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Temporal range: Early Miocene–Middle Miocene
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Borophaginae
Tribe: Borophagini
Subtribe: Cynarctina

Cynarctina is an extinct hypocarnivorous canine sub-tribe clade of Borophaginae. Cynarctina lived during the Hemingfordian stage of Early Miocene through Clarendonian stage of the Middle Miocene 20.6—10.3 Ma, existing for approximately 4.3 million years.


Cynarctina was named by Wang et al. (1999). It was assigned to Borophagini by Wang et al. (1999).[1]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Cynarctines feature the most dention having tubercles or rounded cusps on the molar teeth known among canids. Metatomarctus, Euoplocyon, Psalidocyon, Microtomarctus, Protomarctus, and Tephrocyon (the next series of taxa) are of medium size and occupy a sequence having projections resembling the teeth of a comb and have a rather diverse dentition. These include the most hypercarnivorous borophagine Euoplocyon, the peculiarly distinct Psalidocyon, and the dwarf lineage Microtomarctus.[2]


  1. ^ X. Wang, R. H. Tedford, and B. E. Taylor. 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae (Carnivora: Canidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243:1-392
  2. ^ Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae (Carnivora, Canidae). Bulletin of the AMNH; no. 243, Wang, Tedford, Taylor.