|Meaning||"Sun", "One who bestows care"|
|Related names||Kourosh (name), Koresh,|
Cyrus is the given name of a number of Persian kings. Most notably it refers to Cyrus the Great. Cyrus is also the name of Cyrus I of Anshan (ca. 650 BC), King of Persia the grandfather of Cyrus the Great; and Cyrus the Younger (died 401 BC), brother to the Persian King Artaxerxes II of Persia.
Cyrus, as a word in English, is the Latinized form of the Greek Κῦρος, Kȳros, from Old Persian 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš. According to the inscriptions the name is reflected in Elamite Kuraš, Babylonian Ku(r)-raš/-ra-áš and Imperial Aramaic kwrš. The modern Persian form of the name is Kourosh.
The etymology of Cyrus has been and continues to be a topic of discussion amongst historians, linguists, and scholars of Iranology. The Old Persian name "kuruš" has been interpreted in various forms from "the sun", "like sun", "young", "hero" to "humiliator of the enemy in verbal contest" and the Elamite "kuraš" has been translated as one "who bestows care".
The name has appeared on many monuments and inscriptions in Old Persian. There is also the record of a small inscription in Morghab (southwestern Iran) on which there is the sentence (adam kūruš xšāyaƟiya haxāmanišiya) in Old Persian meaning (I am Cyrus the Achaemenian King). After a questionable proposal by the German linguist F. H. Weissbach that Darius the Great was the first to inscribe in Persian, it had previously been concluded by some scholars that the inscription in Morghab refers to Cyrus the Younger. This proposal was the result of a false interpretation of a passage in paragraph 70 of Behistun inscription by Darius the Great. Based on many arguments, the accepted theory among modern scholars is that the inscription does belong to Cyrus the Great.
There are interpretations of name of Cyrus by classical authors identifying with or referring to the Persian word for “sun”. The Historian Plutarch (46 - 120) states that "the sun, which, in the Persian language, is called Cyrus" Also the Physician Ctesias who served in the court of the Persian king Artaxerxes II of Persia writes in his book Persica as summarized by Photios that the name Cyrus is from Persian word "Khur" (the sun). These are however not accepted by modern scholars.
Regarding the etymology of Old Persian kuruš, linguists have proposed various etymologies based on Iranian languages as well as non-Indo-European ones. According to Tavernier, the name kuraš, attested in Elamite texts, is likely "the original form" as there is no Elamite or Babylonian spelling ku-ru-uš in the transcriptions of Old Persian ku-u-r(u)-u-š. That is, according to Tavernier, kuraš is an Elamite name and means "to bestow care". Others, such as Schmitt, Hoffmann maintain that the Persian Kuruš, which according to Skalmowsky, may be connected to (or a borrowing from) the IE Kúru- from Old Indic can give an etymology of the Elamite kuraš. In this regard the Old Persian kuruš is considered with the following etymologies: One proposal is discussed by the linguist Janos Harmatta that refers to the common Iranian root "kur-" (be born) of many words in Old, middle, and new Iranian languages (e.g. Kurdish). Accordingly, the name Kūruš means "young, youth,..". Other Iranian etymologies have been proposed. The Indian proposal of Skalmowsky goes down to "to do, accomplish". Another theory is the suggestion of Karl Hoffmann that kuruš goes down to a -ru derivation from the IE root *(s)kau meaning "to humiliate" and accordingly "kuruš" (hence "Cyrus") means "humiliator (of the enemy in verbal contest)".
- Cyrus I (ca. 650 BC), King of Anshan
- Cyrus the Great (ca. 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC) – also known as Cyrus II – the grandson of Cyrus I, an Achaemenid ruler and the founder of the Great Persian Empire
- Cyrus the Younger (died 401 BC), brother to the Persian King Artaxerxes
- Cyrus (architect), 1st century Greek architect who worked in Rome
- Saint Cyrus (see Cyrus and John), 4th century Coptic saint
- Cyrus of Alexandria, Melkite Patriarch and co-founder of Monothelism
- Cyrus of Panopolis, 5th-century Byzantine writer and official
- Cyrus Leroy Baldridge, American artist, illustrator, author, and adventurer
- Cyrus Townsend Brady, American journalist, historian and adventure writer
- Cyrus Broacha, MTV India VJ
- Cyrus Chothia, scientist
- Cyrus Edwin Dallin, American sculptor
- Cyrus Pallonji Mistry, an Irish businessman and Chairman of India's leading business conglomerate, Tata Group
- Cyrus S. Poonawalla, Indian businessman
- Cyrus S. Eaton, American banker, investor, and philanthropist
- Cyrus West Field, American businessman who successfully laid the first transatlantic telegraph cable
- Cyrus Frisch, Dutch film director
- Cyrus Hamlin (general), Union general during American Civil War, son of Vice President Hannibal Hamlin
- Cyrus B. Lower, American Medal of Honor recipient
- Cyrus McCormick, American inventor who developed the modern mechanical reaper
- Cyrus Mistry, an Indian author
- Cyrus Patell, literary and cultural critic
- Cyrus Peirce, founder of first public normal school (teachers' college) in United States
- Cyrus Poncha, national squash coach in India
- Cyrus Sahukar, MTV India VJ
- C. R. Smith (Cyrus Rowlett Smith), U.S. Secretary of Commerce under president Lyndon B. Johnson
- Cyrus Vance, U.S. Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter
- Cyrus Villanueva, Australian singer who won The X Factor Australia in 2015
- Don Callis, professional wrestler who competed as "Cyrus the Virus"
- Steven Slocum, professional wrestler who competed as "Cyrus"
- Ron Cyrus (1935–2006), Kentucky politician, and his descendants:
- Second generation:
- Billy Ray Cyrus (born 1961), American musician and actor (son)
- Third generation:
- Trace Cyrus (born 1989), American musician; (former) lead guitarist of Metro Station (stepson and adopted son of Billy Ray)
- Miley Cyrus (born 1992), American actress and singer (daughter of Billy Ray)
- Annalyn Cyrus (born 1997), American actress (niece of Billy Ray)
- Noah Cyrus (born 2000), American actress (daughter of Billy Ray)
- Second generation:
- Gordon Cyrus, Swedish performer and record producer
- David Cyrus (born 1986), Grenadian footballer
- Cyrus the Great
- Kourosh (name), modern Persian form
- Kira (given name), female form
- Cyrus Cylinder
- Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition and Cyrus the Great in the Quran
- Cyrus Vance
- Ghirshman, R. (1965), "A propos de l'ecriture cuneiforme vieux-perse", JNES 24 (3): 244–250, doi:10.1086/371818
- Schmitt, Rüdiger (1996a), "Cyrus i. The Name", in Yarshater, Ehsan, Encyclopaedia Iranica 6, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 515–16
- Schmitt, Rüdiger (1996b), "Cyrus vi. Cyrus the Younger", in Yarshater, Ehsan, Encyclopaedia Iranica 6, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, p. 518
- Tavernier, Jan (2007), Iranica in the Achaemenid Period (ca. 550-330 B.C.): Linguistic Study of Old Iranian Proper Names and Loanwords, Attested in Non-Iranian Texts, Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-429-1833-0
- Tolman, Herbert Cushing (1908), Ancient Persian Lexicon, American Book Company, ISBN 0-7905-2613-1
- Gershevitch, Ilya (1985), The Cambridge History of Iran Vol. 2: The Median and Achaemenian periods, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-20091-2
- Harmatta, János (1971), "The Rise of the Old Persian Empire — Cyrus the Great", Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 19: 1–15