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Temporal range: Oligocene–Middle Miocene
Cynarctoides lemur fossil, University of California Museum of Paleontology.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Borophaginae
Tribe: Phlaocyonini
Genus: Cynarctoides
McGrew, 1938

See text

Phlaocyonini range.png
Range of Cynarctoides based on fossil record

Cynarctoides is an extinct genus of the Borophaginae subfamily of canids native to North America. It lived from the Early Oligocene to the Middle Miocene, 33.3—13.6 Mya, existing for approximately 19.7 million years. Seven species are currently recognised, all of which are estimated to have weighed no more than 1 kilogram (2.2 lb). They had an unusual dentition that implies an omnivorous, or possibly even herbivorous, diet.[2]


  • Cynarctoides acridens Barbour & Cook 1914 (syn. Cynarctus mustelinus) - Wyoming, California, New Mexico, Texas, ~20.6—16.3 Ma
  • Cynarctoides emryi Wang et al. 1999 - Nebraska ~20.6—16.3 Ma
  • Cynarctoides gawnae Wang et al. 1999 - New Mexico ~20.3—5.3 Ma
  • Cynarctoides harlowi Loomis 1932 - Wyoming ~24.8—20.6 Ma
  • Cynarctoides lemur Cope 1879 - Oregon, South Dakota, Florida ~24.8—20.6 Ma
  • Cynarctoides luskensis Wang et al. 1999 - Wyoming ~24.8—20.6 M
  • Cynarctoides roii Macdonald 1963 - South Dakota, Nebraska ~30.8—26.3 Ma

Fossil evidence suggests that C. lemur migrated to the east and southeast over time becoming extinct in the northwest followed by the upper Great Plains and then the southeast.[citation needed]


  1. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 243. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
  2. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Tedford, Richard H. (2008). Dogs, Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History. Columbia. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-231-13528-3.
  • Martin, L.D. 1989. Fossil history of the terrestrial carnivora. Pages 536 - 568 in J.L. Gittleman, editor. Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, Vol. 1. Comstock Publishing Associates: Ithaca.
  • Tedford, R.H. 1978. History of dogs and cats: A view from the fossil record. Pages 1 – 10 in Nutrition and Management of Dogs and Cats. Ralston Purina Co.: St. Louis.
  • Fossilworks - Cynarctoides