DC animated universe
The DC Animated Universe (DCAU; also referred to as the Timmverse by fans) is the shared universe centered on a group of animated television series based on DC Comics, produced by Warner Bros. Animation from the early 1990s to mid-2000s; beginning with Batman: The Animated Series in 1992, and ending with Justice League Unlimited in 2006. Some parts of the associated media franchise including direct-to-video feature films and shorts, comic books, video games and other multimedia adaptations are also included in the continuity.
List of DCAU media
While there have been several animated projects based upon DC Comics characters over the decades, what is commonly accepted as the DC animated universe consists of the stable of TV series and films that spin off from Batman: The Animated Series (1992–1995), the first TV show in this continuity. Two characters outside of the normal Batman canon, Zatanna and Jonah Hex, appeared on the show, but the first series to indicate a shared continuity with other well-known characters was the subsequent show, Superman: The Animated Series, in which the title character has encounters with heroes such as the Flash and the Green Lantern.
Older shows such as Super Friends and newer shows such as The Batman, Legion of Super Heroes, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, and Young Justice are not part of this continuity. The direct-to-video DC Universe Animated Original Movies, such as Superman: Doomsday, Justice League: The New Frontier and Batman: Gotham Knight, are also not considered part of the DCAU, despite utilizing similar character designs and several of them featuring much of the same voice cast as previous DCAU series.
The DC animated universe consists of these animated series (and their related films; see below):
|Batman: The Animated Series||September 5, 1992 – September 15, 1995||Fox||Starting point for the universe|
"Showdown" (Jonah Hex)
|Superman: The Animated Series||September 6, 1996 – February 12, 2000||The WB||Crossovers with The New Batman Adventures:|
The Demon Reborn
Speed Demons (The Flash)
The Hand of Fate (Dr. Fate)
Heavy Metal (Steel)
In Brightest Day (The Green Lantern Corps)
A Fish Story (Aquaman)
The Main Man Parts 1 and 2 (Lobo)
|The New Batman Adventures||September 13, 1997 – January 16, 1999||Sequel to Batman: The Animated Series|
Crossovers with Superman: The Animated Series:
Girl's Night Out
The Demon Within (Etrigan)
Beware The Creeper (The Creeper)
|Batman Beyond||January 10, 1999 – December 18, 2001||Sequel to The New Batman Adventures|
Crossovers with The Zeta Project:
Zeta (Infiltration Unit Zeta)
The Call (The Justice League Unlimited)
|Static Shock||September 23, 2000 – May 22, 2004||Crossovers:|
The Big Leagues (The New Batman Adventures)
Fallen Hero (Justice League)
Future Shock (The New Batman Adventures/Batman Beyond)
Hard as Nails (The New Batman Adventures)
A League of Their Own (Justice League)
Toys in the Hood (Superman: The Animated Series)
|The Zeta Project||January 27, 2001 – August 17, 2002||Spin-off of Batman Beyond|
Crossovers with Batman Beyond:
|Justice League||November 17, 2001 – May 29, 2004||Cartoon Network||Sequel to Superman: The Animated Series and The New Batman Adventures|
|Justice League Unlimited||July 31, 2004 – May 13, 2006||Sequel to Justice League|
The Once And Future Thing (Static Shock/Batman Beyond)
Epilogue (Batman Beyond)
An animated series based on the Teen Titans comic books was planned for the DC animated universe during the mid-1990s, but was finally scrapped. Instead a Teen Titans series not related to the DC animated universe was released. Also, after the success of Batman: The Animated Series in the early 1990s, Fox approached producer Bruce Timm to create a spin-off series focusing on Catwoman, but the project never materialized.
The following animated feature films also are part of the DCAU continuity:
- Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993; theatrical release)
- Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero (1998; direct-to-video)
- Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker (2000; direct-to-video)
- Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman (2003; direct-to-video)
- Batman and Harley Quinn (2017; direct-to-video)
Before the release of Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker, a third animated feature based on Batman: The Animated Series was planned, entitled Batman: Arkham. The film was supposed to be a follow-up for Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero, and Boyd Kirkland was attached to write and direct; but the project was soon scrapped. A second Batman Beyond movie was planned for release but was finally scrapped due to the dark tones and controversies of Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker in 2001. Around 2003, during the production of Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman, Warner Bros. approached Kirkland to write a Catwoman direct-to-video feature film as a tie-in with the 2004 live-action film. Although the script was written, the project was soon scrapped after the poor reception of the live-action film. Also, a direct-to-video feature-length animated film entitled Justice League: Worlds Collide was planned to connect Justice League with its follow-up Justice League Unlimited, but the production was finally cancelled in 2004, and the script was later rewritten for the animated film Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths, that was not part of the DC animated universe. "Batman and Harley Quinn uses DCAU art but due to vague language used in articles promoting the movie, there has been debate in the fan community as to whether the film is canon to the DCAU, most notable being The Vocal Range's headline stating that the film is unofficially canon. However, Bruce Timm has stated in interviews that it is a return to the DCAU saying "it was just an excuse to kind of go back to the BTAS world", "I personally kind of think of it as a continuation of Batman: The Animated Series, and the DC Animated Universe", and in an interview with ComicBook.com that it was always his intent for the film to be in continuity but went on to state that he's "not actually in control of what’s in continuity and what isn’t "  implying that it was up to the corporate entities of Warner brothers and DC Comics.
- The Dark Knight's First Night (1990) – A short film which acted as the developmental pilot for Batman: The Animated Series.
- Chase Me (2003) – A short film with no dialogue based on The New Batman Adventures.
- Batman Black & White: Two of a Kind (2008) - A motion comic adaptation of Bruce Timm's "Two-Face: Two of a Kind"
- Mad Love (2008) - A 3 part motion comic adaptation of Bruce Timm and Paul Dini's "Batman Adventures: Mad Love"
- Batman Beyond (2014) – A short film based on Batman Beyond created by Darwyn Cooke for Batman's 75th anniversary. The short features the original voice cast of the show, as well as cameos of robotic batmen from The New Batman Adventures, The Batman, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, Beware the Batman, The Dark Knight Returns, Michael Keaton's Batman, Adam West's Batman, and the original comic book Batman from 1939.
- Gotham Girls (2000–2002) – A Macromedia Flash web cartoon series, this was downloadable from the WB website, and featured DCAU versions of characters voiced by their original actors. A DC Comics miniseries inspired by the web series was released in 2004. All three seasons of Gotham Girls were released on the Birds of Prey DVD box set in 2008.
- Lobo (2000) – A Flash cartoon series starring Lobo, the galactic bounty hunter, the web-series is a spin-off of the Superman episode "The Main Man." A wax statue with the same character design as Lobo in this series appeared in an episode of Gotham Girls and he also made a reappearance in the Justice League episode "Hereafter" briefly becoming a member of the Justice League. Both of these examples somewhat support that the webseries is part of the official DCAU, although this is still disputed. Unlike the other cartoons set in the DCAU, it has graphic violence, sexual content and strong profanity.
Many of the DCAU productions have also had comic books created based on the characters of the various series, though their canonicity is disputable. The comics are:
|1992||The Batman Adventures (vol. 1)||#1–36|
Batman: Mask of the Phantasm
|1993||Superman & Batman Magazine||#1–8|
|1995||Batman and Robin Adventures||#1–25|
Batman & Mr. Freeze: Sub-Zero
Dark Claw Adventures
Superman vs. Lobo
Exclusive Edition (Superman '64 prequel)
|Two-Face: Two of a Kind||#0|
|1997||Adventures in the DC Universe||#1–19|
|1998||The Batman Adventures: The Lost Years||#1–5|
|Batman: Gotham Adventures||#1–60|
|1999||Batman Beyond (vol. 1)||#1–6|
|Batman Beyond (vol. 2)||#1–24|
Return of the Joker
|Claritin Syrup Presents Batman||One-Shot|
|2001||Gotham Knights||#14 (backstory by Paul Dini)|
|Justice League Adventures||#1–34|
#1-8 (Burger King miniseries)
|2003||Batman Adventures (vol. 2)||#1–17|
|Batman: Shadow of Sin Tzu||#1–22|
|2004||Batman: Harley and Ivy||#1–3|
|Justice League Unlimited||#1–46|
|2010||Batman Beyond (vol. 3)||#1–6|
|2011||Batman Beyond (vol. 4)||#1–8|
|2012||Justice League Beyond||#1–25|
|Batman Beyond (vol. 5)||#1–29|
|2013||Batman Beyond 2.0||#1–40|
|Justice League Beyond 2.0||#1–24|
|2015||Scooby Doo Team Up||#12, #17, #21|
(series uses DCAU character models but ignores the lore)
|Love is Love||Harley and Ivy story by Paul Dini|
|Harley Quinn||#17-26 (backstory by Paul Dini)|
|2017||Harley Quinn and Batman||#1-5|
(prequel series to Batman and Harley Quinn)
There have also been a number of DCAU tie-in video games released to correspond with the various animated television series and films. Some of these games have original plots, while others follow previous stories; their status in DCAU canon is unknown. The games are:
|1993||Batman: The Animated Series||Game Boy|
|1994||The Adventures of Batman & Robin||Super NES, Mega Drive/Genesis, Mega-CD/Sega CD, Game Gear|
|2000||Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker||Game Boy Color, PlayStation, Nintendo 64|
|2001||Batman: Chaos in Gotham||Game Boy Color|
|Batman: Gotham City Racer||PlayStation|
|Batman: Vengeance||PlayStation 2, Game Boy Advance, GameCube, Xbox, Microsoft Windows|
|2002||Justice League: Injustice for All||Game Boy Advance|
|Static Shock (canceled game)|
|Superman: Shadow of Apokolips||PlayStation 2, GameCube|
|2003||Batman: Rise of Sin Tzu||Xbox, PlayStation 2, Game Boy Advance, GameCube|
|Justice League: Chronicles||Game Boy Advance|
|Superman: Countdown to Apokolips|
Five of these games feature voice acting from the casts of the original shows. These are: The Adventures of Batman and Robin (SEGA CD/Mega CD version), Superman, Batman Vengeance, Superman: Shadow of Apokolips, and Batman: Rise of Sin Tzu. The SEGA CD/Mega CD game, The Adventures of Batman and Robin, also features animation from one of the studios that animated Batman: The Animated Series.
Cast and characters
In other media
|1995||Freakazoid||Dance of Doom||Batman appears, but is unable to help due to being on a different network|
|1995||Animaniacs||A Hard Day's Warners||Paul Dini and Bruce Timm can be seen at the Batman booth in episode #73 with a Mask of the Phantasm poster|
|2011||Batman: The Brave and the Bold||Night of the Batmen||Batman's TNBA design shows up among the Batmen of other worlds along with Batman Beyond|
|2013||Teen Titans Go!||multiple||Meta-gags referencing the DCAU have been made|
|1994||Man of Steel||#37||Bruce Timm's Batman design appears on the front cover|
|1999||Fan Boy||#5||Bruce Timm was a featured artist, lending his Batman to the issue|
|1999||Superman/Fantastic Four||One-Shot||Superman's DCAU counterpart makes a cameo|
|2001||Catwoman||#89||Harleen Quinzel pitches a TV series in the same style of The New Batman Adventures|
|2005||Krypto the Super Dog||#1-6||Artist Min S Ku draws many characters in their DCAU style.|
|2007||Teen Titans Go!||#45||The Justice League is presented in their DCAU style|
|2008||Legion of Superheroes in the 31st Century||#11||The Justice League appears in their DCAU versions|
|2013||Green Lantern: The Animated Series||#13||Lobo shows up in his DCAU design|
|2014||Adventures of Superman||#40||The Joker shows up in multiple styles, including his New Batman Adventures look.|
|2017||Action Comics||975||Mr. Mxyzptlk and Superman appear in their Superman: The Animated Series style.|
Characters adapted from the DCAU
Though the DCAU is an offshoot of the mainstream DC comics universe, it has also affected the DC universe in return. The following characters were originally created for their respective series in the DCAU, but were eventually adapted via retroactive continuity into the mainstream DC comic continuity:
- Nora Fries (Batman: The Animated Series)
- Harley Quinn (Batman: The Animated Series)
- Renee Montoya (Batman: The Animated Series)
- Lock-Up (Batman: The Animated Series)
- Sewer King (Batman: The Animated Series)
- The Condiment King (Batman: The Animated Series)
- Mercy Graves (Superman: The Animated Series)
- Livewire (Superman: The Animated Series)
- Roxy Rocket (The New Batman Adventures)
- Terry McGinnis/Batman (Batman Beyond)
- Gray Ghost (Batman: The Animated Series)
- Retroactive continuity
In addition, the backstory of Mr. Freeze was adapted from his portrayal in Batman: The Animated Series, and the visuals and/or characterization of Green Lantern, Supergirl, Toyman, Two-Face, Parasite, Metallo, Clayface, and many others have been applied to their comic counterparts. On a different note, issue #22 of DC Comics' Superman/Batman series, which explores alternate realities, had Bizarro transported to an alternate version of Gotham City patrolled by a Batman using the Batman Beyond version of the costume. A version of the future of Batman Beyond made an appearance in Countdown to Final Crisis #21, as part of the new Multiverse in the wake of the Infinite Crisis and 52, and a Batman Beyond series is planned. In January 2015, DC published The Multiversity Guidebook which revealed that a universe inspired by the DCAU is Earth-12 in the DC Multiverse, and currently in the Batman Beyond era, while the Justice Lords Earth from the Justice League episode "A Better World" has also been added to the canon as Earth-50.
The future of the DCAU
With the conclusion of the Justice League Unlimited animated series, Warner Bros has moved on to adapting new versions of the various DC comics properties rather than reviving the DCAU counterparts.
The last script written for DCAU continuity was titled Justice League: Worlds Collide. This screenplay was created to bridge the several month gap between Justice League and Justice League Unlimited. The draft was eventually adapted into the February 2010 film Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths, with the removal of any references specific to DCAU continuity, replacing Green Lantern John Stewart with Hal Jordan, and the casting of different voice actors than those of the DCAU.
I very much appreciate that so many of you guys have so much love for the old series, from BTAS through JLU (I do too) -- but frankly, I doubt that we'll be formally, "officially" doing another movie or TV series set in that continuity (...) anything is possible, so conceivably that could change someday -- instead of saying "THE DCAU IS DEAD", maybe we can just say it's in a state of suspended animation until further notice...?— Bruce Timm, 2009
On June 8, 2015, during an interview with Nerdist about his new film Justice League: Gods and Monsters, Bruce Timm was asked if the DC animated universe will return someday. Although Timm stated that the DCAU continuity was unlikely to return, the possibility always exists. In 2017, Bruce Timm confirmed that he considers the DC Universe Animated Original Movie Batman and Harley Quinn to be part of the DCAU canon. Warner Brothers has billed the movie stating "Bruce Timm returns to his Batman: The Animated Series roots." DC has listed the film as a Batman: the Animated Series movie on their website and on the back of the trade collection of the movies tie-in comics stated "Head back to the universe of Batman: The Animated Series in Batman and Harley Quinn" 
In 2018, Kevin Conroy revealed that the DCAU had been retired because the writers ran out of ideas for stories and believed stopping was best, as they did not want to "compromise on the quality of what they had and start creating kind of silly stories."
The Batman Beyond comic series is a loose adaptation of the Batman Beyond franchise, intended to fit the character and storylines from the series into the mainstream DC continuity. The miniseries began in June 2010, under the title Future Evil. In August 2010, the series was announced to continue following the completion of the first arc as an ongoing series. That series concluded alongside the entire line of ongoing monthly DC Comics superhero books during the 2011 revamp and relaunch, titled The New 52.
Superman Beyond, a one-shot comic set in the same universe as Batman Beyond, was released in 2011.
Batman Beyond Unlimited, a title chronicling the adventures of the future Justice League introduced in the DCAU, was released in February 2012. This series published monthly triple-sized issues, containing three stories of Terry McGinnis, Clark "Cal" Kent, and the future Justice League Unlimited, respectively.
Batman Beyond Universe succeeded Unlimited in August 2013, condensing to double-monthly issues upon the elderly Superman's rejoining the future Justice League.
In 2015-2016, DC Comics and IDW Publishing released a jointly produced, six-issue miniseries comic titled Batman/TMNT, where the New 52 Batman encounters the IDW incarnation of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. The success of this miniseries inspired a similar crossover story, with Batman's DCAU incarnation meeting the Amazing Adventures comic version of the 2012 CGI series' Turtles. The concept was first announced in late July 2016, and is scheduled for a six-issue release starting November 9, 2016.
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