Czech legislative election, 2010

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Czech legislative election, 2010

← 2006 28–29 May 2010 2013 →

All 200 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
101 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Jiří Paroubek.JPG Necas in Latvia (cropped).jpg Karel Schwarzenberg on June 2, 2011.jpg
Leader Jiří Paroubek Petr Nečas Karel Schwarzenberg
Party ČSSD ODS TOP 09
Leader's seat Ústí nad Labem Zlín Prague
Last election 74 seats, 32.32% 81 seats, 35.28% split from KDU–ČSL
Seats won 56 53 41
Seat change Decrease 18 Decrease 28 Increase 41
Popular vote 1,155,267 1,057,792 873,833
Percentage 22.08% 20.22% 16.70%
Swing Decrease10.24pp Decrease15.06pp New party

  Fourth party Fifth party
  Vojtěch Filip 2013 (cropped).JPG Radek John 2.jpg
Leader Vojtěch Filip Radek John
Party KSČM VV
Leader's seat South Bohemia Prague
Last election 26 seats, 12.81% Did not stand
Seats won 26 24
Seat change Steady 0 Increase 24
Popular vote 589,765 569,127
Percentage 11.27% 10.88%
Swing Decrease1.54pp New party

Prime Minister before election

Jan Fischer
Independent

Elected Prime Minister

Petr Nečas
ODS

A legislative election in the Czech Republic took place on 28–29 May 2010 to elect the members of the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic.[1] The election had been expected to take place sometime before the end of 2009, but was postponed due to legal challenges.[2] Before the election, the country had been governed by a caretaker administration headed by Jan Fischer.[3] The Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) was the front-runner of the election and its leader Jiří Paroubek was favourite to become the new Prime Minister.[4][5][6]

The election saw a loss of support for ČSSD, although they still received the highest number of votes.[7] The conservative Civic Democratic Party (ODS) and TOP 09 followed in second and third, with the Communist Party finishing fourth. ČSSD leader Jiří Paroubek resigned after the election, conceding that a conservative coalition government appeared likely, due to the rise in support for two new right-wing parties: TOP 09 and Public Affairs (VV). In June, a centre-right coalition of ODS, TOP 09, and VV was formed, with Petr Nečas becoming the prime minister.

Background[edit]

On 24 March 2009, after four previous failed attempts, the opposition ČSSD succeeded in passing a no confidence vote against the government of Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek (ODS) in the lower house of the Czech parliament. The measure passed with 101 votes to 96, with several members of Topolánek's own party voting with the opposition.[8]

On 28 March 2009, ČSSD leader Jiří Paroubek and Topolánek agreed to hold early elections in October 2009.[9] They later agreed to form an interim government of experts (before the end of the Czech EU presidency), with half of the government nominated by ČSSD and half by two parties of the incumbent government (ODS and The Greens; the third party KDU–ČSL did not participate), and that early elections would be held on 16–17 October 2009.[10] On 5 April 2009, Paroubek and Topolánek agreed on Jan Fischer, the head of the national statistical office, as the interim Prime Minister, to take over on 8 May 2009, and stated that elections would be held by 15 October 2009, most likely on 9–10 October 2009.[2]

The newly founded party Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 (TOP 09), which had split off from the KDU–ČSL, also contested the election. Some polls showed the party to be in fourth place, closely behind the Communist Party.[11]

The election date was initially scheduled for 1 July 2009,[12] but ex-ČSSD Independent MP Miloš Melčák filed a complaint with the Constitutional Court, on the grounds that he had a right to sit in parliament for a full term, and the election was postponed while the court examined the legality of the law setting the election date.[13] A hearing was scheduled for 10 September 2009; if the court ruled against the complaint at that hearing, elections would be held as planned, but politicians agreed that they would rather change the constitution to simplify the procedure of calling early elections, and using the new provisions, the election would be held with a delay of at most one month,[14][15] regardless of the court's decision, most likely on 6–7 November.[16][17]

Set of ballots with instructions (version for electoral district of Central Bohemia) as delivered to voters at least three days prior to elections

However, the Constitutional Court viewed the constitutional amendment calling for one-off early elections as a retroactive decision in violation of the existing constitutional procedures regulating early elections, and struck down the act on the grounds that it violated the procedure for constitutional amendments, the right to vote, and the inalienable principle of a law-abiding state.[18] As the Court ruled the election date invalid, the laws (a constitutional amendment and a law shortening election deadlines) were passed on 11 September as planned.[19] President Klaus signed the laws on 12 September, and parliament planned to dissolve itself on 15 September.[20] Melčák stated, however, that he would likely file another complaint if this plan went ahead.[21]

In a surprise move, ČSSD announced on 15 September that it would not vote in favour of dissolution, as the new law was likely to be challenged by Melčák again, and this would again call the legality of the election into question; they were now in favour of elections in mid-2010, on the initially scheduled dates.[22] ČSSD had 71 seats and needed ten more MPs to support their position to delay the election, but it was considered likely that they would succeed in blocking the election.[23][24] The Christian and Democratic Union (KDU-ČSL) also withdrew their support for early elections, meaning the election would be held in May 2010.[25]

Following controversial comments about the Catholic Church, Jews and homosexuals, ODS chairman Topolánek withdrew from the election and resigned as party leader on 26 March 2010.[26] He was replaced by Petr Nečas.[27]

Contesting political parties and candidates[edit]

Party Ideology Leader 2006 result
Civic Democratic Party (ODS) Conservatism, Economic liberalism, Euroscepticism Petr Nečas 35.4%
81 / 200
Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) Social democracy, Pro-Europeanism Jiří Paroubek 32.3%
74 / 200
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM)
Party of Democratic Socialism
Communism, Euroscepticism Vojtěch Filip 12.8%
26 / 200
TOP 09
Mayors and Independents

Mayors for Liberec Region
Liberal conservatism, Pro-Europeanism Karel Schwarzenberg new
Public Affairs (VV)
SNK European Democrats
Conservative liberalism, Populism Radek John didn't contest
Christian and Democratic Union - Czechoslovak People's Party (KDU-ČSL) Christian democracy, Social conservatism, Pro-Europeanism Pavel Svoboda 7.2%
13 / 200
Green Party (Zelení)
Party for the Open Society
Green politics, Pro-Europeanism Ondřej Liška 6.3%
6 / 200
Party of Civic Rights (SPO) Social democracy Miloš Zeman new
Sovereignty – Jana Bobošíková Bloc Nationalism, Euroscepticism Jana Bobošíková 0.5%
0 / 200
Workers' Party of Social Justice (DSSS) Neo-Nazism, Ultranationalism, Anti-globalism, Euroscepticism Tomáš Vandas 0.2%
0 / 200
Czech Pirate Party (Piráti) Pirate politics, Direct and Participatory democracy, Open state, Liberalism[28] Ivan Bartoš new
Party of Free Citizens (Svobodní)
Law and Justice
Classical liberalism, Right-libertarianism, Libertarian conservatism, Euroscepticism Petr Mach new
Coalition for Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia (SPR–RSČ) National conservatism, Anti-immigration, Czechoslovak unionism, Euroscepticism Miroslav Sládek 0.2%
0 / 200

Campaign[edit]

Issues that featured heavily in the campaign included the Greek government-debt crisis, the global financial crisis, the possibility of national bankruptcy, and corruption.[29]

Civic Democratic Party (ODS)[edit]

Petr Nečas during an ODS campaign event on Kampa Island, Prague

ODS launched its campaign on 16 March 2010,[30] with reducing unemployment as the main focus. The party stated it would support shorter working periods[clarification needed] and employment of graduates and seniors.[31] The party used mannequins of fictional characters Václav Dobrák and Marie Slušná as campaign mascots and the campaign slogans "ODS is the solution" and "It won't happen without your vote."[29]

When their main rival ČSSD used blue ambulances in their campaign to attack ODS, the party reacted by parking a demolished orange ambulance outside the Chamber of Deputies to depict how healthcare would look if ČSSD led the government.[32]

The previous leader of ODS, former Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek, was replaced as leader by Petr Nečas on 26 March 2010, considered a more acceptable and popular candidate than Topolánek.[33][34] ČSSD leader Jiří Paroubek stated that he could cooperate with Nečas in some circumstances. Nečas rejected Paroubek's comments and stated that ODS would not form a Grand coalition with ČSSD after the election.[35][36]

ODS billboard promising lower taxes

ODS started focusing on economics and public finances in April 2010, promising to reduce public debt to avoid bankruptcy, and using the example of Greece to warn against ČSSD.[37][37] The party also used negative campaigning against ČSSD, focused primarily on Paroubek.[38][39]

The Civic Democrats conducted an active campaign on the internet, communicating with potential voters on Facebook, Twitter and Youtube. The party held an online "virtual demonstration" against ČSSD.[40] On 30 April 2010, ODS released an election advert entitled "Your vote", commemorating the trial of Milada Horáková and the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, and warning against Social Democrats and Communists. The clip urged Jiří Paroubek to resign as ČSSD leader, a response to Paroubek's appeal to some ODS politicians to quit politics.[41]

Nečas held campaign events in multiple towns across the Czech Republic, meeting potential voters.[42] ODS also featured Nečas heavily in its billboard campaign, launched in May 2010,[43] which presented him as a candidate of "responsible politics".[40]

Nečas attacked ČSSD over the election debate, crticising the fact that Paroubek had agreed to just three debates, and accusing him of avoiding a confrontation with him.[44] The first head-to-head debate between Nečas and Paroubek was held on 12 April 2018, resulting in no clear winner, according to analysts.[45][46] A second debate was held on 23 May 2010,[47] also with no clear winner.[48] The last debate was held on 26 May 2010, with journalists judging Nečas to have been better prepared and more confident than Paroubek,[49] and the victor of the debate.[50]

The party published campaign newspapers with the title Jasně ("Of Course"), introducing their policies and candidates.[51]

ODS launched the final phase of its campaign, called "120 Hours for Victory", on 23 May 2010. Nečas said that ODS had to "stop Jiří Paroubek and the Communists". 120 Hours for Victory included performances by Czech singers such as Eva Pilarová, Helena Zeťová, Ivan Mládek, Tereza Kerndlová and Jitka Zelenková, attended by hundreds of party supporters. The party invited foreign politicians who came to the event to support ODS. The party was endorsed by British Prime Minister David Cameron and Slovak politician Iveta Radičová who both attended the event.[52]

Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD)[edit]

"Orange point" ČSSD kiosk in Brno

ČSSD was led into the election by former Prime Minister Jiří Paroubek. The party was considered the front-runner in the election and Paroubek was believed to be most likely to form the new government.[53] The party's campaign slogans were "A better future for ordinary people" and "Change and Hope".[29]

ČSSD launched their campaign on 22 April 2010.[54] Paroubek stated that the party planned to restore economic growth.[55] The party held large rallies in Czech towns, which ceased in May 2010 when ČSSD MP Bohuslav Sobotka was physically attacked by an opponent of the party. ČSSD politicians decided to meet voters at factories and schools instead.[56] The party also put a lot of effort into a telephone campaign, in which ČSSD politicians phoned people to ask which party they were planning to vote for and ask them about their ideas.[57]

Anti-ODS graffiti in Prague

ČSSD made heavy use of negative campaigning directed as ODS and TOP 09, with half of their campaign billboards attacking those two parties. Slogans used on billboards included "Let's stop ODS and TOP 09 on 28 May" or "If you don't vote, you will pay by getting dismissed without cause."[58] The party published campaign newspapers called Health Newspapers, attacking the healthcare plans of the two right-wing parties.[51]

ČSSD concluded its campaign with the slogan "Work and Prosperity", and handed out 100,000 doughnuts at events for party supporters. ČSSD campaign manager Jaroslav Tvrdík stated that the party wanted to "make it more pleasant for people to wake up, and remind them why is voting important".[59][60]

Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM)[edit]

Communist party on Prague-Anděl

The Communist Party, led by Vojtěch Filip, ran a campaign focused on young voters, and held meetings with potential voters in town squares around the country, culminating in a huge rally on Náměstí Republiky, Prague.[61] Younger party activists also attended meetings to attract young voters. The party's campaign used the slogan "With the people, for the People" and also featured celebrities who supported the party such as Martin Maxa and Jana Kociánová.[29]

TOP 09[edit]

TOP 09 was founded by Miroslav Kalousek in June 2009. Karel Schwarzenberg was elected leader of the new party, and they entered a partnership with Mayors and Independents.[62][63] TOP 09 decided to target conservative voters and began raising funds for their campaign,[64][65] which was launched on 27 April 2010. Schwarzenberg promised a fight against corruption, healthcare reform, and moral renewal of the country.[66] The party also attacked Public Affairs.[67] The campaign, closely inspired by Barack Obama's 2008 campaign, featured billboards using the slogan "more than you think".[29]

Public Affairs (VV)[edit]

Public Affairs were led by author and journalist Radek John. The party launched its campaign on 20 April 2010, with John stating that he believed the party would receive more than 10% of votes. The party promised an end to "political dinosaurs" and promised to fight against corruption.[68]

Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party (KDU–ČSL)[edit]

KDU–ČSL, led by Cyril Svoboda, launched its campaign on 8 April 2010.[69][70] The party had a shortage of campaign funding, and focused on a personal campaign, with party leaders visiting workplaces, social institutions and retirement homes.[71] KDU-ČSL used the slogans "KDU-ČSL, the better in us" and "A good day is when ..."[29]

Green Party[edit]

Czech Green Party campaign for 2010 elections

The Green Party, led by Ondřej Liška,[72][73] launched their campaign on 27 April 2010,[74] which featured prominent supporters of the party such as former President Václav Havel, Lenka Dusilová, and Meda Mládková.[75]

The Greens focused heavily on communicating directly with citizens and their internet campaign. Liška stated that the Greens wanted to be different from the big parties and be "modest and sincere".[76] The Greens considered TOP 09 and Public Affairs to be their main rivals. Their campaign focused on the environment and support for a healthy lifestyle, while also telling voters that their economic programme was good for the Czech Republic.[77][78]

The party concluded its campaign by releasing three video adverts, in which party supporters tried to convince people to vote for them.[59]

Party of Civic Rights[edit]

Party of Civic Rights was led by former Prime Minister Miloš Zeman, who stated that party's aim was to enter the Chamber of Deputies.[79] Zeman used a bus called "Zemák" for his campaign.[80]

Sovereignty – Jana Bobošíková Bloc[edit]

Sovereignty launched its campaign in January 2010, which focused heavily on leader Jana Bobošíková. The party used a campaign bus called Bobobus.[81][82]

Independent initiatives[edit]

Defenestration 2010[edit]

Defenestration 2010 was an independent initiative organised by František Janouch and Lenka Procházková, urging voters to use their preferential votes to help elect lesser known politicians, as they were "less likely to be involved in corruption".[83]

Replace Politicians[edit]

Replace Politicians was an independent initiative supported by celebrities such as Dan Bárta, Aneta Langerová, Radek Banga, Viktor Preiss and David Koller, calling for voters to support smaller parties. The initiative held events and concerts, and the band Nightwork released a video clip to support the initiative.[84]

Campaign finances[edit]

Party Money Spent Campaign Worth
ODS 213,000,000 Kč[85] 192,885,423 Kč[86]
ČSSD 184,124,000 Kč[85] 333,084,552 Kč[86]
VV 108,047,075 Kč[85] 57,715,754 Kč[86]
SPO 60,376,994 Kč[85] 29,032,691 Kč[86]
TOP 09 53,628,000 Kč[85] 25,287,285 Kč[86]
KDU-ČSL 50,000,000 Kč[85] 3,795,362 Kč[86]
SZ 12,737,573 Kč[85] 1,658,820 Kč[86]
KSČM 10,200,000 Kč[85] 6,648,556 Kč[86]
ČS 7,000,000 Kč[85] 10,655,395 Kč[86]
SSO 1,100,000 Kč[85]
ČPS 230,000 Kč[85]

Television debates[edit]

Leaders of major parties Petr Nečas and Jiří Paroubek faced each other in four duels. First duel was organised by Česká televize in April 2010. Second duel was organised by Prima televize. It was very calm as both leaders didn't attack each other. Third duel was more aggressive and full of personal attacks. Last duel was organised by Česká televize and was inspired by debates organised by British Broadcasting Company.[87]

Czech legislative election debates, 2010
Date Organisers  P  Present   A  Absent  
ODS ČSSD KSČM TOP 09 VV KDU–ČSL SZ SPO
12 April Česká televize P
Nečas
P
Paroubek
A A A A A A
23 May Prima televize P
Nečas
P
Paroubek
A A A A A A
25 May[88] Český rozhlas A A P
Filip
P
Schwarzenberg
P
John
P
Svoboda
P
Liška
P
Zeman
26 May Český rozhlas P
Nečas
P
Paroubek
A A A A A A
27 May Česká televize P
Nečas
P
Paroubek
A A A A A A
Viewed as "the winner of debate"
Debate Poll ODS ČSSD KSČM TOP 09 VV KDU–ČSL SZ SPO
23 May
Prima televize
Ipsos Tambor[89] Nečas
57%
Paroubek
43%
A A A A A A

Opinion polls[edit]

Date Polling Firm ČSSD ODS TOP 09 KSČM VV KDU-ČSL SZ SPO Others
Exit poll SC&C 20.0 20.0 17.0 11.0 11.0 5.0 3.0 4.0 9.0
7–12 May 2010 Factum Invenio 26.3 22.9 10.9 13.1 12.6 5.5 2.5 2.6 3.6
3–10 May 2010 CVVM 30.5 19.0 14.0 13.0 11.5 3.5 4.5 2.0 2.0
28 April–4 May 2010 Sanep 29.9 22.3 10.1 12.9 9.8 4.7 2.8 5.5 2.0
2 Apr - 1 May 2010 Median 26.2 19.0 10.7 13.3 7.6 7.5 3.5 6.8 5.3
23–28 April 2010 Factum Invenio 27.5 21.7 11.1 13.9 11.0 5.2 2.9 3.2 3.5
13–28 April 2010 Médea Research 30.4 18.7 13.7 10.0 12.0 4.4 4.9 3.7 2.2
7–13 April 2010 Sanep 29.0 20.1 13.4 13.0 8.5 5.6 3.6 5.2 1.6
5-12 April 2010 CVVM 30.0 22.5 11.5 13.0 9.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0
1 - 10 April 2010 STEM 27.8 18.6 9.3 9.9 8.1 4.9 3.2 3.1 15.2
3 - 9 Apr 2010 Factum Invenio 29.5 22.3 11.6 13.9 8.9 5.5 2.6 2.7 3.0
2 Mar - 30 Apr 2010 Median 27.0 21.2 7.5 16.8 4.3 7.4 4.8 N/A 11.0
1 - 8 Mar 2010 CVVM 32.0 25.5 10.0 12.0 7.0 4.5 4.5 3.0 1.5
27 Feb - 8 Mar 2010 STEM 27.9 20.0 7.7 11.3 6.2 4.8 3.8 3.6 14.7
26 Feb - 3 Mar 2010 Factum Invenio 27.4 23.0 11.8 14.4 7.8 6.2 4.7 N/A 4.7
7–13 April 2010 Sanep 29.0 20.1 13.4 13.0 8.5 5.6 3.6 5.2 1.6


Results[edit]

Proportion of seats after the election

The centre-left ČSSD won the most votes, with 22.1%.[3] The conservative ODS and TOP 09 followed with 20.2% and 16.7% respectively. The Communist Party came fourth with 11.3%, ahead of the centre-right VV which received 10.9%.[90] It was the first time that the Communists had finished lower than third in a Czech election.[91] TOP 09 and VV won seats in Parliament for the first time.[92] The Christian Democrats (4.4%), the Party of Civic Rights (4.3%), the Green Party (2.4%), and Sovereignty (3.7%), failed to gain the 5% necessary to enter parliament.[93][94] Voter turnout was 62.6% nationally,[95] highest in Prague-West District (71.69%) and lowest in Sokolov District (50.89%). The results were a setback for the Czech Republic's largest parties, ČSSD and ODS.[96] President Václav Klaus said that the results would cause a "fundamental weakening" of the two parties.[97]

Structure of the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic 2010.svg
Party Votes % seats +/–
Czech Social Democratic Party 1,155,267 22.08 56 –18
Civic Democratic Party 1,057,792 20.22 53 –28
TOP 09 873,833 16.70 41 New
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 589,765 11.27 26 0
Public Affairs 569,127 10.88 24 New
Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party 229,717 4.39 0 –13
Party of Civic Rights – Zemanovci 226,527 4.33 0 New
Sovereignty – Jana Bobošíková Bloc 192,145 3.67 0 New
Green Party 127,831 2.44 0 –6
Workers' Party of Social Justice 59,888 1.14 0 New
Czech Pirate Party 42,323 0.80 0 New
Party of Free Citizens 38,897 0.74 0 New
Right Bloc 24,750 0.47 0 0
Citizens.cz 13,397 0.25 0 New
Moravané 11,914 0.22 0 0
Conservative Party 4,232 0.08 0 New
Koruna česká 4,024 0.07 0 0
STOP 3,155 0.06 0 New
Coalition for Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia 1,993 0.03 0 0
Czech National Socialist Party 1,371 0.02 0 0
Key Movement 1,099 0.02 0 New
Humanist Party 552 0.01 0 0
European Centre 522 0.00 0 New
Czech National Social Party 295 0.00 0 0
Liberálové.CZ 260 0.00 0 0
National Prosperity 186 0.00 0 New
Invalid/blank votes 32,963
Total 5,230,859 100 200 0
Registered voters/turnout 8,415,892 62.60
Source: Czech Statistical Office
Popular vote
ČSSD
22.08%
ODS
20.22%
TOP 09
16.70%
KSČM
11.27%
VV
10.88%
KDU-ČSL
4.39%
SPOZ
4.33%
SBB
3.67%
SZ
2.44%
Others
4.02%
Parliamentary seats
ČSSD
28.00%
ODS
26.50%
TOP 09
20.05%
KSČM
13.00%
VV
12.00%

By region[edit]

Winning parties by region
Winning parties by district
Voter turnout by district

Prague[edit]

Parties and coalitions Votes % Seats
TOP 09 173,840 27.27 8
Civic Democratic Party 158,014 24.79 8
Czech Social Democratic Party 96,706 15.17 4
Public Affairs 65,742 10.31 3
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 41,647 6,53 2
Green Party 30,528 4.78 0
Party of Civic Rights – Zemanovci 19,851 3.11 0
Total (turnout 68.0%) 637,328   25

Central Bohemian Region[edit]

Parties and coalitions Votes % Seats
Civic Democratic Party 150,465 23.87 7
Czech Social Democratic Party 129,368 20.52 6
TOP 09 110,865 17.59 5
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 69,368 11.00 3
Public Affairs 67,601 10.72 3
Sovereignty – Jana Bobošíková Bloc 27,430 4.35 0
Party of Civic Rights – Zemanovci 23,235 3.68 0
Total (turnout 64.26%) 630,203   24

Aftermath[edit]

After the election results were announced, Jiří Paroubek resigned as ČSSD leader, citing disappointment with the outcome,[98] and saying that "it seems that people have chosen the direction the republic should go in and it is a different direction than the one ČSSD were offering".[99] ČSSD had led comfortably in polling before the election, and its 22% share of the vote was a significant drop from the party's 32% in the 2006 election.[100] Paroubek conceded that a conservative coalition government was likely.[101]

Government formation[edit]

ODS, TOP 09 and VV had all committed to government spending cuts, raising the prospect of the formation of a fiscally conservative cabinet.[93] The leaders of the three parties held coalition talks shortly after the results were published.[102] ODS leader Petr Nečas said that the three parties had a "common will" to form a government,[97][103] stating that their financial plans would work together to help the country avoid a crisis similar to the one affecting Greece at the time.[99] Negotiations between the three parties about the formation of a new government started on 2 June 2010,[104] and the parties signed a proclamation to continue negotiations.[105]

After extensive talks regarding the terms of the coalition,[99] Nečas was appointed Prime Minister on 28 June 2010.[106] Public Affairs held a referendum among party members to decide whether to join the new government. The result was announced on 12 July 2018, with 2,912 members voting in favour and 815 against.[107] The coalition agreement was signed on the same day.[108]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Willoughby, Ian (5 February 2010). "Czechs to go to polls in general elections on last weekend of May". Radio Prague. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Update 2-Czech leaders agree on cabinet, early election". Reuters. 5 April 2009.
  3. ^ a b Bilefsky, Dan (29 May 2010). "Left Wins Czech Vote, but Right Makes Gains". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  4. ^ "Sázkové kanceláře mají jasno: premiérem bude Jiří Paroubek" (in Czech). Lidovky.cz. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Jak nevyhrál Paroubek a kdo po volbách řekl: Máte, co jste chtěli!". Expres.cz. 20 October 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  6. ^ "Měsíc do voleb: přišel pan Čistý, ale Buldozer si udržuje náskok". iDNES.cz. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Czech Republic voters move to right in general election". BBC News. 30 May 2010.
  8. ^ "Czech MPs oust government in vote". BBC News. 24 March 2009.
  9. ^ "Czech Party Leaders Agree To Early Polls In October". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Reuters. 28 March 2009.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  11. ^ "Support Eroding for Czech Social Democrats". Angus Reid Global Monitor. 31 August 2009. Archived from the original on 1 September 2009.
  12. ^ "Czech president calls election for October 9–10". Reuters India. 1 July 2009.
  13. ^ "Czech Constitutional Court postpones decree on early elections". ČeskéNoviny.cz. 1 September 2009.
  14. ^ Carney, Sean (3 September 2009). "Czechs Try to Get Snap Election Back on Track". The Wall Street Journal. p. A4.
  15. ^ Mlcochova, Jana (2 September 2009). "Czech leaders agree to secure quick election". Forbes. Reuters.
  16. ^ "Czech lawmakers agree to amend Constitution". Aktuálně.cz. 9 September 2009.
  17. ^ "Czech PM: Election likely in Nov, Oct possible". Reuters. 3 September 2009.
  18. ^ "Dokument: Stručné zdůvodnění ÚS ke kauze volby". aktualne.cz (in Czech). 10 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  19. ^ "Verfassungsreform in Prag im Eilzugstempo". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). 12 September 2009.
  20. ^ "Klaus signs both laws leading to Czech early elections". ČeskéNoviny.cz. ČTK. 12 September 2009.
  21. ^ "Weg für Neuwahlen geebnet". derStandard.at (in German). 13 September 2009. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.
  22. ^ "Czech Social Democrats say not to back early election move". World Bulletin. Reuters. 15 September 2009.[permanent dead link]
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