Jump to content

1946 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1946 Czechoslovak parliamentary election
← 1935 26 May 1946 1948 →

All 300 seats in the Constituent National Assembly
151 seats needed for a majority
Party Leader % Seats +/–
KSČ Klement Gottwald 31.19 93 +63
ČSNS Petr Zenkl 18.37 55 +27
ČSL Jan Šrámek 15.71 46 +24
DS Jozef Lettrich 14.14 43 New
ČSSD Zdeněk Fierlinger 12.10 37 −1
KSS Štefan Bašťovanský 6.92 21 New
SS Vavro Šrobár 0.85 3 New
SP Ivan Frlička 0.71 2 New
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Prime Minister before Prime Minister after
Zdeněk Fierlinger
Klement Gottwald

Parliamentary elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 26 May 1946.[1] The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia emerged as the largest party, winning 114 of the 300 seats (93 for the main party and 21 for its Slovak branch) with 38% of the vote. The Communist vote share was higher than any party had ever achieved in a Czechoslovak parliamentary election; previously, no party had ever won more than 25%. Voter turnout was 94%.[2] The national results also determined the composition of the Slovak National Council and local committees.

This was one of only two free nationwide elections held in the Eastern Bloc, the other having been held in Hungary a year earlier.[3] Two years later, the Communists staged a coup d'etat and forced President Edvard Beneš to appoint a Communist-dominated government.[4] As a result, the 1946 election was the last free and fair election held in Czechoslovakia until 1990.[5]



After World War II a 300-member Interim National Assembly was formed and met for the first time on 28 October 1945.[6] The Assembly created a new electoral system with the country divided into 28 multi-member constituencies.[7] 150 members were elected from Bohemia, 81 from Moravia and Silesia and 69 from Slovakia. The voting age was lowered to 18, but only Czechs, Slovaks and other Slavs could register to vote.[6]

Opinion polls

Date Polling firm KSČ ČSNS ČSL ČSSD Blank
April 1946 ÚVVM[8] 39.6 22.5 19.2 16.0 2.7 Only Bohemia and Moravia


Communist Party of Czechoslovakia2,205,69731.1993+63
Czechoslovak National Social Party1,298,98018.3755+27
Czechoslovak People's Party1,111,00915.7146+24
Democratic Party999,62214.1443New
Czechoslovak Social Democracy855,53812.1037–1
Communist Party of Slovakia489,5966.9221New
Freedom Party60,1950.853New
Labour Party50,0790.712New
Valid votes7,070,71699.17
Invalid votes27,2500.38
Blank votes32,1770.45
Total votes7,130,143100.00
Registered voters/turnout7,596,94793.86
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia2,205,69740.3193
Czechoslovak National Social Party1,298,98023.7455
Czechoslovak People's Party1,111,00920.3146
Czechoslovak Social Democracy855,53815.6437
Source: Statistical Handbook


Democratic Party999,62262.5043
Communist Party of Slovakia489,59630.6121
Freedom Party60,1953.763
Labour Party50,0793.132
Source: Statistical Handbook



Following the elections, Communist leader Klement Gottwald formed a coalition government. However, the Communists gradually tightened their grip on the country. After the non-Communist members resigned from the Cabinet on 25 February 1948, the Communists seized full control of the country.[9][10]

See also



  1. ^ Nohlen, Dieter; Stöver, Philip (2010). Elections in Europe: A data handbook. p. 471. ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7.
  2. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p. 472
  3. ^ Andorka, Rudolf et al. A Society Transformed, p.8. Central European University Press (1999), ISBN 963-9116-49-1
  4. ^ Jolyon Naegele (23 February 1998). "Czech Republic: Fiftieth Anniversary Of Communist Coup Observed". Radio Free Europe.
  5. ^ Kamm, Henry. Now, the Czech Reality; Political 'Amateurs,' After Free Elections, Turn to Problems Left by the Communists. The New York Times, 1990-06-11.
  6. ^ a b Nohlen & Stöver, p. 464
  7. ^ "Zákon č. 67/1946 sb. o volbě ústavodárného Národního shromáždění" (in Czech). Zakonyprolidi.cz. 18 April 1946. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  8. ^ mínění, Ústav pro výzkum veřejného (1946). "Výzkum Volby I. - 3/1946 duben ÚVVM/CVVM". Invenio Nusl (in Czech). Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  9. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p. 457
  10. ^ Stupka, Jiří (2012). "Parlamentní volby v roce 1946 – odraz na stránkách ústředních tiskových orgánů politických stran" (PDF) (in Czech). Masaryk University. Retrieved 19 August 2017.