Déjà Vu (Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young album)

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Déjà vu
Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young - Deja Vu.jpg
Studio album by
ReleasedMarch 11, 1970
RecordedJuly, 1969 – January, 1970
StudioWally Heider's Studio C
San Francisco
Wally Heider's Studio III
Los Angeles
GenreFolk rock[1]
Length36:24
LabelAtlantic
ProducerCrosby, Stills, Nash & Young
Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young chronology
Crosby, Stills & Nash
(1969)
Déjà vu
(1970)
4 Way Street
(1971)
Singles from Déjà vu
  1. "Woodstock"
    Released: March 1970
  2. "Teach Your Children"
    Released: May 1970
  3. "Our House"
    Released: September 1970
  4. "Carry On"
    Released: November 1970

Déjà Vu is the second album by Crosby, Stills & Nash, and their first as a quartet with Neil Young. It was released in March 1970 by Atlantic Records. It topped the pop album chart for one week and generated three Top 40 singles: "Woodstock", "Teach Your Children", and "Our House". It was re-released in 1977 as SD-19188 and the cover was changed from black to brown. In 2003, the album was ranked #148 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. Certified septuple platinum by RIAA, the album's sales currently sit at over 8 million copies. It remains the highest-selling album of each member's career to date.[2]

Recording[edit]

The album was recorded between July, 1969 and January, 1970 at Wally Heider's Studio C, San Francisco, and Wally Heider's Studio III, Los Angeles. It was produced by all four members of the band. Stephen Stills estimates that the album took around 800 hours of studio time to record; this figure may be exaggerated, even though the individual tracks display meticulous attention to detail.[3] The songs, except for "Woodstock", were recorded as individual sessions by each member, with each contributing whatever was needed that could be agreed upon. Young appears on only half of the tracks with Nash stating he "generally recorded his tracks alone in Los Angeles then brought them back to the recording studio to put our voices on, then took it away to mix it".[4]

Commenting on the album to Hit Parader in 1971, Stills stated "getting that second album out of us was like pulling teeth, there was song after song that wouldn't didn't make it. The track, 'Déjà Vu,' must have meant 100 takes in the studio. But 'Carry On' happened in a grand total of eight hours from conception to finished master. So you never know.”[4]

Young told Rolling Stone in 1975 that only "Helpless", "Almost Cut My Hair", and "Woodstock" were band sessions and "all the other songs ones were combinations, records that were more done by one person using the other people.".[5]

It was during these sessions that Crosby would break down and cry due to the recent death of his girlfriend Christine Hinton. Telling Crawdaddy in 1974 "he couldn't function".[5]

Nash stated to Music Radar, the mood was different to the first album, which was recorded while the band were in love, and by the second "Joni and I (Nash) had split up, Stephen and Judy had split up, and Christine had just been killed. It was all dark".[5]

During this time members were not getting on as they would critique each other’s contributions causing friction, with Crosby stating to Rolling Stone "I kept ‘Almost Cut My Hair” in there over the protestations of Stephen, who didn’t want me to leave it in ’cause he thought that it was a bad vocal.”.[5]

Stills bought "Woodstock" into the band, having already worked out the arrangement for it while playing with Jimi Hendrix in September 1969, this was released on the 2018 Hendrix album Both Sides of the Sky.[6] The final version had Stills singing a slightly rearranged version of Mitchell's lyrics which put the line, "we are billion year old carbon" — which only appeared in her final chorus — into each of the first three choruses. Then that line was replaced with "we are caught in the devil's bargain" in the last chorus, which was also in Mitchell's final chorus. "Woodstock" was one of the few Déjà Vu tracks where Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young all performed their parts in the same session. Later the original lead vocal by Stephen Stills was partly replaced with a later vocal recorded by Stills, who recalled: "I replaced one and a half verses that were excruciatingly out of tune." Neil Young disagreed, saying that "the track was magic. Then later on [Crosby, Stills & Nash] were in the studio nitpicking [with the result that] Stephen erased the vocal and put another one on that wasn't nearly as good."[3] Stills also made Nash change 'Teach Your Children' from a Henry VIII style song to a hit record with a country swing.[7]

Drummer Dallas Taylor and bassist Greg Reeves play on the majority of tracks, and are credited on the cover with their names in slightly smaller typeface. Grateful Dead guitarist Jerry Garcia plays pedal steel guitar on "Teach Your Children", and former Lovin' Spoonful leader John Sebastian plays harmonica on the title track.

The anticipation was so big for the album that by January 1970, Atlantic records had taken in $2 million in preorders.[8]

Release[edit]

The album was released on 11 March 1970 on the Atlantic Records label, catalogue SD 7200. It was re-released in 1977 as SD-19188 and the cover was changed from black to brown.

It was certified Gold in the US, 14 days after release on the 25 March 1970, spending 88 weeks in the Billboard 200 charts.[9]

Four singles were released from the album with all but the last, "Carry On," charting on the Billboard Hot 100. The song "Country Girl" by Young is a suite put together from three song fragments entitled "Whiskey Boot Hill," "Down Down Down," and "Country Girl (I Think You're Pretty)," and is so identified in the credits.

The album was issued on compact disc a second time September 6, 1994 after being remastered from the original tapes at Ocean View Digital by Joe Gastwirt.

Reception[edit]

Contemporary reception was mixed, with Robert Christgau saying there were "five or seven memorable tunes" and its "Young's guitar--with help from Stills and hired hands Taylor and Reeves--that make the music work, not those blessed harmonies."[10] Langdon Warner writing for Rolling Stone said despite the addition of Young the sound "is still too sweet, too soothing, too perfect, and too good to be true."; and side two has "precision playing, glittering harmonies, a relaxed but forceful rhythm, and impeccable twelve-string guitars" but no first rate songs, however it had high praise for "Carry On", "Teach Your Children" and "Helpless" on side 1.[11] The Village Voice called it "Tight. Uptight, even."[12]

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
Allmusic5/5 stars[13]
Christgau's Record GuideB–[14]
Rolling Stone(Mixed)[15]
The Village VoiceB+[16]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music5/5 stars[17]

Legacy[edit]

The popularity of the album contributed to the success of the four albums released by each of the members in the wake of Déjà vu – Neil Young's After the Gold Rush, Stephen Stills' self-titled solo debut, David Crosby's If I Could Only Remember My Name, and Graham Nash's Songs for Beginners. In 2003, the album was placed at number 148 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time,[18] moving up to 147 in a 2012 revised listing.[19] The same year, the TV network VH1 named Déjà vu the 61st greatest album of all time. The album ranked at #14 for the Top 100 Albums of 1970 and #217 overall by Rate Your Music and it was voted number 106 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums 3rd Edition (2000). [20]

Track listing[edit]

Side one
No.TitleWriter(s)Lead vocalsLength
1."Carry On"Stephen StillsStills4:26
2."Teach Your Children"Graham NashNash2:53
3."Almost Cut My Hair"David CrosbyCrosby4:31
4."Helpless"Neil YoungYoung3:33
5."Woodstock"Joni MitchellStills3:54
Side two
No.TitleWriter(s)Lead vocalsLength
1."Déjà Vu"David CrosbyCrosby4:12
2."Our House"Graham NashNash2:59
3."4 + 20"Stephen StillsStills2:06
4."Country Girl (Whiskey Boot Hill, Down Down Down, Country Girl (I Think You're Pretty))"Neil YoungYoung with Crosby, Stills & Nash5:11
5."Everybody I Love You"
  • Stephen Stills
  • Neil Young
Stills with Crosby & Nash2:21

Personnel[edit]

  • David Crosby – vocals all tracks except "4+20"; rhythm guitar on "Almost Cut My Hair," "Woodstock," "Déjà vu," "Country Girl," and "Everybody I Love You"
  • Stephen Stills – vocals all tracks except "Almost Cut My Hair"; guitars all tracks except "Our House"; keyboards on "Carry On," "Helpless," "Woodstock," and "Déjà Vu"; bass on "Carry On," and "Teach Your Children"; percussion on "Carry On"
  • Graham Nash – vocals all tracks except "Almost Cut My Hair" and "4+20"; keyboards on "Almost Cut My Hair," "Woodstock," "Our House," and "Everybody I Love You"; rhythm guitar on "Teach Your Children" and "Country Girl"; percussion on "Carry On" and "Teach Your Children"
  • Neil Young – vocals on "Helpless" and "Country Girl"; guitars on "Almost Cut My Hair," "Helpless," "Woodstock," "Country Girl," and "Everybody I Love You"; keyboards, harmonica on "Country Girl"

Additional musicians

Production

Charts[edit]

Weekly charts

Chart (1970) Peak
position
Australian Albums (ARIA)[21] 1
UK Albums (OCC)[22] 5
US Billboard 200[23] 1
Canada Top Albums/CDs (RPM)[24] 1
Dutch Albums (Album Top 100)[25] 1
Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan)[26] 2
French Albums (SNEP)[27] 3
Norwegian Albums (VG-lista)[28] 11
Italian Albums (FIMI)[29] 17
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100)[30] 39

Singles[edit]

Billboard (United States)[31]
Year Single Chart Position
1970 "Our House" US Billboard Hot 100 30
"Teach Your Children" 16
"Woodstock" 11
RPM (Canada)[32]
Year Single Chart Position
1970 "Woodstock" Canada RPM 100 3
"Teach Your Children" 8
"Our House" 13

Certifications[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/sales
France (SNEP)[33] Platinum 300,000*
Germany (BVMI)[34] Gold 250,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)[35] Gold 25,000^
United States (RIAA)[36] 7× Platinum 7,000,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[37] Gold 100,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zollo, Paul (2003). Songwriters on Songwriting. Perseus Books Group. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-306-81265-1.
  2. ^ "NEIL YOUNG, BOB SEGER and CROSBY, STILLS, NASH & YOUNG.....USA album sales". Greasy Lake Community.
  3. ^ a b Zimmer, Dave, and Diltz, Henry. Crosby, Stills & Nash: The Authorized Biography. 1984, ISBN 0-312-17660-0, p. 115.
  4. ^ a b Mastropolo, Frank. "How the Stars Aligned for Crosby Stills Nash & Young's 'Deja Vu'". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  5. ^ a b c d Sundays, Classic Album (2015-04-01). "The Story of Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young 'Déjà Vu'". Classic Album Sundays. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  6. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKlk_Z_JYg8
  7. ^ "Making "Déjà Vu" and the Early Days of CSN: An Interview with Graham Nash". reverb.com. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  8. ^ Browne, David; Browne, David (2011-06-01). "Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young Enchant London Audience in 1970". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  9. ^ "Gold & Platinum". RIAA. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  10. ^ "Robert Christgau: CG: Crosby, Stills, Nash". www.robertchristgau.com. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  11. ^ Winner, Langdon; Winner, Langdon (1974-05-01). "Deja Vu". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  12. ^ "Robert Christgau: Consumer Guide (10): May 28, 1970". www.robertchristgau.com. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  13. ^ Eder, Bruce. "Déjà Vu". AllMusic. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  14. ^ Christgau, Robert (1981). "Consumer Guide '70s: C". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 089919026X. Retrieved February 23, 2019 – via robertchristgau.com.
  15. ^ Winner, Langdon (April 30, 1970). "Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young Deja vu > Album Review". Rolling Stone (57). p. 53. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  16. ^ Christgau, Robert (May 28, 1970). "Consumer Guide (10)". The Village Voice. Retrieved October 11, 2017 – via robertchristgau.com.
  17. ^ Larkin, Colin (2007). Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0857125958.
  18. ^ Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) [2005]. "148 | Déjà vu – Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young". Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (3rd ed.). London: Turnaround. ISBN 1-932958-61-4. OCLC 70672814. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007.
  19. ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time Rolling Stone's definitive list of the 500 greatest albums of all time". Rolling Stone. 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  20. ^ Colin Larkin, ed. (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books. p. 77. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6.
  21. ^ "Australiancharts.com – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – Deja vu". Hung Medien. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
  22. ^ "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
  23. ^ "Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
  24. ^ "Top RPM Albums: Issue 5234". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  25. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – {{{album}}}" (in Dutch). Hung Medien.
  26. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – {{{album}}}". Hung Medien.
  27. ^ "Lescharts.com – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – {{{album}}}". Hung Medien.
  28. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – {{{album}}}". Hung Medien.
  29. ^ "Italiancharts.com – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – {{{album}}}". Hung Medien.
  30. ^ "Longplay-Chartverfolgung at Musicline" (in German). Musicline.de. Phononet GmbH.
  31. ^ Déjà Vu – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles at AllMusic. Retrieved 19 November 2004.
  32. ^ "RPM 100". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  33. ^ "French album certifications – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – Déjà Vu" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  34. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young; 'Deja Vu')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  35. ^ "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young; 'Déjà vu')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  36. ^ "American album certifications – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – Deja Vu". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 1 October 2012. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  37. ^ "British album certifications – Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young – Deja Vu". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 6 July 2020. Select albums in the Format field. Select Gold in the Certification field. Type Deja Vu in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.