|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2015)|
|Course||Snack or main course|
|Place of origin||Turkey|
|Region or state||Ankara, Bursa, Erzurum|
|Creator||Ottomans (dates to 18th century)|
|Main ingredients||Lamb, beef or chicken|
|Cookbook: Döner kebab Media: Döner kebab|
The sliced meat of a doner kebab may be served wrapped in a flatbread such as lavash or pita or as a sandwich instead of being served on a plate. It is a common fast-food item not only in Turkey but also in the Middle East, Europe, Canada and Australia. Seasoned meat in the shape of an inverted cone is turned slowly against a vertical rotisserie, then sliced vertically into thin, crisp shavings. On the sandwich version, the meat is generally served with tomato, onion with sumac, pickled cucumber and chili.
- 1 History
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Döner in Turkey
- 4 Regional variations
- 4.1 Caucasus, Middle East and Asia
- 4.2 Europe
- 4.3 Americas
- 4.4 Oceania
- 5 Health concerns
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Before taking its modern form, as mentioned in Ottoman travel books of the 18th century, the doner used to be a horizontal stack of meat rather than vertical, like the cağ kebabı of Erzurum. Grilling meat on horizontal skewers has a very ancient history in the Eastern Mediterranean, but it is unknown when slices of meat, rather than chunks, were first used.
In his own family biography, İskender Efendi of 19th century Bursa writes that "he and his grandfather had the idea of roasting the lamb vertically rather than horizontally, and invented for that purpose a vertical mangal". Since then, Hacı İskender is known as the inventor of Turkish döner kebap. With time, the meat took a different marinade, got leaner, and eventually took its modern shape.
A doner kebab is sometimes spelled döner kebap (the Turkish spelling), lit. "rotating roast", or can be shortened to doner (Turkish: döner), lit. "turn around", also spelled "doener", "donar", "donair", "doner", or sometimes "donner".
In Greece, Doner Kebab is called gyros. The most common form of gyros is prepared with pork, due to its broad availability and low price in Greece. The name comes from Greek γύρος ("turn"), a calque of the Turkish name döner kebap; the dish was formerly called ντονέρ [doˈner] in Greece as well. Today, ντονέρ refers to gyros prepared with lamb or beef.
Döner in Turkey
There are many variations of döner in Turkey:
- Porsiyon ("portion", döner on a slightly heated plate, sometimes with a few grilled peppers or broiled tomatoes on the side)
- Pilavüstü ("over rice", döner served on a base of pilaf rice that gets tastier as the fat in the meat drips into the rice)
- İskender (specialty of Bursa, served in an oblong plate, atop a base of thin pita, complete with a dash of pepper or tomato sauce and boiling fresh butter) "Kebapçı İskender" is trademarked by Yavuz İskenderoğlu, whose family still runs the restaurant in Bursa.
- Dürüm, wrapped in a thin lavaş that is sometimes also grilled after being rolled, to make it crispier. It has two main variants in mainland Turkey:
- Tombik or gobit (literally "the chubby", döner in a bun-shaped pita, with crispy crust and soft inside, and generally less meat than a dürüm)
- Ekmekarası ("between bread", generally the most filling version, consisting of a whole (or a half) regular Turkish bread filled with doner)
İskender or "Bursa kebabı"
Döner served in a "tombik pide" ("fatty" pita) also called in Turkish: gobit.
Caucasus, Middle East and Asia
In Armenia Ġarsi khorovats, šaurma or in the Armenian diaspora, "Tarna" (literally, "it turns"); it is usually lamb, pork or chicken on a vertical rotisserie, sliced and wrapped in Lavash, served with tahini, yogurt or garlic sauce and with a side dish of pickled vegetables or tourshi.
In Azerbaijan, doner is called Shaurma (Aze: Şaurma) or Döner (Aze: Dönər). Şaurma is made with chicken and always include garlic sauce, whereas döner can be made with either chicken or beef, and does not include garlic sauce. Both can be served in bread, lavash or in plate. Döner also can be served in tandoor bread. The most popular variety is Turkish döner.
In Japan, doner kebabs are now quite common, especially in Tokyo. They are predominantly made of chicken but occasionally beef, and are often sold from parked vans. Called simply "kebab", they have been simplified to suit Japanese tastes; the salad is usually omitted in favour of shredded cabbage, usually with a choice of sauces such as regular (often just a mix of mayonnaise and ketchup), spicy, and garlic, and often a slice of tomato.
Doner kebab is available throughout much of Seoul, particularly in the foreigner-dominated neighborhood of Itaewon. There are two main varieties: the first, sold from street carts, is modified to suit Korean tastes, with chicken rather than lamb, shredded white cabbage, and honey mustard; the second is offered at permanent takeaways such as Ankara Picnic, Mr. Kebab and Sultan Kebab, and features a lamb option along with more traditional sauces.
Doner kebab is increasingly becoming popular in Vietnam among the locals. Throughout Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City many doner kebab stalls can be found, contributing to the local street food variety. Bánh mỳ Doner Kebab, the Vietnamese version of the doner kebab, has some fundamental differences with the original doner kebab. First of all, pork is used instead of beef and lamb. Second, the meat is served in a Vietnamese baguette, which is widely available in Vietnam. Thirdly, the meat is topped with sour vegetables and chili sauce. On contrary with many other countries in Asia, the doner kebab in Vietnam has been localized and is primarily consumed by the locals, while in other countries in the Far East kebabs are primarily sold to expats, tourists and the middle class, and the original recipe is used.
Doner kebab shops can be found in all cities across Austria. Kebabs (rarely referred to as "Döner") outsell burgers or the traditional Würstel (sausage) stands. The range of doner is similar to other German-speaking countries, but chicken kebabs are more likely to be found in central Vienna than lamb or beef kebab.
Doner kebab restaurants and food stands can be found in almost all cities and smaller towns in Belgium, where they are known as dürüm when served in a wrap. The variety served is similar to that of Germany and the Netherlands. However, it is not uncommon to see doner served with French fries in Belgium, often stuffed into the bread itself (similar to the German "Kebab mit Pommes"). This is probably done to suit local taste, as fries are still the most common Belgian fast food. Many different sauces are typically offered, including plain mayonnaise, aioli, cocktail sauce, sambal oelek or harissa paste, andalouse sauce, "américaine" sauce and tomato ketchup or curry ketchup. Belgians are renowned for mixing two sauces for maximizing taste effects (e.g., garlic and sambal). Another basic ingredient of the typical Belgian doner kebab is two or three green, spicy, Turkish peppers.
In Finland, doner kebabs have gained a lot of popularity since Turkish immigrants opened restaurants and imported their traditional food. Kebabs are generally regarded as fast food, often served in late-night restaurants also serving pizza, as well as shopping malls. There are over 1000 currently active restaurants that serve kebab foods in Finland, making one kebab restaurant for every 5000 people in mainland Finland.
Most kebab shops (themselves known simply as kebabs) are generally run by Turkish or North African immigrants in France. The basic kebab consists of either "pain de maison" (Turkish soft bread) or "pain arabe" (unleavened flatbread) stuffed with grilled lamb shavings, onions and lettuce, with a choice of sauce from sauce blanche (yogurt sauce with garlic and herbs), harissa (spicy red sauce originally from North Africa), ketchup, or several others. Kebabs are usually served with french fries, often stuffed into the bread itself. This variation is called Sandwich grec ("Greek sandwich"). Other variations include beef, turkey, chicken, veal, and replacing the Turkish bread with pita bread or baguette.
A version developed to suit German tastes by Turkish immigrants in Berlin has become one of Germany's most popular fast food dishes. Annual sales in Germany amount to €2.5 billion. Veal, chicken, and becoming increasingly more popular, turkey ("Truthahn"), are widely used instead of lamb, particularly by vendors with large ethnic German customer bases, for whom lamb is traditionally less preferred.
Typically, along with the meat, a salad consisting of chopped lettuce, cabbage, onions, cucumber, and tomatoes is offered, as well as a choice of sauces like hot sauce, herb sauce, garlic sauce, or yogurt sauce. The filling is served in a thick flatbread that is usually toasted or warmed. A German variety of döner presentation is achieved by placing the döner meat and the add-ons on a lahmacun and then rolling the ingredients inside the dough into a tube that is eaten out of a wrapping of usually aluminum foil, sometimes called "Turkish Pizza". When plain dough is used instead of Lahmacun the rolled fast food is called "Dürüm Döner" or "Yufka Döner."
Tarkan Taşyumruk, president of the Association of Turkish Döner Producers in Europe (ATDID), provided information in 2010 that, every day, more than 400 tonnes of döner kebab meat is produced in Germany by around 350 firms. At the same ATDID fair, Taşyumruk stated that, "Annual sales in Germany amount to €2.5 billion. That shows we are one of the biggest fast-foods in Germany." In many cities throughout Germany, "Döner" is at least as popular as hamburgers or sausages, especially with young people.
In 2011 there were over 16,000 establishments selling Döner in Germany, with yearly sales of €3.5 billion.
Doner kebab is very popular and widely available in the Netherlands. As a snack, it is usually served in or with a pita as a "broodje döner" (doner sandwich) with lettuce, onion, tomato slices and sauces, mainly garlic and sambal.
A new form of serving, called a "kapsalon", is increasing in popularity from the day it was invented in 2003. It is a metal tray filled with French fries with a layer of doner (sometimes a layer of sauce) over them, topped by a layer of young cheese. This goes into the oven until the cheese melts. Then a freshly sliced salad is put on top of that. The kapsalon is finished with a large amount of garlic sauce and a bit of sambal.
The Dutch television programme, Keuringsdienst van Waarde, analyzed doner kebab sandwiches advertised as lamb and found out that only one of them contained 100% lamb meat, while most consisted of mixes of lamb and beef. Some consisted of 100% beef, chicken, turkey or pork.
Introduced by Turkish immigrants, the doner kebab with salad and sauce is a very popular dish in the United Kingdom, especially after a night out. The typical kebab shop or roadside van in the UK will offer hot chilli sauce and garlic yoghurt-style sauce, and may also offer lemon juice, mayonnaise, or perhaps a mint sauce similar to raita. Doner kebabs are most commonly served in a pita bread in the UK, but are sometimes also wrapped in other types of bread - naan bread or roti, for example. Doner meat is also sometimes served as a pizza topping or simply with a side order of chips. In many kebab shops a chicken doner kebab is served as well, being cooked in the same fashion next to the lamb doner. The first doner kebab shop opened in the UK in 1966 in London, and was called the Hodja Nasrettin and was owned by Cetin Bukey.
A variation known as donair was introduced in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada in the early 1970s. Peter Kamoulakos immigrated to Canada in 1959. When he failed in his attempt to sell traditional gyros, Kamoulakos adapted the dish to local tastes. He substituted beef for lamb and created a sweet sauce. He claimed he invented the donair in 1972 and that it debuted at King of Donair's Quinpool Road location in 1973, but this cannot be confirmed.
In the summer of 2008, after numerous cases of E. coli related food poisoning due to the consumption of undercooked donair meat in Alberta, the federal government came out with a set of guidelines for the preparation of donairs. The principal guideline is that the meat should be cooked at least twice: once on the spit, and then grilled as the donair is being prepared. Which was the usual preparation in Atlantic Canada prior.
In the United States, doner kebab is becoming more popular especially in cities with Mideastern immigrant communities, such as New York, Chicago, Detroit, Omaha, Seattle, San Diego, and Los Angeles.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2013)|
In Australia, doner and other kebabs are very popular due to immigration from Turkey and the Middle East. Döner is sometimes considered to be a healthier alternative to traditional fast food. In Australian shops or stalls, beef, lamb, chicken and falafel doners can be found in all major cities where many suburbs have take-away shops that offer them. They are typically served with a salad consisting of lettuce, tomato, onion and tabouli, and optionally with grated cheese, on either pita (also known in some areas as Lebanese bread) or using thicker but still quite flat Turkish breads called "pide". These are sliced in half with the filling placed in between the slices, rather than wrapped, as is common with pita/pide breads.
In Adelaide, these are called "yiros". The pita bread is toasted on a hotplate before rolling, and is not further toasted after rolling. Cheese is not usually added.
The "dodgy kebab", often blamed for food poisoning has become more rare since New South Wales food safety best practice recommended a second cooking of kebab meat. Most stores have adopted this measure and it is now common practice in Australia. Second cooking requires that meat sliced from the doner is cooked on the hotplate/grill to 60 °C just before serving. Previously, "dodgy kebab" meat was often sliced from the doner, including some not yet fully heated/cooked meat, at the time of ordering or meat that had been sliced and sat waiting at the bottom of the doner for indiscernible length of time.
Doner kebab is popular in many countries in the form of fast food, often as an end to a night out when preceded by the consumption of an excess of alcohol. Health concerns surrounding doner kebab in the UK and Western Europe, including the hygiene involved in overnight storage and re-heating of partially cooked meat, as well as high salt and fat levels, have been reported in the European media. However, Simon Langley-Evans, a professor of human nutrition at Nottingham University states that doner is a healthier choice of fast food, as it brings together meat, wholemeal bread and vegetables.
- "Hangi İlimiz Nesiyle Meşhur? ~ Tarihi ve Turistik Yerler".
- Yerasimos, Marianna (2005). 500 Yıllık Osmanlı Mutfağı (500 Years of Ottoman Cuisine) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Boyut Kitapları Yayın Grubu. p. 307. ISBN 975-23-0111-8.
- "Döner Hakkında – Dönerin Tarihçesi" (in Turkish). Dönercibaşı- Özbilir Grup. Retrieved 3 March 2009.[dead link]
- İskenderoğlu, Yavuz (2008). "Yavuz İskenderoğlu-Kebapçı İskender Tarihçesi" (in Turkish). Kebapçı İskender. Retrieved 3 March 2009.[dead link]
- Kenneth F. Kiple, Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas, eds., Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge, 2000. ISBN 0-521-40216-6. Vol. 2, p. 1147.
- İskenderoğlu, Yavuz (2008). "Yavuz İskenderoğlu-Kebapçı İskender Tarihçesi" (in Turkish). "Yüzyıllardır yerdeki ateşe paralel olarak pişirilen kuzuyu, dik mangalda ayağa kaldırma!": Kebapçı İskender. Retrieved 3 March 2009[dead link]
- Peter Heine (2004). Food culture in the Near East, Middle East, and North Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-313-32956-2. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Babiniotis, Λεξικό της Νεας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας; Andriotis et al., Λεξικό της κοινής νεοελληνικής
- Aglaia Kremezi, "What's in a Dish's Name", "Food and Language", Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 2009, ISBN 1-903018-79-X
- "zagkebap.com". zagkebap.com. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Kebapçı İskender – Yavuz İskenderoğlu". Kebapciiskender.com.tr. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- [dead link]
- "The Best Iskender Kebab in Istanbul". Culinary Backstreets.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Tumanyan Shwarma, Yerevan - Restaurant Reviews - TripAdvisor
- donar at street cafe in Baku Azerbaijan | Flickr – Condivisione di foto!
- 5 to try: Döner kebabs - Time Out Tokyo
- SeoulFoodYo.com: The Leading Seoul Food Yo Site on the Net
- SeoulFoodYo.com: The Leading Seoul Food Yo Site on the Net
- Turkish Kebab Khao San Road | Got Bangkok
- Banh mi Doner Kebabs, Hanoi June 2012
- Banh Mi- the kebab of the Far East November 2012
- "Punkt" (in German). punkt.kurier.at. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- "A kebab restaurant in the mall "Skanssi"" (in Finnish). pernionkebab.fi.
- "Main page statistics (number of restaurants)" (in Finnish). kebabille.com.
- "Kebab restaurant densities by municipality" (in Finnish). kebabille.com.
- The Glorious "Le Grec" Sandwich in Paris | Food Republic
- [dead link]
- (German) FR, accessed 24.9.2011
- "Keuringsdienst van Waarde".
- "Best Donair". The Coast. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- "KOD". KOD. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- Bill Power (October 29, 2014). "Tony's Meats Expanding Donair Domain". Halifax: The Halifax Chronicle Herald. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- "Mr. Donair - Our Story". http://mrdonair.ca/our-story/.
- "Health Canada". Health Canada. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- Doner kebab houses in New York. Retrieved on 21 March 2009.
- Döner Kebab House, Chicago, IL. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- Amsterdam Falafel and Kabob. Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
- The Berliner Doner Kebab Seattle, Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- The Kebab Shop. Retrieved on 9 September 2009.
- Spitz in Eagle Rock, CA. Retrieved on 21 March 2009.
- "Doner kebabs". NSW Food Authority. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- "How unhealthy is a doner kebab?". BBC News Magazine. 21 January 2009.
- Guardian Health – Kebab anyone?, The Guardian, 6 October 2006
- "UK study reveals 'shocking' kebab". BBC News. 27 January 2009.
- "Results of council survey on doner kebabs". LACORS. 27 January 2009.
- Cardin, Geoff (July 29, 2011). "The Dish: Döner Kabob". Feast Magazine. Retrieved 2013-04-18.