DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A

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DNMT3A
Protein DNMT3A PDB 2QRV.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases DNMT3A, DNMT3A2, M.HsaIIIA, TBRS, DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 alpha, DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha
External IDs MGI: 1261827 HomoloGene: 7294 GeneCards: DNMT3A
Genetically Related Diseases
Crohn's disease[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE DNMT3A 218457 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001271753
NM_007872
NM_153743

RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 25.23 – 25.34 Mb Chr 12: 3.81 – 3.91 Mb
PubMed search [2] [3]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups to specific CpG structures in DNA, a process called DNA methylation. The enzyme is encoded in humans by the DNMT3A gene.[4][5]

This enzyme is responsible for de novo DNA methylation. Such function is to be distinguished from maintenance DNA methylation which ensures the fidelity of replication of inherited epigenetic patterns. DNMT3A forms part of the family of DNA methyltransferase enzymes, which consists of the protagonists DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B.[4][5]

While de novo DNA methylation modifies the information passed on by the parent to the progeny, it enables key epigenetic modifications essential for processes such as cellular differentiation and embryonic development, transcriptional regulation, heterochromatin formation, X-inactivation, imprinting and genome stability.[6]

Gene[edit]

DMT3A is a 130 kDa protein encoded by 23 exons found on chromosome 2p23 in humans.[7] There exists a 98% homology between human and murine homologues.[5]

Due to splicing, there exist two main murine RNA isoforms, Dnmt3a1 and Dnmt3a2. These isoforms exist in different cell types.[8]

Protein structure[edit]

DNMT3A consists of three major protein domains: the Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain, the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain and the catalytic methyltransferase domain. The ADD domain serves as an inhibitor of the methyltransferase domain until DNMT3A binds to the unmodified lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me0) for its de novo methylating activity.[8] This protein thus seems to have an inbuilt control mechanism targeting histones only for methylation. Finally, the methyltransferase domain is highly conserved, even among prokaryotes![9]

Function[edit]

DNMT1 is responsible for maintenance DNA methylation while DNMT3A and DNMT3B carry out both maintenance – correcting the errors of DNMT1 – and de novo DNA methylation. After DNMT1 knockout in human cancer cells, these cells were found to retain their inherited methylation pattern,[10] which suggests maintenance activity by the expressed DNMT3s. DNMT3s show equal affinity for unmethylated and hemimethylated DNA substrates[10] while DNMT1 has a 10-40 fold preference for hemimethylated DNA.[11][12] The DNMT3s can bind to both forms and hence potentially do both maintenance and de novo modifications.

De novo methylation is the main recognized activity of DNMT3A, which is essential for processes such as those mentioned in the introductory paragraphs. Genetic imprinting prevents parthenogenesis in mammals,[13] and hence forces sexual reproduction and its multiple consequences on genetics and phylogenesis. DNMT3A is essential for genetic imprinting.[14]

Animal studies[edit]

In mice, this gene has shown reduced expression in ageing animals causes cognitive long-term memory decline.[15]

In Dnmt3a-/- mice, many genes associated with HSC self-renewal increase in expression and some fail to be appropriately repressed during differentiation.[16] This suggests abrogation of differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and an increase in self-renewal cell-division instead. Indeed, it was found that differentiation was partially rescued if Dnmt3a-/- HSCs experienced an additional Ctnb1 knockdown – Ctnb1 codes for β-catenin, which participates in self-renewal cell division.[8]

Clinical relevance[edit]

This gene is frequently mutated in cancer, being one of 127 frequently mutated genes identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas project[17] DNMT3A mutations were most commonly seen in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) where they occurred in just over 25% of cases sequenced. These mutations most often occur at position R882 in the protein and this mutation may cause loss of function.[18] DNMT3A mutations are associated with poor overall survival, suggesting that they have an important common effect on the potential of AML cells to cause lethal disease.[19]

Interactions[edit]

DNMT3A has been shown to interact with:

Model organisms[edit]

Model organisms have been used in the study of DNMT3A function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Dnmt3atm1a(KOMP)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[26] Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen[27] to determine the effects of deletion.[28][29][30][31] Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Diseases that are genetically associated with DNMT3A view/edit references on wikidata". 
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ a b Okano M, Xie S, Li E (1998). "Cloning and characterization of a family of novel mammalian DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases". Nat. Genet. 19 (3): 219–20. doi:10.1038/890. PMID 9662389. 
  5. ^ a b c Xie S, Wang Z, Okano M, Nogami M, Li Y, He WW, Okumura K, Li E (1999). "Cloning, expression and chromosome locations of the human DNMT3 gene family". Gene. 236 (1): 87–95. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(99)00252-8. PMID 10433969. 
  6. ^ Jia, Yuanhui; Li, Pishun; Fang, Lan; Zhu, Haijun; Xu, Liangliang; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Junying; Li, Fei; Feng, Yan (2016-04-12). "Negative regulation of DNMT3A de novo DNA methylation by frequently overexpressed UHRF family proteins as a mechanism for widespread DNA hypomethylation in cancer". Cell Discovery. 2. doi:10.1038/celldisc.2016.7. 
  7. ^ Robertson KD, Uzvolgyi E, Liang G, Talmadge C, Sumegi J, Gonzales FA, Jones PA (June 1999). "The human DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a and 3b: coordinate mRNA expression in normal tissues and overexpression in tumors". Nucleic Acids Research. 27 (11): 2291–8. doi:10.1093/nar/27.11.2291. PMC 148793Freely accessible. PMID 10325416. 
  8. ^ a b c Yang L, Rau R, Goodell MA (2015). "DNMT3A in haematological malignancies". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 15 (3): 152–65. doi:10.1038/nrc3895. PMID 25693834. 
  9. ^ Xu F, Mao C, Ding Y, Rui C, Wu L, Shi A, Zhang H, Zhang L, Xu Z (2010-01-01). "Molecular and enzymatic profiles of mammalian DNA methyltransferases: structures and targets for drugs". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 17 (33): 4052–71. PMC 3003592Freely accessible. PMID 20939822. 
  10. ^ a b Rhee I, Jair KW, Yen RW, Lengauer C, Herman JG, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Baylin SB, Schuebel KE (April 2000). "CpG methylation is maintained in human cancer cells lacking DNMT1". Nature. 404 (6781): 1003–7. doi:10.1038/35010000. PMID 10801130. 
  11. ^ Pradhan S, Bacolla A, Wells RD, Roberts RJ (November 1999). "Recombinant human DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase. I. Expression, purification, and comparison of de novo and maintenance methylation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (46): 33002–10. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.46.33002. PMID 10551868. 
  12. ^ Pradhan S, Talbot D, Sha M, Benner J, Hornstra L, Li E, Jaenisch R, Roberts RJ (November 1997). "Baculovirus-mediated expression and characterization of the full-length murine DNA methyltransferase". Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (22): 4666–73. doi:10.1093/nar/25.22.4666. PMC 147102Freely accessible. PMID 9358180. 
  13. ^ Reik W, Walter J (January 2001). "Genomic imprinting: parental influence on the genome". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 2 (1): 21–32. doi:10.1038/35047554. PMID 11253064. 
  14. ^ Kaneda M, Okano M, Hata K, Sado T, Tsujimoto N, Li E, Sasaki H (June 2004). "Essential role for de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a in paternal and maternal imprinting". Nature. 429 (6994): 900–3. doi:10.1038/nature02633. PMID 15215868. 
  15. ^ Oliveira AM, Hemstedt TJ, Bading H (August 2012). "Rescue of aging-associated decline in Dnmt3a2 expression restores cognitive abilities". Nature Neuroscience. 15 (8): 1111–3. doi:10.1038/nn.3151. PMID 22751036. 
  16. ^ Challen GA, Sun D, Jeong M, Luo M, Jelinek J, Berg JS, Bock C, Vasanthakumar A, Gu H, Xi Y, Liang S, Lu Y, Darlington GJ, Meissner A, Issa JP, Godley LA, Li W, Goodell MA (January 2012). "Dnmt3a is essential for hematopoietic stem cell differentiation". Nature Genetics. 44 (1): 23–31. doi:10.1038/ng.1009. PMC 3637952Freely accessible. PMID 22138693. 
  17. ^ Kandoth C, McLellan MD, Vandin F, Ye K, Niu B, Lu C, et al. (October 2013). "Mutational landscape and significance across 12 major cancer types". Nature. 502 (7471): 333–9. doi:10.1038/nature12634. PMID 24132290. 
  18. ^ Shih AH, Abdel-Wahab O, Patel JP, Levine RL (September 2012). "The role of mutations in epigenetic regulators in myeloid malignancies". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 12 (9): 599–612. doi:10.1038/nrc3343. PMID 22898539. 
  19. ^ Ley TJ, Ding L, Walter MJ, McLellan MD, Lamprecht T, Larson DE, et al. (December 2010). "DNMT3A mutations in acute myeloid leukemia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (25): 2424–33. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1005143. PMC 3201818Freely accessible. PMID 21067377. 
  20. ^ a b Kim GD, Ni J, Kelesoglu N, Roberts RJ, Pradhan S (August 2002). "Co-operation and communication between the human maintenance and de novo DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases". The EMBO Journal. 21 (15): 4183–95. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf401. PMC 126147Freely accessible. PMID 12145218. 
  21. ^ a b c d Ling Y, Sankpal UT, Robertson AK, McNally JG, Karpova T, Robertson KD (2004). "Modification of de novo DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) by SUMO-1 modulates its interaction with histone deacetylases (HDACs) and its capacity to repress transcription". Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (2): 598–610. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh195. PMC 373322Freely accessible. PMID 14752048. 
  22. ^ Lehnertz B, Ueda Y, Derijck AA, Braunschweig U, Perez-Burgos L, Kubicek S, Chen T, Li E, Jenuwein T, Peters AH (July 2003). "Suv39h-mediated histone H3 lysine 9 methylation directs DNA methylation to major satellite repeats at pericentric heterochromatin". Current Biology. 13 (14): 1192–200. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(03)00432-9. PMID 12867029. 
  23. ^ a b Fuks F, Burgers WA, Godin N, Kasai M, Kouzarides T (May 2001). "Dnmt3a binds deacetylases and is recruited by a sequence-specific repressor to silence transcription". The EMBO Journal. 20 (10): 2536–44. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.10.2536. PMC 125250Freely accessible. PMID 11350943. 
  24. ^ Brenner C, Deplus R, Didelot C, Loriot A, Viré E, De Smet C, Gutierrez A, Danovi D, Bernard D, Boon T, Pelicci PG, Amati B, Kouzarides T, de Launoit Y, Di Croce L, Fuks F (January 2005). "Myc represses transcription through recruitment of DNA methyltransferase corepressor". The EMBO Journal. 24 (2): 336–46. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600509. PMC 545804Freely accessible. PMID 15616584. 
  25. ^ Fuks F, Hurd PJ, Deplus R, Kouzarides T (May 2003). "The DNA methyltransferases associate with HP1 and the SUV39H1 histone methyltransferase". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (9): 2305–12. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg332. PMC 154218Freely accessible. PMID 12711675. 
  26. ^ Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica. 88: 925–7. doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x. 
  27. ^ a b "International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium". 
  28. ^ Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF, Bradley A (June 2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337–42. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410Freely accessible. PMID 21677750. 
  29. ^ Dolgin E (June 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. 
  30. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. 
  31. ^ White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, et al. (July 2013). "Genome-wide generation and systematic phenotyping of knockout mice reveals new roles for many genes". Cell. 154 (2): 452–64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207Freely accessible. PMID 23870131. 
  32. ^ a b "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". 

Further reading[edit]