Cygnus (spacecraft)

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Cygnus
The Enhanced variant of Cygnus is seen approaching the ISS
The Enhanced variant of Cygnus is seen approaching the ISS
Manufacturer Orbital ATK
Country of origin United States
Operator NASA
Applications ISS resupply
Specifications
Spacecraft type Unmanned cargo vehicle
Design life 1 week to 2 years[1]
Dry mass 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) (Std)
1,800 kg (4,000 lb) (Enh)
Payload capacity 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) (Std)
3,200 kg (7,100 lb) (Enh on Antares 230)[2][3]
3,500 kg (7,700 lb) (Enh on Atlas V 401)[2][4]
Dimensions 5.1 m × 3.07 m (16.7 ft × 10.1 ft) (Std)
6.3 m × 3.07 m (20.7 ft × 10.1 ft) (Enh)[5][6]
Volume 18.9 m3 (670 cu ft) (Std)
27.0 m3 (950 cu ft) (Enh)[3]
Power 3.5 kW
Production
Status In service
Built 5
On order 11
Launched 5
Operational 1
Retired 3
Lost 1
First launch 18 September 2013

The Cygnus spacecraft is an American automated cargo spacecraft developed by Orbital ATK as part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) developmental program. It is launched by Orbital's Antares rocket or ULA's Atlas V and is designed to transport supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) following the retirement of the American Space Shuttle. Since August 2000 ISS resupply missions have been regularly flown by Russian Progress (spacecraft), as well as by the European Automated Transfer Vehicle, and the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle. With the Cygnus spacecraft and the SpaceX Dragon, NASA seeks to increase its partnerships with domestic commercial aviation and aeronautics industry.[7]

Cygnus is the Latinized Greek word for swan and a northern constellation.

Development[edit]

NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (third from left) in front of the Cygnus spacecraft in May 2012

With Rocketplane Kistler unable to meet funding obligations for its K-1 launch vehicle under the terms of the COTS agreement, NASA decided on October 18, 2007 to terminate its contract with Rocketplane Kistler and re-award its contract after a competition.[8] On February 19, 2008 NASA announced that it had chosen Orbital Sciences as the new winner.[9] On December 23, 2008, NASA awarded Orbital Sciences a $1.9 billion contract under the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) program. Under this contract, Orbital Sciences will deliver up to 20 tons of cargo to the ISS through 2016 in eight Cygnus spacecraft flights.[7]

By April 2010 Orbital had displayed a full-scale model of the Cygnus cargo delivery spacecraft at the National Space Symposium (NSS) in Colorado Springs, CO.[10]

Launched on an Antares (renamed from Taurus II) medium-class launch vehicle or Atlas V, the first Cygnus flight was originally planned to occur in December 2010.[11][12] The Cygnus demonstration mission was successfully launched on September 18, 2013.[13] On January 12, 2014, the first scheduled Cygnus resupply mission arrived at the space station; the capsule carried Christmas presents and fresh fruit for the astronauts. Its arrival was delayed, first by the need to repair the station, and then by frigid weather at the launch site and solar flares that forced postponements.[13][14]

With the December 2015 launch of Orb CRS-4 on Atlas V, the Enhanced version made its debut. While it was planned from the beginning to fly on the fifth mission, the Orb CRS-3 failure and subsequent move to Atlas V meant a delay. On the other hand, the lessons learned on packing and the extra capabilities of the Atlas allowed payload to be increased to 3,500 kg (7,700 lb).[15]

Design[edit]

Scale drawing of the Standard (left) and Enhanced (right) Cygnus

The Cygnus spacecraft consists of two basic components: the Pressurized Cargo Module (PCM) and the Service Module (SM). The PCM is manufactured by Thales Alenia Space in Turin (Italy), the initial PCMs have a volume of 18 m3.[3] The service module is built by Orbital ATK and is based on their GEOStar and LEOStar spacecraft buss as well as components from the development of the Dawn spacecraft. It is currently expected to have a gross mass of 1,800 kg with propulsion provided by thrusters using the hypergolic propellants hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide and is capable of producing up to 4 kW of electrical power via two gallium arsenide solar arrays.[3] On November 12, 2009, Dutch Space announced it will provide the solar arrays for the initial Cygnus spacecraft.[16]

Standard Cygnus being unberthed from the Harmony module

The fourth and all subsequent Cygnus spacecraft are planned to be of the "enhanced" variant.[17] These will use a stretched PCM which increases the interior volume to 27 m3 and the service module will use Orbital ATK Ultraflex solar arrays which will provide the same amount of power as the previous solar arrays but at a lower mass.[3][17] A new upper stage built by Orbital ATK, the Castor 30XL, will be used in conjunction with the enhanced Cygnus; because of the more powerful upper stage and the lighter solar arrays, the payload that Cygnus can deliver to the ISS will be increased by 700 kg.[18]

During nominal CRS missions, Cygnus maneuvers close to the International Space Station, where the Canadarm2 robotic arm grapples the spacecraft and berths it to a Common Berthing Mechanism on the Harmony module in a similar fashion to the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle and the other American CRS vehicle, the SpaceX Dragon.[3] For typical missions, Cygnus is planned to remain berthed for about 30 days.[19][20] Cygnus does not provide return capability, but can be loaded with obsolete equipment and trash for destructive reentry similar to the Russian Progress vehicles.[21]

A formerly planned variant of Cygnus would have replaced the PCM with the Unpressurized Cargo Module (UCM), based on NASA's ExPRESS Logistics Carrier, and would have been used to transport unpressurized cargo, such as ISS Orbital Replacement Units.[11][22] Another proposed variant would have replaced the PCM with the Return Cargo Module (RCM), which would have allowed Cygnus to return cargo to Earth.[11]

Missions[edit]

List includes only currently manifested missions. Eight missions are currently planned to be launched from Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport Launch Pad 0A on Antares, while two are planned to be launched on Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral SLC-41.[23]

The PCM of each mission thus far has been named after a deceased NASA astronaut.

Cygnus spacecraft missions
# Mission Payload Variant Launch date Rocket Payload mass Outcome Ref.
1 Cygnus Orb-D1 G. David Low
Cygnus 1
Orbital Sciences COTS Demo Flight
Standard 18 September 2013 Antares 110 1,299 lb (589 kg) Success [24][25][26][27]
First Cygnus mission, first mission to rendezvous with ISS, first mission to berth with ISS, second launch of Antares. The rendezvous between the new Cygnus cargo freighter and the International Space Station was delayed due to a computer data link problem,[28] but the issue was resolved and berthing followed shortly thereafter.[29]
2 CRS Orb-1 C. Gordon Fullerton
Orbital-1
Standard 9 January 2014 Antares 120 2,780 lb (1,260 kg) Success [25][26][30][27]
First Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) mission for Cygnus, first Antares launch using the Castor 30B upperstage.
3 CRS Orb-2 Janice E. Voss
Orbital Sciences CRS Flight 2
Standard 13 July 2014 Antares 120 3,293 lb (1,494 kg) Success [26][27]
Second Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) mission for Cygnus.
4 CRS Orb-3 Deke Slayton
Orbital Sciences CRS Flight 3
Standard 28 October 2014 Antares 130 4,883 lb (2,215 kg) Failure [31][27]
First Antares launch to use Castor 30XL upperstage, delayed due to boat in launch safe zone. Second takeoff attempt suffered a catastrophic anomaly resulting in an explosion shortly after launch. Contents of the cargo included food and care packages for the crew, parts, experiments, and the Arkyd-3 Flight Test (Non-optical) Satellite from Planetary Resources.
5 CRS OA-4 Deke Slayton II
Orbital ATK CRS Flight 4
Enhanced 6 December 2015 Atlas V 401 7,746 lb (3,514 kg) Success [32][33][27]
First Enhanced Cygnus mission; Orbital Sciences contracted with United Launch Alliance to launch this Cygnus on an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
6 CRS OA-6 Rick Husband
Orbital ATK CRS Flight 6
Enhanced 23 March 2016 Atlas V 401 7,758 lb (3,519 kg) Success [32][34][33][35][27]
Second mission to fly on an Atlas V. Orbital Sciences has an option with United Launch Alliance to conduct a third Cygnus launch on an Atlas V rocket if necessary.
7 CRS OA-5 Alan Poindexter
Orbital ATK CRS Flight 5
Enhanced 17 October 2016 Antares 230 5,163 lb (2,342 kg) Success [36][34][33][35]

[37][38][39][27] [excessive citations]

The Antares 230 rocket carrying Cygnus lifted off at 7:45 pm EDT, October 17. Successful rendezvous was achieved on October 23rd at 10:53 am EDT.
8 CRS OA-7 Orbital ATK CRS Flight 7 Enhanced March 2017 Atlas V 401 Planned [36][34][33][35][27]
9 CRS OA-8E Orbital ATK CRS Flight 8 Enhanced 2017 Antares 230 Planned [36][34][33][35]
10 CRS OA-9E Orbital ATK CRS Flight 9 Enhanced 2017 Antares 230 Planned [23]
11 CRS OA-10E Orbital ATK CRS Flight 10 Enhanced 2018 Antares 230 Planned [23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Annual Compendium of Commercial Space Transportation: 2012" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. February 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Cygnus Fact Sheet" (PDF). Orbital ATK. 2015-03-24. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "ISS Payload Opportunities on Cygnus" (PDF). Orbital Sciences Corporation. 2015. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  4. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (2015-08-14). "Orbital ATK make progress toward Return To Flight of Antares rocket". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 2015-08-14. 
  5. ^ "Cygynus Beyond Low-Earth Orbit – Logistics and Habitation inCis-Lunar Space" (PDF). 
  6. ^ "Thales Alenia Space — Cygnus". Thalesaleniaspace-issmodules.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  7. ^ a b "NASA Taps SpaceX, Orbital Sciences to Haul Cargo to Space Station". Space.com. 2008-12-23. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  8. ^ "Time Runs out for RpK; New COTS Competition Starts Immediately". Space.com. 2007-10-19. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  9. ^ Bergin, Chris (2008-02-19). "Orbital beat a dozen competitors to win NASA COTS contract". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 2015-08-14. 
  10. ^ "Orbital Unveils Full Scale Cygnus Model". Orbital. Retrieved April 2010.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  11. ^ a b c "Space Act Agreement with NASA and Orbital for COTS" (PDF). NASA. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  12. ^ "Orbital Sciences To Build Taurus II". AviationWeek.com. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  13. ^ a b Byerly, Josh; Perrotto, Trent J. (September 2013). "NASA Partner Orbital Sciences Launches Demonstration Mission to Space Station". Press RELEASE 13-284 (Press release). NASA. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Christmas delivery finally for space station". January 12, 2014. 
  15. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (2015-08-31). "Enhanced Cygnus to help Orbital ATK meet CRS contract by 2017". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 2015-08-31. 
  16. ^ Peter B. de Selding (2009-11-12). "Dutch Space to Build Solar Arrays for Orbital's Cygnus Cargo Tug". Space News. 
  17. ^ a b "Cygnus Enhanced Spacecraft to Use Ultraflex™ Solar Arrays". Orbital Sciences. November 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2012. 
  18. ^ Bergin, Chris (2012-02-22). "Space industry giants Orbital upbeat ahead of Antares debut". NasaSpaceflight (not affiliated with NASA). Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  19. ^ "NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee" (PDF). NASA. July 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  20. ^ "Antares A-ONE Pre-flight Briefing". NASA. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013. Typical mission will be about 30 days, including the rendezvous, the time aboard station, the time to de-orbit. We could extend that to 60 or 90 at NASA’s request, however once we separate from the space station, the spacecraft itself, depending on its fuel load could probably fly easily for another year, in terms of what the components are certified for. 
  21. ^ "Cygnus Advanced Manoeuvring Spacecraft Fact Sheet" (PDF). European Space Agency. 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  22. ^ Whitesides, Loretta (2008-02-20). "Orbital Sciences Scores NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Award Worth $170M". Wired. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  23. ^ a b c Leone, Dan (2015-08-17). "NASA Orders Two More ISS Cargo Missions From Orbital ATK". SpaceNews.com. Retrieved 2015-08-17. 
  24. ^ "First flight of Cygnus cargo craft delayed to September". Spaceflight Now. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  25. ^ a b Pearlman, Robert Z. "Orbital Sciences Names Next Private Space Station Freighter for NASA Astronaut". collectSpace.com. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  26. ^ a b c "Worldwide launch schedule". spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Justin Ray (4 November 2016). "Atlas 5 rocket to launch space station cargo delivery mission in March". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 5 November 2016. 
  28. ^ "Computer mishap delays space station supply ship, Va. company says arrival at least 2 days off". Washington Post. Retrieved 22 September 2013. [dead link]
  29. ^ Bergin, Chris (2013-09-28). "Orbital's Cygnus successfully berthed on the ISS". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  30. ^ "ISS Commercial Resupply Services Mission (Orb-1)". Orbital Sciences. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  31. ^ "Worldwide launch schedule". spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  32. ^ a b Kramer, Miriam (2014-12-09). "Private Cargo Spacecraft Gets New Rocket Ride After Accident". Space.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  33. ^ a b c d e "Orbital ATK Team on Track for Fall 2015 Cygnus Mission and Antares Return to Flight in 2016". Orbital ATK. 2015-08-12. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  34. ^ a b c d "Orbital ATK Updates Progress on International Space Station Cargo Delivery Program for NASA". Orbital ATK. 2015-08-12. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  35. ^ a b c d "Orbital ATK Orders Second Atlas 5, Leaves Door Open for More". SpaceNews.com. 2015-08-12. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  36. ^ a b c "Cargo Resupply Services". Orbital Sciences. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  37. ^ Foust, Jeff (13 September 2016). "Antares return to flight now planned for early October". spacenews.com. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  38. ^ NASA. "Orbital ATK Launch Updates". Retrieved 18 October 2016. 
  39. ^ "Cygnus Attached to Station's Unity Module | Space Station". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-24. 
  40. ^ "Dragonlab datasheet, v.2.1" (PDF). 2009-09-18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  41. ^ Video: (October 2015) SNC's Dream Chaser® Cargo System: A Transportation System to Deliver Cargo to the ISS for NASA

External links[edit]