|Native to||Northern Cyprus, Cyprus|
177,000 all varieties of Turkish in Cyprus (1995)
|Latin (Turkish alphabet)|
Emanating from Anatolia and evolved for four centuries, Cypriot Turkish is the vernacular spoken by Cypriots with Ottoman ancestry, as well as by Cypriots who converted to Islam during Ottoman rule. It is understood by expatriate Cypriots living in the UK, United States, Australia and other parts of the world.
Cypriot Turkish consists of a blend of Ottoman Turkish and the Yörük dialect that is spoken in the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. In addition it has absorbed influences from Greek, Italian and English.
Cypriot Turkish can often be mutually intelligible with Standard Anatolian Turkish, however stronger, more elaborate forms of the dialect may not be understood.
Differences between standard Turkish and Cypriot Turkish
Cypriot Turkish is distinguished by a number of sound alternations not found in standard Turkish, but some of which are also quite common in other Turkish vernaculars:
- Voicing of some unvoiced stops
- t↔d, k↔g
- Standard Turkish kurt ↔ Cypriot Turkish gurt "wolf"
- Standard Turkish taş ↔ Cypriot Turkish daş "stone"
- Preservation of earlier Turkic *ŋ
- Standard Turkish son ↔ Cypriot Turkish soŋ "end, last"
- Standard Turkish bin ↔ Cypriot Turkish biŋ "thousand"
- Changing 1st person plural suffix
- Standard Turkish isteriz ↔ Cypriot Turkish isterik "we want"
- Unvoicing of some voiced stops
- Standard Turkish Kıbrıs ↔ Cypriot Turkish Gıprıs "Cyprus"
- Standard Turkish hiç ↔ Cypriot Turkish hiş "no, none"
The last two alternations are more specific to Cypriot Turkish.
|high||i||y (ü)||ɯ (ı)||u|
|mid||e (ẹ)||œ (ö)||o|
- Standard Turkish "Okula gidecek misin?" is, in Cypriot Turkish, "Gideceŋ okula?" (Will you go to school?)
Cypriot Turkish uses the aorist tense instead of the present continuous tense, and very often in place of the future tense as well.
- Standard Turkish "Okula gidiyorum" (I am going to school) or a "Okula gideceğim" are, in Cypriot Turkish, "Giderim okula" (I go to school / I am going to school / I will go to school)
Cypriot Turkish does not use the narrative/indefinite past, and only uses the simple past instead.
- Standard Turkish "Eve gitmiş" (He is reported to have gone home) is, in Cypriot Turkish, not used. Instead "Eve gitti / Gitti eve" (He went home) suffices.
Cypriot Turkish also lacks the question suffix of "mi".
- Standard Turkish "Annen evde midir?" (Is your mother at home?) is, in Cypriot Turkish, "Anneŋ evdedir?"
In Cypriot Turkish, the reflexive pronoun in third person is different, namely geŋni (him, himself, them, themself). In Standard Turkish, kendisini.
Typical question usually do not qualify as standard Turkish questions (see the example above) because question suffixes are usually dropped by native Turkish Cypriots. Another subtle difference is the emphasis on verbs.
- Erdoğan Saracoğlu (1992). Kıbrıs Ağzı: Sesbilgisi Özellikleri, Metin Derlemeleri, Sözlük. K.K.T.C. Millî Eğitim ve Kültür Bakanlığı. ISBN 975-17-1015-4.
- Yıltan Taşçı (1986). Kıbrıs Ağzı Dil Özellikleri. Lefkoşa: Akar Yayıncılık.