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Distal-less homeobox 3
Symbols DLX3 ; AI4; TDO
External IDs OMIM600525 MGI94903 HomoloGene74544 GeneCards: DLX3 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1747 13393
Ensembl ENSG00000064195 ENSMUSG00000001510
UniProt O60479 Q64205
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_005220 NM_010055
RefSeq (protein) NP_005211 NP_034185
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
49.99 – 50 Mb
Chr 11:
95.12 – 95.13 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Homeobox protein DLX-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLX3 gene.[1][2]


Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle differentiation and cycling. Specifically, colocalization of phosphorylated Smad1 / 5 / 8 complex and Dlx3 regulate role for BMP signaling to Dlx3 during hair morphogenesis in animal models.[3][4]

Many vertebrate homeo box-containing genes have been identified on the basis of their sequence similarity with Drosophila developmental genes. Members of the Dlx gene family contain a homeobox that is related to that of Distal-less (Dll), a gene expressed in the head and limbs of the developing fruit fly. The Distal-less (Dlx) family of genes comprises at least 6 different members, DLX1-DLX6. This gene is located in a tail-to-tail configuration with another member of the gene family on the long arm of chromosome 17.[2]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations in this gene have been associated with the autosomal dominant conditions trichodentoosseous syndrome (TDO) and amelogenesis imperfecta with taurodontism.[2]


  1. ^ Scherer SW, Heng HH, Robinson GW, Mahon KA, Evans JP, Tsui LC (Aug 1995). "Assignment of the human homolog of mouse Dlx3 to chromosome 17q21.3-q22 by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization". Mamm Genome 6 (4): 310–1. doi:10.1007/BF00352432. PMID 7613049. 
  2. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: DLX3 distal-less homeobox 3". 
  3. ^ Hwang J, Mehrani T, Millar SE, Morasso MI (September 2008). "Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle differentiation and cycling". Development 135 (18): 3149–59. doi:10.1242/dev.022202. PMC 2707782. PMID 18684741. 
  4. ^ Park GT, Morasso MI (January 2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transactivates Dlx3 through Smad1 and Smad4: alternative mode for Dlx3 induction in mouse keratinocytes". Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (2): 515–22. doi:10.1093/nar/30.2.515. PMC 99823. PMID 11788714. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.