|Born||Cynthia Holden Enloe
16 July 1938
|Alma mater||University of California, Berkeley|
Cynthia Holden Enloe (born July 16, 1938) is a feminist writer, theorist, and professor. She is best known for her work on gender and militarism and for her contributions to the field of feminist international relations. In 2015, the International Feminist Journal of Politics, in conjunction with the academic publisher Taylor & Francis, created the Cynthia Enloe Award "in honour of Cynthia Enloe’s pioneering feminist research into international politics and political economy, and her considerable contribution to building a more inclusive feminist scholarly community."
Enloe spent her early life on Long Island, a New York suburb. After completing her undergraduate education at Connecticut College in 1960, she went on to earn an M.A. in 1963 and a Ph.D. in 1967 in political science at the University of California, Berkeley. For much of her professional life she taught at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts.
Having retired from Clark, Enloe is a research professor in the Department of International Development, Community, and Environment. She is a former Director of Clark University’s Women Studies program and still a frequent and energetic lecturer. In addition to serving as an editor for such scholarly journals as Signs and the International Feminist Journal of Politics, Cynthia Enloe has written nine books, mostly published by the University of California Press. Much of Enloe’s research centers on women’s place in national and international politics. Her books cover a wide range of issues encompassing gender-based discrimination as well as racial, ethnic and national identities. She is also a member of the academic network of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
She lives in Boston with partner Joni Seager.
In The Curious Feminist, Enloe pays particular attention to the effect of globalization on women’s labor and wage ratios. This book not only addresses women’s roles in economic markets, world conflicts, and power politics, but also shows Enloe’s particular interest in linking these themes to women’s everyday lives. She addresses themes similar to those in Bananas, Beaches and Bases, but in this book she also discusses how she became interested in becoming a feminist. She asserts that curiosity as a feminist means that no woman’s life should be beyond the scope of her interest. She also focuses on the influence of American culture on women of other nations and scrutinizes the masculine aspects of such well-established organizations as the United Nations and the American military. Among other things, she explains that, though she views violence as fundamentally masculine, she does not view only men as perpetrators of violence.
Bananas, Beaches, and Bases presents sexism as a prevalent issue and gives readers a look at the history of such commonplace components of the modern world as the tourism industry. Enloe displays the links between women of different cultures during the 1800s. Enloe discusses colonialism in light of the typically held perceptions of the masculine West and the feminine East. Discussing women from varied cultures, Enloe investigates how Muslim women, among others, felt compelled to validate their cultural practices in the face of Orientalism. This book argues that lack of understanding of foreign cultures and fascination with the differences in clothing and lifestyles of indigenous and colonial populations contributed to their continued subjugation.
"No commentator has done more than Cynthia Enloe to explore the numerous roles that ordinary women play in the international system and global political economy -- as industrial and domestic workers; activists; diplomats and soldiers; wives of diplomats and soldiers; sex workers; and much else besides," wrote Adam Jones in his review of Maneuvers in the journal Contemporary Politics. In Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives Enloe elaborates upon the theme of militarization and how governments utilize women’s labor in the process of preparing for and fighting wars.
In ‘Gender’ is not enough: the need for feminist consciousness, Enloe reviews previous conversations with colleagues and fellow feminists, regarding masculinity and international relations. It is mentioned that women are generally disengaged in the UN’s wartime peace process of ‘DDR’: disarmament, demobilization and reintegration. Enloe comments on a recent meeting she attended pertaining to ‘gender and small arms trade’, and how attempts to focus the UN gathering on masculinity had been largely unsuccessful. The matter of international relations and masculinity is addressed, and with that, the concern of masculinity of peacemaking efforts in relation to security. Conversation about the politics of masculinity is quickly dismissed by delegates, suggesting the fear of having their masculinity – and therefore reputation in the world of international relations – examined. As important as it is to address the dynamics of masculinity in politics and specifically in international relations, it is also crucial not to neglect the women and girls. When masculinity is given proper thought, it seems the topic of feminism becomes non-existent. The invisibility of women in military measures and the political disregard for the needs and ideas of women and girls are highlighted and given proper context. Enloe discusses the question of serious feminist analysis in international relations. Two potential fears arise from this question; first, thought of one’s own relationship to masculinity is necessary when deciding what is deemed a ‘serious’ issue; and second, the potential to be seen as feminine based on one’s judgment of said ‘serious’ issue and therefore the possibility of being valued as less credible. Enloe warns the issues of letting masculinity and men override all aspects of international relations. She speaks of her own difficulties with writing candidly about women and the military and her fears of not being recognized as a legitimate political scientist because of her particular views. The stigma behind feminist thought in international relations needs to be reviewed and resolved. Enloe makes very clear that there is still an immense need for the study of masculinity in international relations and political economy. In order to better develop the international relations discipline, it is imperative that ‘gender’ be given a broader scope. In order to do so, there must be a feminist consciousness throughout the international relations community, as well as at the local level. A feminist consciousness will instill the education and interest in women and girls through their experiences, actions and ideas. Enloe finishes by reminding that without a proper feminist consciousness; we cannot fully comprehend or accurately analyze masculinity.
Selected other writings
- Contributor, International Relations Theory for the Twenty-First Century, Martin Griffiths, ed., USA: Routledge, 2007
- "Conversation with Cynthia Enloe," in Signs. Summer, 2003.
- "The Surprised Feminist," in Signs. Vol. 25, No. 4 (Summer 2000) 1023-1026.
- The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War, Berkeley and London: University of California Press, 1993 (published in Japanese, 1999); new ed. Berkeley & London, University of California Press, 2000 (published in Turkish, 2003).
- Does Khaki Become You? The Militarization of Women's Lives, London, Pandora Press; San Francisco, Harper\Collins, 1988 (editions have been published in Finnish and Swedish).
- Ethnic Conflict and Political Development, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1973 (repr. University Press of America, 1986).
- Coeditor (with Wendy Chapkis) Of Common Cloth: Women in the Global Textile Industry, Amsterdam: Transnational Institute; Washington: Institute for Policy Studies, 1983.
- Contributor, Loaded Questions: Women in Militaries, Wendy Chapkis, ed., Amsterdam: Transnational Institute; Washington: Institute for Policy Studies, 1981.
- Ethnic Soldiers: State Security in Divided Societies, London: Penguin Books, 1980; Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1980.
- Police, Military, Ethnicity: Foundations of State Power, New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1980.
- Coeditor (with Dewitt Ellinwood), Ethnicity and the Military in Asia, New Brunswick: Transition Books, 1980.
- Coauthor (with Guy Pauker and Frank Golay), Diversity and Development in Southeast Asia: The Coming Decade, New York: McGraw-Hill and Council of Foreign Relations, 1977.
- Coeditor (with Ursula Semin-Panzer), The Military, The Police and Domestic Order: British and Third World Experiences, London: Richardson Institute for Conflict and Peace Research, 1976.
- The Comparative Politics of Pollution, New York: Longman's, 1975.
- Multi-Ethnic Politics: The Case of Malaysia, Berkeley Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1970.
- Editorial board of the Journal of Women, Politics & Policy.
- Fulbright awards to Malaysia and Guyana
- Guest professorships in Japan, Britain and Canada
- “Outstanding Teacher”, Clark University (3 times)
- Honorary Doctorate, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (2009).
- The Susan B. Northcutt Award, Women’s Caucus for International Studies, International Studies Association, to recognize ”a person who actively works toward recruiting and advancing women and other minorities in the profession, and whose spirit is inclusive, generous and conscientious.” (2008)
- The Susan Strange Award, International Studies Association, for “a person whose singular intellect, assertiveness, and insight most challenge conventional wisdom and organizational complacency in the international studies community during the previous year.” (2007)
- "Interview – Cynthia Enloe," E-INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, MAR 13 2013
- "Theory Talk #48: Cynthia Enloe" Tuesday, May 22, 2012
- "An Interview with Cynthia Enloe: The Gendered Dynamics of Foreign Policy," Praxis: The Fletcher Journal of Human Security, VOLUME XXIV – 2009,
- Stephanie Van Hook, "Taking women’s lives seriously — an interview with Cynthia Enloe" September 13, 2012. Wagingnonviolence.com,
- Video: Interview with Cynthia Enloe at the Graduate Institute in Geneva in 2012
- Kathy E. Ferguson, "Reading Militarism and Gender with Cynthia Enloe," Theory & Event, Volume 5, Issue 4, 2001,
- Carol Cohn and Cynthia Enloe, "A Conversation with Cynthia Enloe: Feminists Look at Masculinity and the Men Who Wage War," Signs, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Summer 2003): 1187-1107
Cynthia Enloe’s Report from The Syrian Peace Talks, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, January 30, 2014
- Robin L. Riley, The Women's War (Review of Nimo’s War, Emma’s War: Making Feminist Sense of the Iraq War By Cynthia Enloe)
University of California press, 2010) in Ms. Magazine Spring 2010
- Research Profile for Cynthia Enloe Clark University website. (accessed March 27, 2007).
- "Enloe, Cynthia H., 1938- . Papers, 1977-1984: A Finding Aid". Harvard University Library - Online Archival Search Information System (OASIS). Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- Kathy E. Ferguson, Reading Militarism and Gender with Cynthia Enloe, Theory & Event Volume 5, Issue 4, 2001, https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/summary/v005/5.4ferguson_02.html
- Interview – Cynthia Enloe E-INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, MAR 13 2013, HTTP://WWW.E-IR.INFO/2013/03/13/INTERVIEW-CYNTHIA-ENLOE/
- Cynthia Enloe Award: http://www.ifjpjournal.org/?page_id=16
- Enloe, Cynthia. 2004. The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in The New Age of Empire. London: University of California Press, p. 158.
- An Interview with Cynthia Enloe: The Gendered Dynamics of Foreign Policy, Praxis: The Fletcher Journal of Human Security, VOLUME XXIV – 2009, http://fletcher.tufts.edu/Praxis/Archives/~/media/A8703F3B5CD149168D425F8E910E9AE1.pdf
- Cynthia Enloe’s Report from The Syrian Peace Talks, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom January 30, 2014, : http://wilpf.org/cynthia-enloes-report-from-the-syrian-peace-talks/
- Enloe, The Curious Feminist, pg. 133.
- Enloe, Cynthia. 2000. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Adam Jones, Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women's Lives, by Cynthia Enloe (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), Contemporary Politics, 7: 2 (2001), pp. 171-75: http://adamjones.freeservers.com/enloe.htm
- Enloe, Cynthia. 2000. Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives. London: University of California Press, pg. 33.
- Enloe, Cynthia. “Gender is Not Enough: The Need for a Feminist Consciousness.” International Affairs 80. (2004): 95-97.
- "Journal of Women, Politics & Policy - Editorial board". Taylor and Francis. Retrieved 3 June 2014.