DRACO (Double-stranded RNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizer) is a group of experimental antiviral drugs under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In cell culture, DRACO is reported to have broad-spectrum efficacy against many infectious viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenavirus, Guama bunyavirus, H1N1 influenza and rhinovirus, and has been additionally found effective against influenza in vivo in weanling mice. It is reported to induce rapid apoptosis selectively in virus-infected mammalian cells, while leaving uninfected cells unharmed.
In 2015, an independent research group reported to have successfully observed antiviral activity against the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) using DRACOs in vitro.
As of December 2015[update], research related to DRACOs had ground to a halt, due to lack of funding, caused by competition from other broad-spectrum antivirals and the narrowness of the existing published research on DRACOs.
DRACO is selective for virus-infected cells. Differentiation between infected and healthy cells is made primarily via the length and type of RNA transcription helices present within the cell. Most viruses produce long dsRNA helices during transcription and replication. In contrast, uninfected mammalian cells generally produce dsRNA helices of fewer than 24 base pairs during transcription. Cell death is effected via one of the last steps in the apoptosis pathway in which complexes containing intracellular apoptosis signaling molecules simultaneously bind multiple procaspases. The procaspases transactivate via cleavage, activate additional caspases in the cascade, and cleave a variety of cellular proteins, thereby killing the cell.
- Rider TH, Zook CE, Boettcher TL, Wick ST, Pancoast JS, Zusman BD (2011). "Broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics". PLoS ONE. 6 (7): e22572. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022572. PMC . PMID 21818340.
- "Dr. Todd Rider from MIT Announces IndieGoGo Campaign to Raise Funds to Test and Optimize DRACOs Against Clinically Relevant Viruses". PRWeb. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- Guo C, Chen L, Mo D, Chen Y, Liu X (March 15, 2015). "DRACO inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in vitro". Arch. Virol. State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, North Third Road, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, People's Republic of China. PubMed. 160: 1239–47. doi:10.1007/s00705-015-2392-4. PMID 25772577.
- "This man's potentially huge medical breakthrough can't get funding, so he's trying something desperate". Tech Insider. December 15, 2015.
- Hegarty, Stephanie (20 December 2011). "Is a cure for the common cold on the way?". BBC News Online.
- "MIT Lincoln Laboratory researchers develop a technique to cure a broad range of viruses". MIT Lincoln Laboratory. August 2011.
- "Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics" (PDF). National Center for Biotechnology Information. July 2011.
- Rider, Todd (October 2015). "DRACOs May Be Effective Against All Viruses". Indiegogo campaign. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Rider, Todd (October 2016). "Dr Todd Rider's official website in regards to DRACO". Rider Institute. Retrieved October 9, 2016.