This gene encodes the large subunit of DNA damage-binding protein that is a heterodimer composed of a large and a small (DDB2) subunit. As its name suggests, DDB1 was initially implicated in the process of a specific type of DNA repair known as nucleotide excision repair. Since then, researchers have found that DDB1 primarily functions as a core component of the CUL4A- and CUL4B-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. DDB1 serves as a bridge or adaptor protein which interacts with dozens of proteins known as DDB1 and CUL4-associated factors (DCAFs). These DCAFs are often ubiquitin ligase substrates and regulate numerous essential processes in the cell including DNA repair (DDB2), DNA replication, chromatin remodeling (Cdt2) and more.
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