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Protein DDB1 PDB 2b5l.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases DDB1, DDBA, UV-XAP1, XPCE, XPE, XPE-BF, damage specific DNA binding protein 1
External IDs MGI: 1202384 HomoloGene: 1448 GeneCards: DDB1
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 11: 61.3 – 61.34 Mb Chr 19: 10.61 – 10.63 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

DNA damage-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DDB1 gene.[3][4][5]


The gene's position is on chromosome 11q12-q13.[6]


The DDB1 gene encodes the large subunit of DNA damage-binding protein, a heterodimer composed of a large and a small (DDB2) subunit. DDB1 contains 1140 amino acids, amounting to a mass of 127 kDa. [6]


As its name suggests, DDB1 was initially implicated in the process of a specific type of DNA repair known as nucleotide excision repair. Since then, researchers have found that DDB1 primarily functions as a core component of the CUL4A- and CUL4B-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. DDB1 serves as a bridge or adaptor protein which interacts with dozens of proteins known as DDB1 and CUL4-associated factors (DCAFs).[7] These DCAFs are often ubiquitin ligase substrates and regulate numerous essential processes in the cell including DNA repair (DDB2), DNA replication, chromatin remodeling (Cdt2) and more.


DDB1 has been shown to interact with Transcription initiation protein SPT3 homolog,[8] GCN5L2,[9] DDB2,[10][11] CUL4A,[11] CUL4B[11] and P21.[12]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Dualan R, Brody T, Keeney S, Nichols AF, Admon A, Linn S (Feb 1996). "Chromosomal localization and cDNA cloning of the genes (DDB1 and DDB2) for the p127 and p48 subunits of a human damage-specific DNA binding protein". Genomics. 29 (1): 62–9. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1215. PMID 8530102. 
  4. ^ Seki N, Hayashi A, Hattori A, Kozuma S, Sasaki M, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Muramatsu M, Saito T (Jan 2000). "cDNA cloning, tissue expression, and chromosomal assignment of a mouse gene, encoding a 127 kDa UV-damaged DNA binding protein which is defective in XPE cells". DNA Res. 6 (5): 319–22. doi:10.1093/dnares/6.5.319. PMID 10574459. 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: DDB1 damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa". 
  6. ^ a b Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta (2011). "Damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1): a protein with a wide range of functions" (PDF). The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. Elsevier. 43: 1664–1667. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2011.09.001. 
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Martinez E, Palhan VB, Tjernberg A, Lymar ES, Gamper AM, Kundu TK, Chait BT, Roeder RG (October 2001). "Human STAGA complex is a chromatin-acetylating transcription coactivator that interacts with pre-mRNA splicing and DNA damage-binding factors in vivo". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (20): 6782–95. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6782-6795.2001. PMC 99856Freely accessible. PMID 11564863. 
  9. ^ Huang J, Chen J (July 2008). "VprBP targets Merlin to the Roc1-Cul4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex for degradation". Oncogene. 27 (29): 4056–64. doi:10.1038/onc.2008.44. PMID 18332868. 
  10. ^ Bergametti F, Sitterlin D, Transy C (July 2002). "Turnover of hepatitis B virus X protein is regulated by damaged DNA-binding complex". J. Virol. 76 (13): 6495–501. doi:10.1128/JVI.76.13.6495-6501.2002. PMC 136256Freely accessible. PMID 12050362. 
  11. ^ a b c Guerrero-Santoro J, Kapetanaki MG, Hsieh CL, Gorbachinsky I, Levine AS, Rapić-Otrin V (July 2008). "The cullin 4B-based UV-damaged DNA-binding protein ligase binds to UV-damaged chromatin and ubiquitinates histone H2A". Cancer Res. 68 (13): 5014–22. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6162. PMID 18593899. 
  12. ^ Abbas T, Sivaprasad U, Terai K, Amador V, Pagano M, Dutta A (September 2008). "PCNA-dependent regulation of p21 ubiquitylation and degradation via the CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase complex". Genes Dev. 22 (18): 2496–506. doi:10.1101/gad.1676108. PMC 2546691Freely accessible. PMID 18794347. 

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