D. K. Pattammal
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|Damal Krishnaswamy Pattammal|
D. K. Pattammal in late 1940s.
|Born||28 March 1919|
|Origin||Kancheepuram, Madras Presidency, India|
|Died||16 July 2009
|Genres||Carnatic music and playback singing|
|Labels||HMV, EMI, RPG, AVM Audio, Inreco, Charsur Digital Workshop etc.|
Damal Krishnaswamy Pattammal (i//Tamil: தாமல் கிருஷ்ணசுவாமி பட்டம்மாள்) (28 March 1919 – 16 July 2009) was a prominent Carnatic musician and a playback singer for film songs in many Indian languages. She along with her contemporaries M. S. Subbulakshmi and M. L. Vasanthakumari were (and still are) popularly referred to as the Female trinity of Carnatic Music. This trio initiated the entry of women into mainstream Carnatic Music. She has been appreciated all over the world by Carnatic music lovers.
Early life and background
Pattammal was born in a Brahmin family in Kancheepuram of Tamil Nadu, India. She was named as Alamelu, but fondly called "Patta" as a child prodigy. Her father, Damal Krishnaswamy Dikshithar, who was deeply interested in music, inspired her to learn Carnatic music. Her mother, Kanthimathi (Rajammal), although a talented singer herself, was not permitted to sing even for friends or relatives in line with strict orthodox tradition. Despite her orthodox background, Pattammal sang and showed considerable music talent at an early age.
She received no formal gurukula training. As a child, Pattammal sat through the concerts, and on returning home, notated the kritis she heard, and key phrases of ragas. Her brothers D. K. Ranganathan, D. K. Nagarajan, and D. K. Jayaraman – later her vocal accompanists, helped her in this task. She also sang simple devotional hymns and songs her father taught her. Later, she received tuition from an unnamed Telugu-speaking musician, whom she called "Telugu vadyar" or "Telugu teacher". He'd also offered to teach her Telugu and Sanskrit.
At age eight, Pattammal won first prize for singing Thyagaraja's "Raksha Bettare" in Bhairavi, at a competition conducted by C Subramanya Pillai (popularly known as Naina Pillai), whom Pattammal admired deeply. According to Pattammal, Naina Pillai would host Thyagaraja Utsavams (festivals dedicated to Tyagaraja) in Kancheepuram every year, and was a veteran in the art of singing Ragam Thanam Pallavi.
In 1929, at age 10, Pattamal gave her first radio performance for Madras Corporation Radio (now known as AIR), and 3 years later, she gave her first public concert at Madras Rasika Ranjani Sabha in 1932. One year later, she moved to Chennai to become a regular performer in concerts and gave her first performance at the Mahila Samajam (the Egmore Ladies Club), and won acclaim. In 1939, Pattammal married R. Iswaran. She quickly rose to stardom, and her musical career spanned more than 65 years.
D. K. Pattammal's knowledge was encyclopaedic; she was considered as an authority on Muthuswami Dikshitar's compositions, and is also known for her renditions of these. She learnt authentic versions of these compositions from Ambi Dikshithar, a descendant of Muthuswami Dikshithar, as well as Justice T. L. Venkatrama Iyer, an authority on Dikshithar's compositions. She popularised several Dikshithar's compositions in her concerts, and also sang Tiruppugazhs and Tevarams that she learnt from Appadurai Achari. Pattammal also learnt many compositions of Papanasam Sivan, directly from the composer himself. She went on to popularise these compositions of Papanasam Sivan, as well as those of Subramania Bharathiyar, both in film and Carnatic music.
Pattammal started a few revolutionary trends in Carnatic music. She was the first Brahmin woman to have performed this genre of music publicly. Brahmins ranked as the highest in the caste hierarchy prevalent in India in the early 20th century, and society considered it taboo for a Brahmin woman to perform on stage.
Pattammal was also the first woman to have performed Ragam Thanam Pallavi in concerts. Ragam Thanam Pallavi, which was classed as a male stronghold, is the most difficult concert item in Carnatic music, as it calls for great skill and a high degree of concentration to handle the rhythmic complexities involved. Pattammal went further to perform very complex Pallavis in intricate talas (rhythmic cycles); impressing and earning the respect of her male peers, connoisseurs and fellow-musicians. Her singing of pallavis was technically perfect, and aesthetically pleasing. For this reason, she became dubbed "Pallavi Pattammal". She learnt a few pallavis and compositions from Naina Pillai, and several from Vidyala Narasimhalu Naidu, the nephew of Tirupati Narayanaswami Naidu, a prominent composer of javalis. Today, many female Carnatic musicians perform Ragam Thanam Pallavi as the main item in their concerts.
Pattammal was one of the earliest Carnatic musicians to sing in films, and was introduced in this medium by Papanasam Sivan. Although she received many offers to sing for films, she only accepted those that involved devotional or patriotic songs, and declined offers to sing romantic songs. The first film Pattammal sang in was Thyagabhoomi (1939). A scene, towards the end of the film, consisted of a group of freedom fighters marching in a procession, carrying the Indian National Congress party flag, with "Desa Sevai Seyya Vareer" being sung by Pattammal in the background. The song, which was played by Papanasam Sivan and written by Kalki R. Krishnamurthy, highlighted the Freedom Movement and invited people to join. The fame that the film and the song generated led to both being banned by the British government.
Pattammal popularised several patriotic compositions of Subramania Bharathiyar. In Nam Iruvar (1947), her renditions of "Vettri Ettu Dhikkum", and "Aaduvome Pallu Paduvome", a utopian creation celebrating a free India, went on to be big hits. In Rama Rajyam (1948), Pattammal popularised Subramania Bharathi's "Thoondir Puzhvinapol", while she popularised his composition, "Theeradha Vilayattu Pillai", in Vedala Ulagam (1948). Pattammal's singing, along with the dancing of Baby Kamala in the film, made the latter of these especially memorable. In AVM's Vazhkai (1949), where Vyjayanthimala was introduced in film, Pattammal also sang his "Bharatha samudhaayam vaazhgave". Pattammal had the rare honour of performing at the foundation-laying ceremony of the Bharati Memorial at Ettayapuram.
Pattammal also sang in other films including Mahatma Urangaar (1947), Pizhaikkum Vazhi (1948), Lavanya (1951). The last song Pattammal sang in film was at the age of 80 for the Tamil film, Hey Ram (2000). Ilaiyaraaja and Kamal Haasan carted recording equipment to her home and had her sing "Vaishnav Janato", a favourite of Mahatma Gandhi, for the film.
|1939||Thyagabhoomi||Desa Sevai Seyya Vareer||Papanasam Sivan||Kalki R. Krishnamurthy|
|1947||Nam Iruvar||Vettri Ettu Dhikkum||R. Sudharsanam||Mahakavi Subramaniya Bharathiyar|
|1947||Nam Iruvar||Aaduvome Pallu Paduvome||R. Sudharsanam||Mahakavi Subramaniya Bharathiyar|
|1947||Mahathma Utthangaar||Kaana Aaval Kondengumen Iru Vizhigal||S. V. Venkatraman & T. R. Ramanathan||Papanasam Sivan|
|1947||Mahathma Utthangaar||Kunchitha Paadham Ninainthu Urugum||S. V. Venkatraman & T. R. Ramanathan||Papanasam Rajagopala Iyer|
|1948||Rama Rajyam||Enakkum Nirupatham Ninaikka||R. Sudharsanam||K. Devanarayanan|
|1948||Rama Rajyam||Thoondir Puzhuvinaipol||R. Sudharsanam||Mahakavi Subramaniya Bharathiyar|
|1948||Vedala Ulagam||Theeradha Vilayattu Pillai||R. Sudharsanam||Mahakavi Subramaniya Bharathiyar|
|1948||Pizhaikkum Vazhi||Engal Naattukku Endha Naadu Eeedu Perinba Gnana Veedu||G. Aswathamma||Madurai G. Sundara Vaathiyar|
|1948||Pizhaikkum Vazhi||Kottai Kattathedaa||G. Aswathamma||T. K. Sundara Vaathiyar|
|1948||Pizhaikkum Vazhi||Mudalai Vaayil||G. Aswathamma||T. K. Sundara Vaathiyar|
|1949||Vazhkai||Bharatha Samudhaayam Vaazhgave||R. Sudharsanam||Mahakavi Subramaniya Bharathiyar|
|1951||Lavanya||Pazham Bhaaratha Nannaadu||S. V. Venkatraman||Papanasam Sivan|
|1951||Lavanya||Thanga Oru Nizhal Illaiye||S. V. Venkatraman||Papanasam Sivan|
|2000||Hey Ram||Vaishnav Janato||Ilaiyaraja||Krishnaswamy Iyer|
Pattammal was one of the artists in Jana Gana Mana video album composed by A. R. Rahman which was released on 26 January 2000 to mark the 50th year of the Indian Republic. Pattammal who was 80, is the most senior among of the rest of the other vocal artists in this video album.
Pattammal has performed in all major states, sabhas and venues throughout India, as well as numerous destinations around the world, including the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sri Lanka and other countries.
Pattammal's style of singing attracted many students, foremost among them her younger brother D. K. Jayaraman, who sang with her in several concerts, and who himself received the Sangeetha Kalanidhi in 1990. A few of her other popular students include her daughter-in-law Lalitha Sivakumar, Sushila Raman, Geetha Rajashekar, her granddaughter Nithyasree Mahadevan, her great-granddaughter Lavanya Sundararaman, and her Malaysian, Chinese student/adopted grandson Chong Chiu Sen (Sai Madhana Mohan Kumar) from Malaysia.
Pattammal died of natural causes in Chennai on 16 July 2009 at 1:30 pm. She was survived by I. Sivakumar and I. Lakshmankumar, as well as her grandchildren Rajguru, Gayathri, Nithyasree, and Charan. Her husband, R. Iswaran died on 2 April 2010, aged 95.
Awards and titles
D. K. Pattammal received several awards and titles throughout her career. Most notably these include:
- "Gana Saraswathi" (a title bestowed on her by the musician Tiger Varadachariar)
- "Sangeetha Sagara Ratna" (title)
- Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1961)
- Sangeetha Kalanidhi (1970; highest accolade in Carnatic music)
- Padma Bhushan (1971; from the Government of India)
- Sangeetha Kalasikhamani (1978) by The Indian Fine Arts Society, Chennai.
- Fellow of Sangeet Natak Akademi (elected in 1992)
- Padma Vibhushan (1998; India's second-highest civilian honour)
- "Sangeeta Saraswathi" (2006; award bestowed by Guruji Viswanath, founder of Manava Seva Kendra)
- "The Hindu: Front page: Pattammal passes away". The Hindu. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Profile – Sangita Kalanidhi D.K.Pattammal
- "The Hindu : Chords and Notes". The Hindu. 4 August 2003. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Lakshmi Ramakrishnan (April 1998), "Music with feeling", Frontline (The Hindu Group) 15 (8)
- D Ram Raj (18 July 2009). "Enough if I get 100 discerning listeners". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Pattammal passes away". Deccan Chronicle. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Gowri Ramnarayan (17 July 2009). "Elegance, not flamboyance, was her forte - The Hindu". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Gowri Ramnarayan (August 2009), "Matriarch of music", Frontline (The Hindu Group) 26 (16)
- Asha Krishnakumar & N. Ravikiran (August 1999), "A lifetime for Carnatic music", Frontline (The Hindu Group) 16 (16), retrieved 11 April 2015
- The Hindu : Friday Review Bangalore / Tribute : The voice that touched the skies
- The Hindu : Friday Review Chennai / Tribute : Perfect and aesthetic
- The Hindu: Dignity personified
- A progressive film-maker
- Randor Guy (31 July 2009). "Memorable voice, evergreen songs - The Hindu". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Sleeman (2002), p438
- The Hindu : Friday Review Chennai / Columns : Life time bond with music
- The Hindu : Pattammal touch evokes nostalgia
- Sangeetha (31 July 2009). "Musical legacy - The Hindu". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- D. K. Pattammal
- The Hindu : Karnataka / Bangalore News : 'A momentous occasion for the music fraternity'
- Sleeman, Elizabeth (2002). The International Who's Who of Women 2002. London: Routledge.