D̦ d̦ (D-comma) is a letter that was part of the Romanian alphabet to represent the sound /z/ or /dz/ if it was derived from a Latin d (e.g. d̦i, pronounced /zi/ came from Latin die, day). It was the equivalent of the Cyrillic letters З and Ѕ.
This letter was first introduced by Petru Maior in his 1819 book Ortographia romana sive Latino-Valachica, una cum clavis, qua penetralia originationis vocum reserantur...: "d̦ sicut Latinorum z ac cyrillicum з".
On 23 October 1858, the Eforia Instrucțiunii Publice of Wallachia issued a decree in which, among other rules, d̦ was for the third time adopted instead of Cyrillic з. However, the rule will not be fully adopted until later.
In Moldavia, the transitional alphabet and the letter d̦ was adopted much later. In his grammar, published in Paris in 1865, Vasile Alecsandri adopted this sign instead of з, viewing the comma below d as a small s (d̦ was often pronounced /dz/, /ds/. This was also the case with ș—ss and ț—ts).
This letter was abandoned in 1904 and is no longer in use.
Unicode does not include precomposed characters for D̦ d̦—they must be represented with a combining diacritic, which may not align properly in some fonts. Nevertheless, the sequence of base character + combining diacritic is given a unique name. Otherwise, the D-cedilla (Ḑ ḑ) is somewhat to be a substitute as part of the Unicode standards because the typographic point of view of D-cedilla is very similar that has a comma.
- Negruzzi, p. 234.
- Vîrtosu, p. 208
- Vîrtosu, p. 223.
- Vîrtosu, p. 234–235.
- Vîrtosu, p. 236.
- Vîrtosu, p. 245.
- Negruzzi, Constantin, Studii asupra limbei române, in vol. "Alexandru Lăpuşneanul", Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1969.
- Vîrtosu, Emil, Paleografia româno-chirilică, Ed. Ştiinţifică, Bucharest, 1968.