Washington, D.C. hardcore
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Washington, D.C. hardcore, commonly referred to as DC hardcore, and sometimes shortened to harDCore, is the hardcore punk scene of Washington, D.C. Emerged in late 1979, it is considered one of the first and most influential punk scenes in the United States.
Among the earliest DC punk bands were the Bad Brains, Slickee Boys, the Teen Idles, Minor Threat, S.O.A., Chalk Circle, Iron Cross, Velvet Monkeys, Void, the Faith, Youth Brigade, Government Issue, Untouchables, Scream, all of which formed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. In the mid-1980s during a time period quoted by some as "Revolution Summer", bands like Gray Matter, Embrace, Rites of Spring, Soulside, Three, and Rain emerged. Other DC hardcore bands from this time period are Fire Party and Dag Nasty.
Dischord Records, owned and run by Jeff Nelson, drummer for Minor Threat and Ian MacKaye, the frontman for Minor Threat, and later Embrace, Fugazi and The Evens put out records by many of these bands. Due to Dischord's popularity and influence, very few D.C.-based bands who were not on Dischord have received much attention from outside of the DC metro area.
Hardcore in D.C grew a large following in the late 1980s and the 1990s: Swiz, Battery, Smart Went Crazy, and Damnation A.D., with a majority of these bands releasing albums on Jade Tree Records and Art Monk Construction.
- Andersen, Mark; Jenkins, Mark (2001). Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 9781887128490.
- Blush, Steven (2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. "Minor Threat & DC: Flex Your Head". Second ed., 2010. Feral House. ISBN 9781932595895. pp. 149–176.
- Follos, Tim; Mohammed, Hussain (Day After Day D.C., 2015). This Was My Night and This Was a Lot of Other Nights: Day After Day D.C. 2005-2013. Second ed., 2016. Esther Mountain Press. ISBN 9781530199976.
- Norton, Justin M. (October 17, 2012). "13 Essential DC Hardcore Albums". Stereogum.
- Knox, Ron (March 14, 2016). "The State Of D.C. Hardcore". National Public Radio.
- Reveron, Sean (July 27, 2012). "Salad Days: The DC Punk Revolution Documentary" (trailer and photo essay). Cvlt Nation.