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Delta-like 1 homolog (Drosophila)
Symbols DLK1 ; DLK; DLK-1; Delta1; FA1; PREF1; Pref-1; ZOG; pG2
External IDs OMIM176290 MGI94900 HomoloGene2846 ChEMBL: 5671 GeneCards: DLK1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE DLK1 209560 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 8788 13386
Ensembl ENSG00000185559 ENSMUSG00000040856
UniProt P80370 Q09163
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001032997 NM_001190703
RefSeq (protein) NP_003827 NP_001177632
Location (UCSC) Chr 14:
100.73 – 100.74 Mb
Chr 12:
109.45 – 109.46 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Protein delta homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLK1 gene.[1][2][3]

It is expressed as a transmembrane protein, but a soluble form cleaved off by ADAM17 is active in inhibiting adipogenesis,[4] the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes.[5]

It is a member of the EGF-like family of homeotic proteins.[6]


  1. ^ Laborda J, Sausville EA, Hoffman T, Notario V (1993). "dlk, a Putative Mammalian Homeotic Gene Differentially Expressed in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Neuroendocrine Tumor Cell Line". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 268 (6): 3817–20. PMID 8095043. 
  2. ^ Jensen CH, Krogh TN, Højrup P, Clausen PP, Skjødt K, Larsson LI, Enghild JJ, Teisner B (1994). "Protein Structure of Fetal Antigen 1 (FA1). A Novel Circulating Human Epidermal-Growth-Factor-Like Protein Expressed in Neuroendocrine Tumors and its Relation to the Gene Products of Dlk and pG2". European Journal of Biochemistry 225 (1): 83–92. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.00083.x. PMID 7925474. 
  3. ^ EntrezGene 8788
  4. ^ Wang Y, Sul HS (2009). "Pref-1 Regulates Mesenchymal Cell Commitment and Differentiation through Sox9". Cell Metabolism 9 (3): 287–302. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.01.013. PMC 2673480. PMID 19254573. 
  5. ^ Adipogenesis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  6. ^ Laborda J (2000). "The role of the epidermal growth factor-like protein dlk in cell differentiation". Histology and histopathology 15 (1): 119–29. PMID 10668203. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Helamn, Lee J.; Sack, Nancy; Plon, Sharon E.; Israel, Mark A. (1990). "The sequence of an adrenal specific human cDNA, pG2". Nucleic Acids Research 18 (3): 685–685. doi:10.1093/nar/18.3.685. 
  • Helman, L. J. (1987). "Molecular Markers of Neuroendocrine Development and Evidence of Environmental Regulation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 84 (8): 2336–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.8.2336. 
  • Lee YL, Helman L, Hoffman T, Laborda J (1995). "Dlk, pG2 and Pref-1 mRNAs encode similar proteins belonging to the EGF-like superfamily. Identification of polymorphic variants of this RNA". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1261 (2): 223–32. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(95)00007-4. PMID 7711066. 
  • Smas CM, Sul HS (1993). "Pref-1, a protein containing EGF-like repeats, inhibits adipocyte differentiation". Cell 73 (4): 725–34. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90252-L. PMID 8500166. 
  • Jensen CH, Teisner B, Højrup P, Rasmussen HB, Madsen OD, Nielsen B, Skjødt K (1993). "Studies on the isolation, structural analysis and tissue localization of fetal antigen 1 and its relation to a human adrenal-specific cDNA, pG2". Human reproduction 8 (4): 635–41. PMID 8501199. 
  • Tornehave D, Jensen CH, Teisner B, Larsson LI (1996). "FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression". Histochemistry and Cell Biology 106 (6): 535–42. doi:10.1007/BF02473268. PMID 8985741. 
  • Jensen CH, Schroder HD, Teisner B, Laursen I, Brandrup F, Rasmussen HB (1999). "Fetal antigen 1, a member of the epidermal growth factor superfamily, in neurofibromas and serum from patients with neurofibromatosis type 1". British Journal of Dermatology 140 (6): 1054–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.1999.02906.x. PMID 10354070. 
  • Gubina, E.; Ruiz-Hidalgo, M.J.; Baladrón, V.; Laborda, J. (1999). "Assignment of DLK1 to human chromosome band 14q32 by in situ hybridization". Cytogenetic and Genome Research 84 (3–4): 206–7. doi:10.1159/000015259. 
  • Jensen CH, Erb K, Westergaard LG, Kliem A, Teisner B (1999). "Fetal antigen 1, an EGF multidomain protein in the sex hormone-producing cells of the gonads and the microenvironment of germ cells". Molecular Human Reproduction 5 (10): 908–13. doi:10.1093/molehr/5.10.908. PMID 10508217. 
  • Aguan K, Carvajal JA, Thompson LP, Weiner CP (2000). "Application of a functional genomics approach to identify differentially expressed genes in human myometrium during pregnancy and labour". Molecular Human Reproduction 6 (12): 1141–5. doi:10.1093/molehr/6.12.1141. PMID 11101697. 
  • Andersen, M. (2001). "Fetal Antigen 1 in Healthy Adults and Patients with Pituitary Disease: Relation to Physiological, Pathological, and Pharmacological GH Levels". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 86 (11): 5465–70. doi:10.1210/jc.86.11.5465. 
  • Jensen CH, Meyer M, Schroder HD, Kliem A, Zimmer J, Teisner B (2001). "Neurons in the monoaminergic nuclei of the rat and human central nervous system express FA1/dlk". NeuroReport 12 (18): 3959–63. doi:10.1097/00001756-200112210-00021. PMID 11742219. 
  • Baladrón V, Ruiz-Hidalgo MJ, Bonvini E, Gubina E, Notario V, Laborda J (2002). "The EGF-like Homeotic Protein dlk Affects Cell Growth and Interacts with Growth-Modulating Molecules in the Yeast Two-Hybrid System". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 291 (2): 193–204. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6431. PMID 11846389. 
  • Panin VM, Shao L, Lei L, Moloney DJ, Irvine KD, Haltiwanger RS (2002). "Notch Ligands Are Substrates for Protein O-Fucosyltransferase-1 and Fringe". Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (33): 29945–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204445200. PMID 12036964. 
  • Doggett KL, Briggs JA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Head DR, Xie J, Hashimoto Y, Laborda J, Briggs RC (2002). "Retroviral mediated expression of the human myeloid nuclear antigen in a null cell line upregulatesDlk1 expression". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 86 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1002/jcb.10190. PMID 12112016. 
  • Van Limpt VA, Chan AJ, Van Sluis PG, Caron HN, Van Noesel CJ, Versteeg R (2003). "High delta-like 1 expression in a subset of neuroblastoma cell lines corresponds to a differentiated chromaffin cell type". International Journal of Cancer 105: 61–9. doi:10.1002/ijc.11047. PMID 12672031. 
  • Abdallah BM, Jensen CH, Gutierrez G, Leslie RG, Jensen TG, Kassem M (2004). "Regulation of Human Skeletal Stem Cells Differentiation by Dlk1/Pref-1". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19 (5): 841–52. doi:10.1359/JBMR.040118. PMID 15068508.