DNA codon table

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The genetic code is traditionally represented as an RNA codon table because, when proteins are made in a cell by ribosomes, it is mRNA that directs protein synthesis. The mRNA sequence is determined by the sequence of genomic DNA. With the rise of computational biology and genomics, most genes are now discovered at the DNA level, so a DNA codon table is becoming increasingly useful.[1] The DNA codons in such tables occur on the sense DNA strand and are arranged in a 5' → 3' direction.

nonpolar polar basic acidic (stop codon)
Standard genetic code
1st
base
2nd base 3rd
base
T C A G
T TTT (Phe/F) Phenylalanine TCT (Ser/S) Serine TAT (Tyr/Y) Tyrosine TGT (Cys/C) Cysteine T
TTC TCC TAC TGC C
TTA (Leu/L) Leucine TCA TAA Stop (Ochre) TGA Stop (Opal) A
TTG TCG TAG Stop (Amber) TGG (Trp/W) Tryptophan     G
C CTT CCT (Pro/P) Proline CAT (His/H) Histidine CGT (Arg/R) Arginine T
CTC CCC CAC CGC C
CTA CCA CAA (Gln/Q) Glutamine CGA A
CTG CCG CAG CGG G
A ATT (Ile/I) Isoleucine ACT (Thr/T) Threonine         AAT (Asn/N) Asparagine AGT (Ser/S) Serine T
ATC ACC AAC AGC C
ATA ACA AAA (Lys/K) Lysine AGA (Arg/R) Arginine A
ATG[A] (Met/M) Methionine ACG AAG AGG G
G GTT (Val/V) Valine GCT (Ala/A) Alanine GAT (Asp/D) Aspartic acid GGT (Gly/G) Glycine T
GTC GCC GAC GGC C
GTA GCA GAA (Glu/E) Glutamic acid GGA A
GTG GCG GAG GGG G
A The codon ATG both codes for methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first ATG in an mRNA's coding region is where translation into protein begins.[2]
Inverse table (compressed using IUPAC notation)
Amino acid Codons Compressed Amino acid Codons Compressed
Ala/A GCT, GCC, GCA, GCG GCN Leu/L TTA, TTG, CTT, CTC, CTA, CTG YTR, CTN
Arg/R CGT, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, AGG CGN, MGR Lys/K AAA, AAG AAR
Asn/N AAT, AAC AAY Met/M ATG
Asp/D GAT, GAC GAY Phe/F TTT, TTC TTY
Cys/C TGT, TGC TGY Pro/P CCT, CCC, CCA, CCG CCN
Gln/Q CAA, CAG CAR Ser/S TCT, TCC, TCA, TCG, AGT, AGC TCN, AGY
Glu/E GAA, GAG GAR Thr/T ACT, ACC, ACA, ACG ACN
Gly/G GGT, GGC, GGA, GGG GGN Trp/W TGG
His/H CAT, CAC CAY Tyr/Y TAT, TAC TAY
Ile/I ATT, ATC, ATA ATH Val/V GTT, GTC, GTA, GTG GTN
START ATG STOP TAA, TGA, TAG TAR, TRA

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kimball, John (2014-05-01). "The Genetic Code". Kimball's Biology Pages. 
  2. ^ Nakamoto T (March 2009). "Evolution and the universality of the mechanism of initiation of protein synthesis". Gene 432 (1–2): 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2008.11.001. PMID 19056476.