||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (March 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Other names||Czechoslovakian Vlcak|
|Notes||The AKC currently links to the FCI for breed standard|
|Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog (Czech: Československý vlčák, Slovak: Československý vlčiak) is a relatively new dog breed that traces its original lineage to an experiment conducted in 1955 in Czechoslovakia. After initially breeding working line German Shepherd Dogs with Carpathian wolves (Canis lupus lupus), a plan was worked out to create a breed that would have the temperament, pack mentality, and trainability of the German Shepherd Dog and the strength, physical build, and stamina of the Carpathian wolf.
The breed was engineered as attack dogs for use in military Special Operations done by the Czechoslovak Special Forces commandos but were later also used in search and rescue, schutzhund, tracking, herding, agility, obedience, hunting, and drafting in Europe and the United States. It was officially recognized as a national breed in Czechoslovakia in 1982. Officially recognized as a breed by FCI in 1989.
In 1955 Ing. Karel Hartl began to consider crossing a Carpathian wolf with a German Shepherd as a scientific experiment. A few years later, however, the idea was born to establish a new breed. The first hybrids of a female wolf named Brita and a male German Shepherd named Cézar were born on 26 May 1958 in Libějovice.
Puppies of the first generation resembled the wolf in appearance and behavior. Their upbringing was difficult; training was possible, but the results hardly matched the effort. In adulthood they were again bred with German Shepherds, decreasing the proportion of "wolf blood" to 6.25% in the fourth generation. Most individuals of the third and fourth generations were able to attend a normal course and could be placed in a service performance. Compared to dogs they had better navigational skills, night vision, hearing, and sense of smell. In tests of endurance, hybrids finished the entire 100 km route without being exhausted.
The lecture of Ing. Karel Hartl, "Results of crossing wolves with dogs", brought major attention at the World Dog Show held in June 1965 in Brno and in Prague at the annual meeting of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) and the International Cynologic Congress. In the following year Ing. Hartl compiled a draft standard of a new dog breed. Mating of the wolf Brita with the German Shepherd Kurt then created the basis of a second line. A third line was made by joining the wolf Arga with the female dog Asta from the SNB. In 1977, a 3rd-generation hybrid female named Xela of the border guards was covered by the wolf Sarika; he also mated with the female Urta of the border guards. The last addition of wolf blood took place in 1983. The wolf Lejdy of ZOO Hluboká nad Vltavou gave birth to last line of the new breed, the father of the puppies being the German Shepherd Bojar von Shottenhof. Since that time, breeding has been carried out only in closed populations and the hybrids have begun to be referred to as Czechoslovakian wolfdogs.
In 1982 the breed was recognized by the Czechoslovakian breeders associations as a national breed. In 1989 it became FCI standard no. 332, group 1, section 1. It won the title of "World Champion" at the World Dog Show in Brno in 1990. Ten years after the recognition of the FCI standard, the breed had to confirm its viability and met all the criteria. The recognition of the Czechoslovakian wolfdog breed has thus been definitively confirmed.
In 2012, the breed numbered 168 adult females and 170 adult males officially registered in the Czech Republic. As of January 2014, the most puppies each year are registered in Italy (up to two hundred), in the Czech Republic (about 100), and in Slovakia (about 50).
In 2015, a DNA study of the breed compared to German shepherds and Carpathian wolves found only two maternal mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and two paternal Y DNA haplotypes within the breed. The two mDNA haplotypes and one yDNA haplotype originated with German shepherds and was the result of back-crossing. The other yDNA haplotype was unique to the breed. All four haplotypes were distinct from those of the parental populations.
Both the build and the haircoat of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog are reminiscent of a wolf. The lowest dewlap height is 65 cm (26 in) for a male and 60 cm for a female, and there is no upper limit. The body frame is rectangular, with the ratio of the height to length being 9:10 or less. They typically weigh around 54 pounds (26 kg) for males and 44 pounds (20 kg) for females. The expression of the head must indicate the sex. Amber eyes set obliquely and short upright ears in a triangular shape are its characteristic features. The set of teeth is complete (42) and very strong; both scissors-shaped and pliers-shaped dentition are acceptable. The spine is straight, strong in movement, with a short loin. The chest is large and flat rather than barrel-shaped. The belly is strong and drawn in. The back is short and slightly sloped; the tail is high set, and when freely lowered reaches the tarsi. The forelimbs are straight and narrow-set, with the paws slightly turned out, with a long radius and metacarpus. The hind limbs are muscular, with a long calf and instep.
The coat color is yellow-grey to silver-grey, with a light mask. The hair is straight, close, and very thick. The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a typical tenacious canterer; its movement is light and harmonious, and its stride is long.
The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is more versatile than specialized. It is quick, lively, very active, and courageous. Distinct from the character of the Saarloos Wolfhound, shyness is a disqualifying fault in the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog.
The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog develops a very strong social relationship - not only with their owner, but with the whole family. It can easily learn to live with other domestic animals which belong to the family; however, difficulties can occur in encounters with strange animals. It is vital to subdue the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog's passion for hunting when they are puppies to avoid aggressive behavior towards smaller animals as an adult. The puppy should never be isolated in the kennel; it must be socialized and get used to different surroundings. Female Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs tend to be more easily controllable, but both genders often experience a stormy adolescence.
The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is very playful, temperamental, and learns easily. However, it does not train spontaneously, the behavior of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is strictly purposeful - it is necessary to find motivation for training. The most frequent cause of failure is usually the fact that the dog is tired out with long useless repetitions of the same exercise, which results in the loss of motivation. These dogs have admirable senses and are very good at following trails. They are very independent and can cooperate in the pack with a special purposefulness. If required, they can easily shift their activity to the night hours. Sometimes problems can occur during their training when barking is required. Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs have a much wider range of means of expressing themselves and barking is unnatural for them; they try to communicate with their masters in other ways (mainly through body language, but also with quiet noises such as growls, grunts, and whining). Generally, teaching the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog stable and reliable performance takes a bit longer than teaching traditional specialized breeds. The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog has been successfully employed as a Search And Rescue (SAR) dog in Italy, although, admittedly, handling one requires much more work than other breeds.
- FCI-Standard N° 332 / 03. 09. 1999 / GB
- Smetanová, Milena; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Randi, Ettore; Caniglia, Romolo; Fabbri, Elena; Galaverni, Marco; Kutal, Miroslav; Hulva, Pavel (2015). "From Wolves to Dogs, and Back: Genetic Composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog". PLoS ONE. 10 (12): e0143807. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143807. PMID 26636975.
- Centrum.cz - Československý vlčák