[1] as the system; according to MFR, had intensified into a moderate tropical storm.[2]

Moving very steadily southwest,[1] the storm gradually intensified.[2] Early on February 15, the JTWC announced that that system had intensified into a tropical storm. After intensifying slightly (based on JTWC data) that evening, the storm briefly weakened overnight, only to re-intensify the next morning.[3] On February 16, Favio turned southwest in response to a large subtropical ridge.[1] Despite low wind shear,[5] Favio remained a moderate tropical storm for several days; however, on February 18, MFR announced that Favio had intensified into a severe tropical storm.[2] Subsequently, the storm turned west as the ridge merged with another one centered over South Africa.[1] Two days later, the agency then upgraded the system into cyclone status.[2] At 0000 UTC that day, on February 19, the JTWC upgraded the system into a Category 1 hurricane-equivalent on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS)[3] though not much additional intensification was predicted.[6]

Cyclone Favio at landfall in Mozambique.

Upon becoming a hurricane, thunderstorm activity began to develop around an eye.[7] Favio turned west-northwest, traversing the Mozambique Channel while beginning to deepen.[1] At 0000 UTC February 20, the JTWC declared that Favio had intensified into a Category 2 hurricane-equivalent on the SSHWS.[3] Several hours later, Favio was then upgraded into an intense tropical cyclone by MFR[2] as the system developed a very small eye.[8] Simultaneously, Cyclone Favio was upgraded into a Category 3 hurricane on the SSHWS via the JTWC. During the afternoon hours of February 20, the JTWC reported that Favio had developed winds equivalent to Category 4 intensity.[3] That evening, MFR noted that Cyclone Favio had peaked in intensity, with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h),[2] becoming the most intense tropical cyclone south of the 25th parallel over the Mozambique Channel since the satellite era began.[9] Six hours later, the JTWC announced that Favio had peaked in intensity, with 140 mph (225 km/h) winds. This made Favio equal to a mid-level Category 4 hurricane.[3] At the time of its peak, Favio had developed a well-defined eye.[10]

Shortly after its peak, Cyclone Favio began to weaken;[3] the core of the storm started to become disrupted on the northwestern quadrant.[11] The JTWC expected Favio to continue to weaken, and dissipate within 48 hours over land.[12] The eye disappeared off of satellite imagery,[13] though by early February 22, this feature had re-developed.[14] That afternoon, the storm was estimated to have made landfall in southern Mozambique. At that time, the JTWC reported winds of 90 mph (145 km/h), a Category 1 system on the SSHWS.[3] On the other hand, MFR estimated winds of 105 mph (170 km/h) (an intense tropical cyclone).[2] Upon making landfall, it did so on the seventh anniversary of the last intense tropical cyclone, Eline, to strike Mozambique.[15] Favio was also the first tropical cyclone to hit the country since Cyclone Japhet did during the 2002–03 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season.[9] By early February 23, winds had dropped below hurricane-force according to the JTWC, while the storm dissipated later that day.[3] Around that time, MFR stopped monitoring the system as well.[2]

Preparations[edit]

Prior to the arrival of Favio, flooding swept over Mozambique weeks earlier, forcing 163,000 persons to seek shelter.[16] The floods started in late December 2006 when the Cahora Bassa Dam overflowed its banks. The floods escalated in February 2007 when the Zambezi River broke its banks, flooding the surrounding areas in Mozambique.[17][18] A total of 80,600 people were evacuated from their homes in the Tete, Manica, Sofala and Zambezia provinces on February 14.[19] Twenty-nine people were confirmed dead due to the pre-Favio flood.[20]

While at peak intensity, the storm threatened Mozambique and forcing authorities to put the country on high alert.[21] The British Foreign Office also issued a travel warning to Britons who were planning visits along the Bazaruto Archipelago.[22] Additionally, the South African disaster management team was on full alert in the eastern portion of Mpumalanga.[23] In addition, thousands of volunteers were placed on stand by.[24]

Some residents of Vilankulo attempted to flee the area carrying belongings and children as the government urged residents to seek shelter on higher ground further inland before the storm hit. They evacuated many of the people who remained, taking them to tent camps.[25] Officials said that Favio could also bring heavy rains to Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe.[26] Authorities in the latter issued a flood warning.[27] Because of the topography of the region, meteorologists noted the potential for flooding in Zimabawe.[28]

Impact[edit]

Madagascar[edit]

While intensifying, Cyclone Favio brushed the southern tip of Madagascar while bringing heavy rains to the nation. Along the southeastern portion of the nation, road access was reduced. Favio disrupted relief operations to 582,000 people, who were struggling to cope with a drought in the southern portion of the nation. Moreover, the cyclone disrupted relief efforts during an aftermath of flood that killed three persons and displaced 33,000 people throughout the country.[29] Overall, the cyclone was one of several storms to affect the nation during the season.[30]

Mozambique[edit]

Map of Mozambique

About 130,000 homes suffered damage and 130 schools were leveled by the intense tropical cyclone in Mozambique.[31] In all, a total of ten people were killed by the storm and nearly 100 others were injured.[32][33] Combined with an earlier flood, Favio caused $71 million (2007 USD) in infrastructural damage.[16] About 64,000 people moved to tents during the storm,[25] and 33,000 people were displaced during the storm.[34] Cyclone Favio destroyed 277,000 ha (684,480 acres) of crops, primarily in Vilanculos, Inhassoro, Govuro, and Masinga districts in Inhambane Province.[16] Overall, 160,000 people were affected by the storm.[35]

Favio damaged the court in the resort town of Vilanculos in Southern Mozambique. Uprooted trees caused by the cyclone also blocked roads, cutting off access for rescuers to some homes.[36] Power was also cut off to the city.[34] The cyclone killed four people and injured at least 70 in the town, and thousands of homes were destroyed along with the hospital, where a total of 120 patients were evacuated. Additionally, 600 prisoners escaped when the local jail was demolished.[1] About 80% of the town was destroyed.[37] A total of 73,000 people were affected by the cyclone in Vilanculos.[38]

Elsewhere, the storm damaged trees and blew off rooftops in Pontagea, a highly populated suburb in the port city of Beira.[1] Cyclone Favio was responsible for widespread damage in Tofo Beach, where the storm uprooted palm trees and destroyed electric services.[39] Elsewhere, an airplane was crushed in an airport.[31]

Elsewhere[edit]

In Zimbabwe, the Bvumba Mountains received heavy winds and rain. Throughout the country, damage was minimal and was mostly due to the uprooting of trees and not nearly as bad as Cyclone Leon–Eline, which devastated the nation seven years prior. However, electricity supplies were severely damaged. In one location, 400 wooden electricity poles were knocked down.[40] Alongside moist air from the Intertropical Convergence Zone, Favio produced significant rains across much of Malawi, peaking at 121.7 mm (5 in) in Mimosa.[9] Furthermore, the remnants of the low struck southern Tanzania. Cyclone Favio also destroyed 56 houses in Hai.[41]

Aftermath[edit]

During the aftermath of the storm, South Africa offered helicopters to Mozambique to deliver food to shelters and to help Mozambican officials assess the situation aerially.[42] The disaster management minister of South Africa flew into Mozambique to survey the damage.[43] Due to the concern for potential disease epidemics including those of malaria and cholera, health officials raised public awareness through theaters and radio. A joint coalition of the United States Agency for International Development and the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance provided $626,500, enabling transportation of 50,000 mosquito nets to the devastated area.[16] Oxfam International distributed 18,000 L (4,800 US gal) of clean water per day for 15,000 displaced people in the Caia and Marromeu districts and housed 8,000 residents in Chupanga, where they also distributed 5,500 bars of soap, more than 3,000 mosquito nets, and 1,600 buckets. The agency also built 50 baths and over 180 latrines. In Calia, Oxfam also distributed 1,400 nets. Marromeu was also supplied 900 mosquito nets via Calia. The agency also agreed to provide drinking water to the victims of Favio for four months.[44]

The nation's president flew into the destructed area, lifting survivors' spirits. Within 48 hours following Intense Tropical Cyclone Favio, roofs were being repaired, and power lines were gradually being restored.[31] Hundreds of local red cross staff and volunteers were utilized; they worked around the clock to assist survivors. Thirty-one recovery centers opened, hosting 400 first aid volunteers.[38] According to a South African website, the government was praised for how well and quickly they handled the crisis.[21][45] Key food items (rice, beans, corn meal, cooking oil, soap, and sugar) were distributed to the affected areas.[46] On March 5, a plan was launched to provide victims for a total of $71 million worth of aid, of which $773,000 was expected to be directed towards the health. Meanwhile, water levels began to recede throughout the affected region.[47] Moreover, a total of 28,000 lb (12,700 kg) of aid were distributed through the central part of the nation, and provided clean water for 6,000 people.[48] About 200 tents were provided for victims whose roofs of their homes were blown off.[37] Furthermore, concerns rose about the potential outbreak of diseases like HIV.[49] Within three months after the cyclone, 85% of homes had used the aid they were given.[50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gary Padgett. Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary February 2007 (Report). Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Intense Tropical Cyclone Favio". Meteo-France. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Joint Typhoon warning Center. Tropical Cyclone 014S (Favio) best track analysis (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved April 10, 2013. 
  4. ^ Tropical Cyclone Forecast Warning (Report). Meteo France. February 13, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  5. ^ Tropical Cyclone Forecast Warning (Report). Meteo France. February 16, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  6. ^ Joint Typhoon warning Center (February 19, 2007). Tropical Cyclone 014S (Favio) warning No, 10 (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  7. ^ Tropical Cyclone Forecast Warning (Report). Meteo France. February 19, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  8. ^ Tropical Cyclone Forecast Warning (Report). Meteo France. February 20, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c 18th Session of the RA Tropical Cyclone Committee from the South-West Indian Ocean (PDF) (Report). World Meteorological Organization. October 6–10, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  10. ^ Tropical Cyclone Forecast Warning (Report). Meteo France. February 20, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  11. ^ Tropical Cyclone Forecast Warning (Report). Meteo France. February 21, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  12. ^ Joint Typhoon warning Center (February 21, 2007). Tropical Cyclone 014S (Favio) warning No. 15 (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  13. ^ Tropical Cyclone Forecast Warning (Report). Meteo France. February 21, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  14. ^ Tropical Cyclone Forecast Warning (Report). Meteo France. February 22, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  15. ^ Letter from Zimbabwe by Cathy Buckle (Report). February 20, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Mozambique: Floods and Cyclone Fact Sheet #1 (FY) 2007". Relief Web. March 22, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Mozambique floods displace 68 000, more at risk". SABC News. February 12, 2007. 
  18. ^ Vanguard Online (February 10, 2007). "Mozambique issues flood warning as Zambezi breaches banks". 
  19. ^ Michelle Faul (February 14, 2007). "Some Refuse to Flee Mozambique Flood". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Mozambique seeks urgent flood aid". BBC News. February 14, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
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  23. ^ "South Africa keeps eye on Cyclone Favio". Relief Web. February 22, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
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  26. ^ "Cyclone Favio hitting Mozambique -Information Update". Logistics Cluster. February 22, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  27. ^ "Zimbabwe in storm flood warning". BBC News. February 23, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Aftermath of Cyclone Favio Could Bring Swollen or Flooded Rivers". Voice of America. November 1, 2009. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Cyclone Favio rampages through coastal town". IRN Africa. February 22, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  30. ^ "Deadly cyclones set back conservation efforts in Madagascar". Wild Madagascar. April 2, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  31. ^ a b c "Coastal towns hard at work after Cyclone Favio". UNICEF. February 28, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  32. ^ SAPA (March 11, 2007). "Cyclone may hit tourist resorts". News24. 
  33. ^ "Children hardest hit by Cyclone Favio". United Nations Children’s Fund. February 22, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  34. ^ a b "MOZAMBIQUE: Cyclone Favio rampages through coastal town". IRIN Africa. February 22, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  35. ^ "FEWS Mozambique Food Security Warning - Cyclone Favio, drought rack south, north expects good harvest". Relief Web. March 12, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Cyclone Favio strikes Mozambique". BBC News. February 23, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  37. ^ a b Staff Reporter (February 22, 2007). "Cyclone Favio leaves trail of destruction". Africa News. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  38. ^ a b Mozambique: health situation a major concern as number of people affected by Cyclone Favio increases (Report). International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crosecent Societies. March 1, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Cyclone Favio hits Mozambique". Africa News. February 22, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Favio takes its wrath out on Mozambique". The Zambienen. March 8, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  41. ^ "Cyclone Favio Strikes Mozambique". Earthweek. March 2, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  42. ^ "SA offers Mozambique assistance". BBC News. February 24, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  43. ^ "South Africa to Reinforce Mozambique's Response to Cyclone Favio". South Africa International relations and cooperation. February 24, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  44. ^ "Mozambique floods and Cyclone Favio update". Oxfam New Zealand. March 19, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  45. ^ "Cyclone Favio, a powerful tropical storm, strikes Mozambique". South Africa History Online. February 22, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  46. ^ "Food distribution for cyclone Favio victims in Vilanculos, Inhassoro and Machuuquele districts". The Missouri Conference. April 3, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  47. ^ Mozambique Zambezi River floods and cyclone Favio crisis - Health Cluster Bulletin Mar 2007 (Report). Relief Web. March 12, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Aid teams ready to respond as Cyclone Favio threatens more flooding in Mozambique". Oxfam. February 21, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  49. ^ "MOZAMBIQUE: Tropical cyclone Favio sparks concerns about ARVs". Plue News. March 1, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  50. ^ "Momzambique-2007 Cyclone" (PDF). Shelter Projects 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2013.