From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
FoundedLos Angeles, California (1926)
FounderEthel Clark
Headquarters20 Ryan Ranch Road
Monterey, California, United States
Area served
ParentData Recognition Corporation (DRC)

DRC/CTB (CTB) was a publisher of educational assessment for the early learner, K–12, and adult basic education markets.[1] DRC/CTB was a division of Data Recognition Corporation (DRC) until being fully merged into DRC's Educational Services division. From 1965 to 2015, the company was known as CTB/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill companies, and prior to 1965 California Testing Bureau was an independent company.

CTB has published many assessments including California Achievement Tests (CAT), Tests of Basic Experiences (TOBE), and TerraNova.[2]


CTB was established in 1926 in Los Angeles by Ethel Clark.[3] Clark's husband Willis had developed the Los Angeles Diagnostic Tests in the Fundamentals of Arithmetic, which she bought the rights to sell. She sent out 25 cent postcards advertising the availability of the test to various districts around the country.[4] One year later, she heard from her first customer: the Kansas City school district.[5] In 1960, the company relocated to Monterey, California, where the company headquarters was located until merged into DRC.[6][7] In 1965, CTB was acquired by McGraw-Hill Education and became CTB/McGraw-Hill.[2]

On June 30, 2015 McGraw-Hill Education announced that Data Recognition Corporation (DRC) had agreed to acquire "key assets" of the CTB/McGraw-Hill assessment business.[8]


CTB serves more than 18 million students in all 50 states and 49 countries.[9] CTB's current president is Ellen Haley.[10] In 2002, CTB reportedly had a 40 percent share of the test design market, ranking second of the four major companies in the industry.[11] In 2011 CTB acquired Bookette, a privately held software company. In June 2011, CTB celebrated its 85th anniversary.[12]



  • TerraNova: TerraNova is an assessment battery that was introduced in 1996.[13] The first TerraNova assessment released in 1996 was a result of the updates of the California Achievement Tests and the California Test of Basic Skills. In 2006 CTB introduced TerraNova, Third Edition. TerraNova 3 was the first norm-referenced test (NRT).[14]
  • Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE): Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE) is an adult basic education assessment.[15] TABE was introduced in 1967.[16] In 2007, TABE–Complete Language Assessment System–English™(TABE CLAS–E™) was introduced.[17]
  • Test Assessing Secondary Completion (TASC): Test Assessing Secondary Completion (TASC) is a state-of-the-art affordable new national high school equivalency exam.[18] TASC was introduced in 2013.[19] It assesses five subject areas including Reading, Writing, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. It measures examinees' levels of achievement relative to that of graduating high school seniors, and career and college readiness, as outlined by the Common Core State Standards.[20]
  • LAS Links: LAS Links is a language proficiency assessment introduced in 1987.[21]
  • First Performances: First Performances is an assessment for early learners. It includes tests in concepts of letter and number.

Out of print[edit]

  • California Achievement Tests: The California Achievement Tests (CAT) are among the most widely used tests of basic academic skills for children from kindergarten through grade 12. The most recent edition of the CAT (the sixth) is also called TerraNova, Third Edition (or alternately, TerraNova CAT ). The California Achievement Tests were introduced in 1934 as the Progressive Achievement Test.[22] The test was renamed as the California Achievement Test in 1950 and was designed to individually diagnose student performance.[23]
  • Progressive Achievement Test: Introduced in 1933, the Progressive Achievement Test was the predecessor to the California Achievement Tests, and now TerraNova. It was authored by Drs. Ernest T. Tiegs and Willis W. Clark. The Progressive Achievement Test was considered to be one of the most reliable assessments of its time.[24]
  • The California Test of Mental Maturity: Introduced in 1936, the California Test of Mental Maturity provided insight into mental traits of individual students. Authored by Drs. Elizabeth T. Sullivan, Willis W. Clark, and Ernest T. Tiegs, scores from the California Test of Mental Maturity are still valid as a qualifier for Mensa International® membership (qualifying test score is 132) and Intertel (qualifying minimum score of 137).[25][26] Also, the Triple Nine Society accepts CTMM test results (qualifying score of 149).[27]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 May 2006). "As Test-Taking Grows, Test-Makers Grow Rarer". New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  2. ^ a b "CTB History". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  3. ^ CTB/McGraw-Hill "About Us" Archived 2011-02-10 at the Wayback Machine, accessed May 31, 2011
  4. ^ Wallace, Lane. "25-cent gamble started CTB". Monterey Herald. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  5. ^ "CTB/McGraw-Hill Celebrates 85 Years of Innovation and Excellence in Educational Testing". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 22 June 2011.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "CTB". Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  7. ^ "Corporate History". About Us- Corporate History. McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  8. ^ "Data Recognition Corporation (DRC) Announces Agreement To Acquire Key Assets of the CTB Assessment Business of McGraw-Hill Education".
  9. ^ "ISTE 2011 Exhibitor Profiles". Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  10. ^ "CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC". CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC. Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on December 29, 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  11. ^ "The Testing Industry's Big Four". PBS. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  12. ^ "CTB/McGraw Hill still a testing leader after 85 years". Monterey County Herald. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  13. ^ "CTB History". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  14. ^ "CTB History". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  15. ^ "Adult Education Testing and Assessment Products". Archived from the original on 2011-08-15. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
  16. ^ "CTB History". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  17. ^ "TABE CLAS-E". CTB. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  18. ^ "new national high school equivalency exam".
  19. ^ "CTB News". April 2013. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2015-08-13.
  20. ^ "TASC Test". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-08-13.
  21. ^ "Our Heritage Timeline". Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  22. ^ Swafford, Karla Lairsey. "The Use of Standardized Test Scores: A Historical Perspective" (PDF). ugakr.libs.uga.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  23. ^ Walsh, Mark. "Education Week: Quiz Biz". Edweek.org. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
  24. ^ "Our Heritage Timeline". Our Heritage. CTB.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  25. ^ "Qualifying test scores — American Mensa, Ltd". Us.mensa.org. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
  26. ^ "Intertel - Join us". www.intertel-iq.org. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  27. ^ "Triple Nine Society — Admission". Triplenine.org. 1999-12-31. Archived from the original on 2014-04-15. Retrieved 2013-10-30.