A Cytomegalovirus vaccine is a vaccine to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or to prevent it re-activation in those who are already infected. As of 2014 no such a vaccine exists, although a number of vaccine candidates are under investigation. They include recombinant protein, live attenuated, DNA and other vaccines.
As a member of the TORCH complex, cytomegalovirus can cause congenital infection, which can lead to neurological problems, vision and hearing loss. Infection/re-activation of CMV in immuno-compromised persons, including organ transplantation recipients, causes significant mortality and morbidity. Additionally, CMV has strong associations with plaques found in atherosclerosis progression. Because of all these, there has been considerable effort made towards the development of a vaccine, with particular emphasis on protection of pregnant women. Since vaccination of the immunocompromised persons introduces additional challenges, members of this population are less likely to be candidates for such a vaccine.
Recombinant gB subunit vaccine
A phase 2 study of a recombinant gB subunit CMV-vaccine published in 2009 indicated an efficacy of 50% in seronegative women of childbearing age—thus the protection provided was limited and a number of subjects contracted CMV infection despite the vaccination. In one case congenital CMV was encountered.
Another phase 2 study of the same vaccine was done in patients awaiting kidney transplantation. The vaccine significantly boosted the antibody levels and reduced the duration of post-transplantation viremia.
In 2015, Astellas Pharma has commenced on healthy volunteers a phase 1 trial with its cytomegalovirus vaccine ASP0113.
Other cytomegalovirus vaccines candidates are the CMV-MVA Triplex vaccine and the CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine. Both vaccine candidates are sponsored by the City of Hope National Medical Center. As of 2016, the development is in clinical phase 2 trial stage.
- Dasari, V.; Smith, C.; Khanna, R. (2013). "Recent advances in designing an effective vaccine to prevent cytomegalovirus-associated clinical diseases". Expert Review of Vaccines. 12 (6): 661. doi:10.1586/ERV.13.46. PMID 23750795.
- Zhong J, Rist M, Cooper L, Smith C, Khanna R (2008). "Induction of pluripotent protective immunity following immunisation with a chimeric vaccine against human cytomegalovirus". PLoS ONE. 3 (9): e3256. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003256. PMC . PMID 18806877.
- Schleiss MR (March 2008). "Comparison of vaccine strategies against congenital CMV infection in the guinea pig model". J. Clin. Virol. 41 (3): 224–30. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2007.10.008. PMID 18060834.
- Schleiss MR, Heineman TC (June 2005). "Progress toward an elusive goal: current status of cytomegalovirus vaccines". Expert Rev Vaccines. 4 (3): 381–406. doi:10.1586/147605184.108.40.2061. PMID 16026251.
- Khanna R, Diamond DJ (January 2006). "Human cytomegalovirus vaccine: time to look for alternative options". Trends Mol Med. 12 (1): 26–33. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2005.11.006. PMID 16337831.
- Arvin AM, Fast P, Myers M, Plotkin S, Rabinovich R (July 2004). "Vaccine development to prevent cytomegalovirus disease: report from the National Vaccine Advisory Committee". Clin. Infect. Dis. 39 (2): 233–9. doi:10.1086/421999. PMID 15307033.
- Pass RF, Zhang C, Evans A, et al. (2009). "Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection". N Engl J Med. 360 (12): 1191–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804749. PMC . PMID 19297572.
- "A Study to Evaluate a Therapeutic Vaccine, ASP0113, in Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Seropositive Recipients Undergoing Allogeneic, Hematopoietic Cell Transplant (HCT) (HELIOS)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 2013-06-12. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- "An Evaluation of a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Vaccine (ASP0113) in CMV-Seropositive and CMV-Seronegative Healthy Subjects and CMV-Seronegative Dialysis Patients". ClinicalTrials.gov. 2015-07-08. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
- "Multi-antigen CMV-MVA Triplex Vaccine in Reducing CMV Complications in Patients Previously Infected With CMV and Undergoing Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplant". ClinicalTrials.gov. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
- "Vaccine Therapy in Reducing the Frequency of Cytomegalovirus Events in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant". ClinicalTrials.gov. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2016-01-23.