Czechoslovak Hussite Church
Czechoslovak Hussite Church
|Církev československá husitská|
|Polity||Mixture of Presbyterian and Episcopal|
|Associations||World Council of Churches|
Conference of European Churches
|Origin||8 January 1920 |
|Separated from||Roman Catholic Church|
Both the Czechoslovak Hussite Church and Moravian Church trace their tradition back to the Hussite reformers and acknowledge Jan Hus (John Huss) as their predecessor. It was well-supported by Czechoslovakia's first president, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who himself belonged to the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren.
The Czechoslovak Hussite Church describes itself as neo-Hussite.
The forerunner of the CČSH was the Jednota (Union of the Catholic Clergy), which was founded in 1890 to promote modernist reforms in the Roman Catholic Church, such as use of the vernacular in the liturgy and the adoption of voluntary rather than compulsory clerical celibacy. The radical movement that resulted in the foundation of a new Church began in the Christmas season of 1919, when Christmas masses were celebrated in Czech in many Czechoslovak churches. The CCH was established on January 8, 1920, by Dr. Karel Farský, who became its first Patriarch and author of its liturgy. It was known until 1971 as the Czechoslovak Church. The head of the church continues to bear the title of Patriarch.
Membership is estimated at between 100,000 and 180,000 adherents, mostly in the Czech Republic and some in Slovakia. There are 304 congregations divided into five dioceses situated in Prague, Plzeň, Hradec Králové, Brno, and Olomouc in the Czech Republic and three congregations in the Bratislava Diocese in Slovakia. There are approximately 266 priests in active ministry, of whom 130 are women. Candidates of ministry are prepared at the Hussite Faculty of Theology at Charles University in Prague.
Doctrine and liturgy
It draws its teachings from the traditional Christianity presented by the Church Fathers (Patristics), with the first Seven Ecumenical Councils, the work of Saints Cyril and Methodius, and the Protestant Reformation tradition, especially Utraquist and Hussite thought.
Like Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, and Anglo-Catholics, the Czechoslovak Hussite Church recognizes seven sacraments. Like some of the Lutheran and Presbyterian churches, it emphasizes the freedom of conscience of individual believers, practices the ordination of women, and emphasizes the equal participation of the laity in church leadership. The Hussite Church, as with its sister church, the Moravian Church, teaches the doctrine of apostolic succession.
The celebration of the liturgy is the center of worship practice. It used to be two forms, which have much in common with the texts of the Catholic Mass, but there are also elements of Luther's German Mass and the tradition of the Utraquist mass.
There is no veneration of saints as practiced in the Apostolic Churches, but images of saints are employed in the church decoration. In the post-1920 period new churches were built, but only a few portraits were considered appropriate to place in them, particularly representations of Christ, and occasionally pictures of Jan Hus.
In the iconography of the church the chalice plays a major role, usually depicted in red, as it was used in the 15th century as a battle standard on the flags of the Hussites. It is found in the church, to the sacerdotal, the bindings of liturgical books, church steeples and church banners.
After a split from the Catholic Church, amidst the post-war atmosphere of anti-Catholic agitation and euphoria about the Czech independence, the Czechoslovak Church's membership increased rapidly. In the 1921 Czechoslovak census, the first post-war census, 523,232 people claimed to be adherents of this church in what is today the Czech Republic. In 1930, the membership further grew to 779,672. With 7.3% of total population, it became the prevailing religion in several regions of Bohemia and to a lesser degree in Moravia. At the beginning of Communist rule, the 1950 census recorded 946,497 adherents of the Czechoslovak Hussite Church. In the following decades there was no official census of religious affiliation in what is today the Czech Republic, although it is apparent that under Communist rule, membership started to collapse: the 1991 census found 178,036 members of this church in the Czech Republic, which fell to 99,103 in 2001, 39,276 in 2011 and 23,610 in 2021.
|—Czechoslovak Hussite Church||523,232||5.2||779,672||7.3||946,813||10.6||178,036||1.7||99,103||1.0||39,229||0.4||23,610||0.2|
Relations with other churches
At its beginning, the Hussite Church sought relations with the Serbian Orthodox Church and the Old Catholic Church, and also espoused a tendency to a rationalist and Unitarian Christian theology, but when adopted its creed in 1958 it was founded on the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.
Relations between the church and other members of the ecumenical movement are cordial, but remained strained with the country's Roman Catholic leadership. The first woman to become a bishop of the Czechoslovak Hussite church, Jana Šilerová, was elected to a seven-year term of office in April 1999. In January 1999, Catholic Archbishop Miloslav Vlk made a public statement of disapproval, warning against election of a woman to this position and saying that it would cause deterioration of ecumenical relations. Following criticism by the Czechoslovak Hussite Church for interfering in its affairs, the Roman Catholic Church distanced itself from the archbishop's remarks and stated that it would exert no pressure against her election. In 2000, Catholic representatives attended the consecration of Jana Šilerová as the Hussite Church's first woman to become a bishop.
- Karel Farský (1924–1927)
- Gustav Adolf Procházka (1927–1942)
- František Kovář (1946–1961)
- Miroslav Novák (1961–1990)
- Vratislav Štěpánek (1991–1994)
- Josef Špak (1994–2001)
- Jan Schwarz (2001–2006)
- Tomáš Butta (2006–present)
- Jones, Lindsay (2005). Encyclopedia of religion. Macmillan Reference. p. 4234. ISBN 978-0-02-865739-4.
The Czechoslovak Hussite Church (or Czechoslovak National Church), founded in 1920, continues the Hussite tradition.
- "The Czechoslovak Hussite Church - Basic Information". ccsh.cz. 13 July 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- Sunshine, Glenn (16 December 2016). "The Hussites and the Moravians". Breakpoint Colson Center. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- Butta, Tomáš (2010). "Vztah CČSH k osobnosti T. G. Masaryka a jeho pojetí náboženství". Církev československá husitská (in Czech). Retrieved 2016-11-24.
- "Masarykův vztah k náboženství" (in Czech). rozhlas.cz. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Abrams 2004.
- "Czech Republic: Hussite Church History Mirrors That Of Nation". www.rferl.org. 2001-11-07. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
- Melton, J. Gordon (2005). Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 9780816069835.
...branches of the Lutheran Church most notable the Church of Sweden, preserve episcopal leadership and apostolic succesison. ... Among other Protestants that claim apostolic succession is the Moravian Church.
- Konečný, Šimon (1995). A Hope for the Czechoslovak Hussite Church. Reformed Theological Seminary. p. 86.
- "Czechoslovak Hussite Church". oikoumene.org. 2014-11-14. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
- Srb, Vladimír (1998). "Tisíc let obyvatelstva v českých zemích". snem.cirkev.cz. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
- "Katalog produktů | ČSÚ". Czso.cz. 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
- "Úvodní stránka | SLDB 2011" (PDF). Czso.cz. 2014-11-14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
- Official census data from the Czech Statistical Office:
- "Obyvatelstvo podle náboženského vyznání a pohlaví podle výsledků sčítání lidu v letech 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 a 2001" [Population by denomination and sex: as measured by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 and 2001 censuses] (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2011.
- "Obyvatelstvo podle náboženské víry a pohlaví podle výsledků sčítání lidu v letech 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991, 2001 a 2011" [Population by religious belief and sex by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991, 2001 and 2011 censuses]. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022.
- "2011 Census: Population by religious belief and by regions" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2013.
- "2011 Census: Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2015.
- "Obyvatelstvo podle náboženské víry v letech 1991 až 2021" [Population by religious beliefs from 1991 to 2021]. Archived from the original on 22 January 2022.
- "2021 Census: Population by religious belief and by regions". Archived from the original on 21 January 2022.
- "News: The Prague Post Online". Archived from the original on March 14, 2003. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
- "World scan: Jana Silerova, Eastern Europe's first woman bishop". The Lutheran. 12 (7). July 1999.
- Luxmoore, Jonathan (2001). "Eastern Europe 1997–2000: a Review of Church Life". Religion, State & Society. 29 (4): 305–330 [p. 327]. doi:10.1080/09637490120112465.
- Abrams, Bradley F. (2004). "Socialism and Protestant Intellectuals: The "Kingdom of God on Earth"?". The Struggle for the Soul of the Nation: Czech Culture and the Rise of Communism. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-3023-2.
- Nĕmec, Ludvík (1975) The Czechoslovak Heresy and Schism: the emergence of a national Czechoslovak church American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, ISBN 0-87169-651-7
- Tonzar, David (2002) Vznik a vývoj novodobé husitské teologie a Církev československá husitska Karolinum, Prague, ISBN 80-246-0499-X in Czech
- Urban, Rudolf (1973) Die tschechoslowakische hussitische Kirche J.G. Herder-Institut, Marburg/Lahn, ISBN 3-87969-103-7, in German