DNA damage-inducible transcript 3

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Aliases DDIT3, CEBPZ, CHOP, CHOP-10, CHOP10, GADD153, DNA damage-inducible transcript 3, DNA damage inducible transcript 3, C/EBPzeta
External IDs MGI: 109247 HomoloGene: 3012 GeneCards: DDIT3
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 12 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 12 (human)[1]
Chromosome 12 (human)
Genomic location for DDIT3
Genomic location for DDIT3
Band 12q13.3 Start 57,516,588 bp[1]
End 57,520,517 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE DDIT3 209383 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)


RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC) Chr 12: 57.52 – 57.52 Mb Chr 12: 127.29 – 127.3 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

DNA damage-inducible transcript 3, also known as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), is a pro-apoptotic transcription factor that is encoded by the DDIT3 gene.[5][6]


DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 has been shown to interact with [proteins]:

Clinical significance[edit]

During endoplasmic reticulum stress (such as occurs in beta cells of the pancreas or in macrophages causing atherosclerosis), CHOP can induce activation of Ero1, causing calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm, resulting in apoptosis.[13] CHOP also induces apoptosis during endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34.[14]

Mutations or fusions of CHOP (e.g. with FUS to form FUS-CHOP) can cause Myxoid liposarcoma.[15]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175197 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000025408 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ Papathanasiou MA, Kerr NC, Robbins JH, McBride OW, Alamo I Jr, Barrett SF, Hickson ID, Fornace AJ Jr (March 1991). "Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C". Mol Cell Biol. 11 (2): 1009–16. PMC 359769Freely accessible. PMID 1990262. 
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: DDIT3 DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3". 
  7. ^ Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor induced by physiological stresses and modulated by gadd153/Chop10". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (3): 1157–68. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.3.1157. PMC 231098Freely accessible. PMID 8622660. 
  8. ^ a b c Ubeda M, Vallejo M, Habener JF (November 1999). "CHOP enhancement of gene transcription by interactions with Jun/Fos AP-1 complex proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (11): 7589–99. PMC 84780Freely accessible. PMID 10523647. 
  9. ^ Hattori T, Ohoka N, Hayashi H, Onozaki K (April 2003). "C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) up-regulates IL-6 transcription by trapping negative regulating NF-IL6 isoform". FEBS Lett. 541 (1-3): 33–9. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(03)00283-7. PMID 12706815. 
  10. ^ Fawcett TW, Eastman HB, Martindale JL, Holbrook NJ (June 1996). "Physical and functional association between GADD153 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta during cellular stress". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (24): 14285–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.24.14285. PMID 8662954. 
  11. ^ Ubeda M, Habener JF (October 2003). "CHOP transcription factor phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 inhibits transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (42): 40514–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306404200. PMID 12876286. 
  12. ^ Cui K, Coutts M, Stahl J, Sytkowski AJ (March 2000). "Novel interaction between the transcription factor CHOP (GADD153) and the ribosomal protein FTE/S3a modulates erythropoiesis". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (11): 7591–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.11.7591. PMID 10713066. 
  13. ^ Li G, Mongillo M, Chin KT, Harding H, Ron D, Marks AR, Tabas I (2009). "Role of ERO1-alpha-mediated stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor activity in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis". Journal of Cell Biology. 186 (6): 783–792. doi:10.1083/jcb.200904060. PMC 2753154Freely accessible. PMID 19752026. 
  14. ^ Marciniak SJ, Yun CY, Oyadomari S, Novoa I, Zhang Y, Jungreis R, Nagata K, Harding HP, Ron D (2004). "CHOP induces death by promoting protein synthesis and oxidation in the stressed endoplasmic reticulum". Genes & Development. 18 (24): 3066–3077. doi:10.1101/gad.1250704. PMC 535917Freely accessible. PMID 15601821. 
  15. ^ Panagopoulos I, Höglund M, Mertens F, et al. (1996). "Fusion of the EWS and CHOP genes in myxoid liposarcoma". Oncogene. 12 (3): 489–94. PMID 8637704. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.