# dBm

dBm or dBmW (decibel-milliwatts) is a unit of power level expressed using a logarithmic decibel (dB) scale respective to one milliwatt (mW). It's a quick-and-dirty metric commonly used by radio, microwave and fiber-optical communication technicians & engineers to measure the power of system transmissions on a log scale, which can express both very large and very small values in a short form. dBW is a similar unit measured relative to one watt (1,000 mW), rather than a milliwatt.

The decibel (dB) is a dimensionless unit, used for quantifying the ratio between two values, such as signal-to-noise ratio. The dBm is also dimensionless,[1][2] but since it compares to a fixed reference value, the dBm rating is an absolute one.

The dBm is not a part of the International System of Units (SI) and therefore is discouraged from use in documents or systems that adhere to SI units. (The corresponding SI unit is the watt.) However, the unit decibel (dB), without the 'm' suffix, is permitted for relative quantities, but not accepted for use directly alongside SI units. Ten decibel-milliwatts may be written 10 dB (1 mW) in SI.[3]: 7.4

In audio and telephony, dBm is typically referenced relative to the 600-ohm impedance[4] commonly used in telephone voice networks, while in radio-frequency work dBm is typically referenced relative to a 50-ohm impedance.[5]

## Unit conversions

A power level of 0 dBm corresponds to a power of 1 milliwatt. A 10 dB increase in level is equivalent to a ten-fold increase in power. Therefore, a 20 dB increase in level is equivalent to a 100-fold increase in power. A 3 dB increase in level is approximately equivalent to doubling the power, which means that a level of 3 dBm corresponds roughly to a power of 2 mW. Similarly, for each 3 dB decrease in level, the power is reduced by about one half, making −3 dBm correspond to a power of about 0.5 mW.

To express an arbitrary power P in mW as x in dBm, the following expression may be used:[6]

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}x&=10\log _{10}{\frac {P}{1~{\text{mW}}}}\end{aligned}}}

Conversely, to express an arbitrary power level x in dBm, as P in mW:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}P&=1~{\text{mW}}\cdot 10^{\frac {x}{10}}\end{aligned}}}

## Table of examples

Below is a table summarizing useful cases:

Power level Power Notes
526 dBm 3.6×1049 W Black hole collision, the power radiated in gravitational waves following the collision GW150914, estimated at 50 times the power output of all the stars in the observable universe.[7][8]
420 dBm 1×1039 W Cygnus A, one of the most powerful radio sources in the sky
296 dBm 3.846×1026 W Total power output of the Sun[9]
120 dBm 1 GW = 1,000,000,000 W Experimental high-power microwave (HPM) generation system, 1 GW at 2.32 GHz for 38 ns[10]
105 dBm 32 MW AN/FPS-85 Phased Array Space Surveillance Radar, claimed by the US Space Force as the most powerful radar in the world.[11]
95.5 dBm 3,600 kW High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program maximum power output, the most powerful shortwave station in 2012
80 dBm 100 kW Typical transmission power of FM radio station with 50-kilometre (31 mi) range
62 dBm 1.588 kW 1.5 kW is the maximum legal power output of a US ham radio station.[12]
60 dBm 1 kW = 1,000 W Typical combined radiated RF power of microwave oven elements
55 dBm ~300 W Typical single-channel RF output power of a Ku band geostationary satellite
50 dBm 100 W Typical total thermal radiation emitted by a human body, peak at 31.5 THz (9.5 μm)

Typical maximum output RF power from a ham radio HF transceiver without power amplifier

40 dBm 10 W Typical power-line communication (PLC) transmission power
37 dBm 5 W Typical maximal output RF power from a handheld ham radio VHF/UHF transceiver
36 dBm 4 W Typical maximal output power for a citizens band radio station (27 MHz) in many countries
33 dBm 2 W Maximal output from a UMTS/3G mobile phone (power class 1 mobiles)

Maximal output from a GSM850/900 mobile phone

30 dBm 1 W = 1000 mW

DCS or GSM 1,800/1,900 MHz mobile phone. EIRP IEEE 802.11a (20 MHz-wide channels) in either 5 GHz subband 2 (5,470–5,725 MHz) provided that transmitters are also IEEE 802.11h-compliant, or U-NII-3 (5,725–5,825 MHz). The former is EU only, the latter is US only. Also, maximal power allowed by the FCC for American amateur radio licensees to fly radio-controlled aircraft or operate RC models of any other type on the amateur radio bands in the US.[13]

29 dBm 794 mW
28 dBm 631 mW
27 dBm 500 mW Typical cellular phone transmission power

Maximal output from a UMTS/3G mobile phone (power class 2 mobiles)

26 dBm 400 mW
25 dBm 316 mW
24 dBm 251 mW Maximal output from a UMTS/3G mobile phone (power class 3 mobiles)

1,880–1,900 MHz DECT (250 mW per 1,728 kHz channel). EIRP for wireless LAN IEEE 802.11a (20 MHz-wide channels) in either the 5 GHz subband 1 (5,180–5,320 MHz) or U-NII-2 and -W ranges (5,250–5,350 MHz & 5,470–5,725 MHz, respectively). The former is EU only, the latter is US only.

23 dBm 200 mW EIRP for IEEE 802.11n wireless LAN 40 MHz-wide (5 mW/MHz) channels in 5 GHz subband 4 (5,735–5,835 MHz, US only) or 5 GHz subband 2 (5,470–5,725 MHz, EU only). Also applies to 20 MHz-wide (10 mW/MHz) IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN in 5 GHz subband 1 (5,180–5,320 MHz) if also IEEE 802.11h-compliant (otherwise only 3 mW/MHz → 60 mW when unable to dynamically adjust transmission power, and only 1.5 mW/MHz → 30 mW when a transmitter also cannot dynamically select frequency).
22 dBm 158 mW
21 dBm 125 mW Maximal output from a UMTS/3G mobile phone (power class 4 mobiles)
20 dBm 100 mW EIRP for IEEE 802.11b/g wireless LAN 20 MHz-wide channels in the 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi/ISM band (5 mW/MHz).

Bluetooth Class 1 radio. Maximal output power from unlicensed AM transmitter per US FCC rules 15.219[14]

19 dBm 79 mW
18 dBm 63 mW
17 dBm 50 mW
15 dBm 32 mW Typical wireless LAN transmission power in laptops
10 dBm 10 mW
7 dBm 5.0 mW Common power level required to test the automatic gain control circuitry in an AM receiver
6 dBm 4.0 mW
5 dBm 3.2 mW
4 dBm 2.5 mW Bluetooth Class 2 radio, 10 m range
3 dBm 2.0 mW
2 dBm 1.6 mW
1 dBm 1.3 mW
0 dBm 1.0 mW = 1000 μW Bluetooth standard (Class 3) radio, 1 m range
−1 dBm 794 μW
−3 dBm 501 μW
−5 dBm 316 μW
−10 dBm 100 μW Maximal received signal power of wireless network (802.11 variants)
−13 dBm 50.12 μW Dial tone for the precise tone plan found on public switched telephone networks in North America
−20 dBm 10 μW
−30 dBm 1.0 μW = 1000 nW
−40 dBm 100 nW
−50 dBm 10 nW
−60 dBm 1.0 nW = 1000 pW The Earth receives one nanowatt per square metre from a magnitude +3.5 star[15]
−70 dBm 100 pW
−73 dBm 50.12 pW "S9" signal strength, a strong signal, on the S meter of a typical ham or shortwave radio receiver
−80 dBm 10 pW
−100 dBm 0.1 pW Minimal received signal power of wireless network (802.11 variants)
−111 dBm 0.008 pW = 8 fW Thermal noise floor for commercial GPS single-channel signal bandwidth (2 MHz)
−127.5 dBm 0.178 fW = 178 aW Typical received signal power from a GPS satellite
−174 dBm 0.004 aW = 4 zW Thermal noise floor for 1 Hz bandwidth at room temperature (20 °C)
−192.5 dBm 0.056 zW = 56 yW Thermal noise floor for 1 Hz bandwidth in outer space (4 kelvins)
−∞ dBm 0 W Zero power is not well-expressed in dBm (value is negative infinity)

## Standards

The signal intensity (power per unit area) can be converted to received signal power by multiplying by the square of the wavelength and dividing by 4π (see Free-space path loss).

In United States Department of Defense practice, unweighted measurement is normally understood, applicable to a certain bandwidth, which must be stated or implied.

In European practice, psophometric weighting may be, as indicated by context, equivalent to dBm0p, which is preferred.

In audio, 0 dBm often corresponds to approximately 0.775 volts, since 0.775 V dissipates 1 mW in a 600 Ω load.[16] The corresponding voltage level is 0 dBu, without the 600 Ω restriction. Conversely, for RF situations with a 50 Ω load, 0 dBm corresponds to approximately 0.224 volts, since 0.224 V dissipates 1 mW in a 50 Ω load. In general the relationship between the power level P in dBms and the RMS voltage V in volts across a load of resistance R (typically used to terminate a transmission line with impedance Z) is:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}V&={\sqrt {R{\frac {10^{x/10}}{1000}}}}\end{aligned}}}

Expression in dBm is typically used for optical and electrical power measurements, not for other types of power (such as thermal). A listing by power levels in watts is available that includes a variety of examples not necessarily related to electrical or optical power.

The dBm was first proposed as an industry standard[16] in the paper "A New Standard Volume Indicator and Reference Level".[17]

## References

This article incorporates public domain material from Federal Standard 1037C. General Services Administration. Archived from the original on 2022-01-22. (in support of MIL-STD-188).

1. ^ Green, Lynne D. (2019). Fiber Optic Communications. CRC Press. p. 181. ISBN 9781000694512.
2. ^ Kosatsky, Tom (2013). Radiofrequency Toolkit for Environmental Health Practitioners (PDF). British Columbia Centre for Disease Control. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09.
3. ^
4. ^ Bigelow, Stephen (2001). Understanding Telephone Electronics. Newnes. pp. 16. ISBN 978-0750671750.
5. ^ Carr, Joseph (2002). RF Components and Circuits. Newnes. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0750648448.
6. ^ Sobot, Robert (2012). Wireless Communication Electronics: Introduction to RF Circuits and Design. Springer. p. 252. ISBN 9783030486303.
7. ^ "OBSERVATION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM A BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGER" (PDF). LSC (Ligo Scientific Collaboration). Caltech. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
8. ^ "Found! Gravitational Waves, or a Wrinkle in Spacetime". National Geographic. 2016-02-11. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
9. ^ "Ask Us: Sun". Cosmicopia. NASA. 2012. Archived from the original on 2000-08-16. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
10. ^ Li, Wei; Li, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Xiao-liang; Zhang, Jun (2015-11-01). "A reliable, compact, and repetitive-rate high power microwave generation system". Review of Scientific Instruments. 86 (11): 114704. Bibcode:2015RScI...86k4704L. doi:10.1063/1.4935500. ISSN 0034-6748. PMID 26628156.
11. ^ "AN/FPS-85". US Air Force Fact Sheet. United States Dept. of Defense. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
12. ^ "Part 97 - Amateur Radio". ARRL. Archived from the original on 2012-10-09. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
13. ^ [1] Archived 2016-12-22 at the Wayback Machine FCC Part 97 Amateur Radio Service - Rule 97.215, Telecommand of model craft, section (c).
14. ^ FCC Web Documents citing 15.219 Archived 2011-11-06 at the Wayback Machine.
15. ^ "Radiant Flux of a Magnitude +3.5 Star". Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
16. ^ a b Davis, Gary (1988). The Sound Reinforcement Handbook. Yamaha. p. 22. ISBN 0881889008.
17. ^ Chinn, H. A.; D. K. Gannett; R. M. Moris (January 1940). "A New Standard Volume Indicator and Reference Level" (PDF). Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers. 28 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1940.228815. S2CID 15458694. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2012-08-04.