Defence Research and Development Organisation

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Defence Research and Development Organisation of India
Defence Research and Development Organisation Logo.png
Agency overview
Formed1958; 64 years ago (1958)
HeadquartersDRDO Bhavan, New Delhi
Motto"Strength's Origin is in Science"[1]
Employees30,000 (5,000 scientists)[2]
Annual budgetIncrease 11,375.50 crore (US$1.5 billion)(2021–22)[3]
Minister responsible
Agency executive
Parent agencyMinistry of Defence
Websitedrdo.gov.in

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) (IAST: Raksā Anūsandhān Evam Vikās Sangaṭhan) is the premier agency under the Department of Defence Research and Development in Ministry of Defence of the Government of India, charged with the military's research and development, headquartered in Delhi, India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production of the Indian Ordnance Factories with the Defence Science Organisation. Subsequently, Defence Research & Development Service (DRDS) was constituted in 1979 as a service of Group 'A' Officers / Scientists directly under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence.

With a network of 52 laboratories, which are engaged in developing defence technologies, covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, land combat engineering, life sciences, materials, missiles, and naval systems, DRDO is India's largest and most diverse research organisation. The organisation includes around 5,000 scientists belonging to the DRDS and about 25,000 other subordinate scientific, technical and supporting personnel.[5][6]

History[edit]

The DRDO was established in 1958 by amalgamating the Defence Science Organisation and some of the technical development establishments. A separate Department of Defence Research and Development was formed in 1980 which later on administered DRDO and its almost 30 laboratories/establishments (there were almost 52 labs before merging). Most of the time the Defence Research Development Organisation was treated as if it was a vendor and the Army Headquarters or the Air Headquarters were the customers. Because the Army and the Air Force themselves did not have any design or construction responsibility, they tended to treat the designer or Indian industry at par with their corresponding designer in the world market. If they could get a MiG-21 from the world market, they wanted a MiG-21 from DRDO.[7]

DRDO started its first major project in surface-to-air missiles (SAM) known as Project Indigo in the 1960s. Indigo was discontinued in later years without achieving full success. Project Indigo led to Project Devil, along with Project Valiant, to develop short-range SAM and ICBM in the 1970s. Project Devil itself led to the later development of the Prithvi missile under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) in the 1980s. IGMDP was an Indian Ministry of Defence programme between the early 1980s and 2007 for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles, including the Agni missile, Prithvi ballistic missile, Akash missile, Trishul missile and Nag Missile. In 2010, defence minister A. K. Antony ordered the restructuring of the DRDO to give 'a major boost to defence research in the country and to ensure effective participation of the private sector in defence technology'. The key measures to make DRDO effective in its functioning include the establishment of a Defence Technology Commission with the defence minister as its chairman.[8][9] The programmes which were largely managed by DRDO have seen considerable success with many of the systems seeing rapid deployment as well as yielding significant technological benefits. Since its establishment, DRDO has created other major systems and critical technologies such as aircraft avionics, UAVs, small arms, artillery systems, EW Systems, tanks and armoured vehicles, sonar systems, command and control systems and missile systems.

Organisation[edit]

Cluster Laboratories/Establishments[edit]

Source[10]
Laboratory Name Location Area of Research
Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (ANURAG) Hyderabad, Telangana Computational System
Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) Missiles & Strategic Systems
Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) Agra, Uttar Pradesh Parachutes & Aerial Systems
Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) Bengaluru, Karnataka Aeronautics
Aeronautical Test Range (ATR) Chitradurga, Karnataka Unmanned & Manned Aircraft
Armaments Research & Development Establishment (ARDE) Pune, Maharashtra Armaments
Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS) Bengaluru, Karnataka Air-Borne Systems
Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) Artificial Intelligence & Robotics
Centre for Fire, Explosives & Environment Safety (CFEES) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Explosives
Centre for High Energy Systems and Sciences (CHESS) Hyderabad, Telangana High Energy Weapons
Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE) Chennai, Tamil Nadu Combat Vehicles
Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) Bengaluru, Karnataka Avionics
Defence Bio-engineering & Electro-medical Laboratory (DEBEL) Bio-engineering
Defence Electronics Applications Laboratory (DEAL) Dehradun, Uttarakhand Electronics & Communication Systems
Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) Mysuru, Karnataka Food Research
Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research (DIBER) Haldwani, Uttarakhand Bio-Energy
Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) Leh, Ladakh High Altitude Agro-animal Research
Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Physiological and Biomedical Research
Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) Psychological Research
Defence Laboratory (DL) Jodhpur, Rajasthan Camouflaging and Isotopes
Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL) Hyderabad, Telangana Electronic Warfare
Defence Materials & Stores Research & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh Textiles, Polymers & Composites
Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Hyderabad, Telangana Metallurgy
Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh Chemical & Biological Warfare
Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) Hyderabad, Telangana Missile & Strategic Systems
Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) Tezpur, Assam Health & Hygiene
Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Terrain Research
Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) Bengaluru, Karnataka Gas Turbine
High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) Pune, Maharashtra High Energy Materials, Explosive
Institute of Nuclear Medicines & Allied Sciences (INMAS) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Nuclear Medicine
Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) Dehradun, Uttarakhand Electronics & Optical Systems
Integrated Test Range (ITR) Balasore, Odisha Missile & Strategic Systems
Joint Cipher Bureau (JCB) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Signals Intelligence and Cryptanalysis
Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC) Laser Technology
Electronics & Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) Bengaluru, Karnataka Radars
Microwave Tube Research & Development Centre (MTRDC) Microwave Devices
Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) Ambarnath, Maharashtra Naval Materials
Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) Kochi, Kerala Sonar Systems
Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh Underwater Weapons
Programme Air Defence (PGAD) Hyderabad, Telangana Missiles & Strategic Systems
Proof and Experimental Establishment (PXE) Balasore, Odisha Armament Testing
Research Centre Imarat (RCI) Hyderabad, Telangana Missile & Strategic Systems
Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) (R&DE(E)) Pune, Maharashtra Engineering Systems & Weapon Platforms
Scientific Analysis Group (SAG) Kolkata, West Bengal Communications Security
Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) Chandigarh, Union Territory of Chandigarh Snow and Avalanche
Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Solid State Materials, Devices and Sub-systems
Society for Integrated Circuit Technology and Applied Research (SITAR) Bengaluru, Karnataka & Hyderabad, Telangana Semiconductor, Microelectromechanical Systems
Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) Chandigarh, Union Territory of Chandigarh Ballistics
Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (VRDE) Ahmednagar, Maharashtra Wheeled Vehicles

As part of rationalization plan, Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) was merged with Snow and Avalanche Studies Establishment (SASE) which is renamed into Defence Geological Research Establishment (DGRE). As of 2020, Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group (ANURAG) and Laser Science and Technology Center (LASTEC) are no longer functional as independent entities. The staffs are relocated at various DRDO labs in Hyderabad.[11] DRDO is planning to build a new research lab in Lucknow.[12]

Source[13]
Laboratory Name Location Area of Research
DRDO Young Scientist Laboratories Bengaluru, Karnataka Artificial Intelligence
Kolkata, West Bengal Asymmetric Technologies
Chennai, Tamil Nadu Cognitive Technologies
Mumbai, Maharashtra Quantum Technology
Hyderabad, Telangana Smart Materials

HR Institutions[edit]

Source[10]
Institution Name Location Area
Centre for Personnel Talent Management (CEPTAM) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Talent Management
Institute of Technology Management (ITM) Mussoorie, Uttarakhand Technology Management
Recruitment and Assessment Centre (RAC) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Human Resource

Other Institutions[edit]

Source[10]
Institution Name Location Area of Research
Advanced Centre for Energetic Materials (ACEM) Nashik, Maharashtra High Energy Materials
Centre for Advanced Systems (CAS) Hyderabad, Telangana Advanced Systems
Centre for Military Air-worthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) Bengaluru, Karnataka Airworthiness & Certification
Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Information System and Documentation
DRDO Integration Centre (DIC) Panagarh, West Bengal Systems Integration
Institute for Systems Studies & Analyses (ISSA) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Systems Analysis
Mobile Systems Complex (MSC) Pune, Maharashtra Missile Systems
SF Complex (SFC) Jagdalpur, Chattisgarh Propellant

Centres of Excellence[edit]

Source[10]
Center Name Location Area of Research
DRDO Bharathiar University (DRDO-BU), Centre of Excellence Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu Applied Psychology, Toxicology, Biological Sensors, Fuel Cell
Advanced Centre for Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM) Hyderabad, Telangana Photonics, Material Science, High Energy Materials
Centre of Excellence in Cryptology Kolkata, West Bengal Cryptology
Centre of Millimeter Wave Semiconductor Devices and Systems Kolkata, West Bengal Millimeter Wave and Semiconductor
Advanced Centre for Excellence on Composite Materials (ACECM) Bengaluru, Karnataka Composite Materials
Research and Innovation Centre (RIC) Chennai, Tamil Nadu Sensors and Microelectromechanical Systems
Centre of Propulsion Technology (CoPT) Mumbai, Maharashtra Propulsion Technology
Jagdish Chandra Bose Centre for Advanced Technology (JCBCAT) Kolkata, West Bengal Directed Energy Technologies, Robotics, Cognitive Technologies
Joint Advanced Technology Centre (JATC) Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi Ballistics, Electromagnetism, Human–Computer Interaction, Electronic Textiles, Photonics, Plasmonics, Quantum Technology
Centre of Excellence in Systems Design and Engineering Mumbai, Maharashtra Systems Design
North East Science and Technology Centre (NESTC) Aizawl, Mizoram Microelectromechanical Systems, Sensors, Degenerative Disease, Toxicology
Kalam Centre for Science and Technology (KCST) Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir Computational System Security, Sensors

Projects[edit]

Industry linkages, technology transfer and indigenisation[edit]

India domestically produces only 45% to 50% of defence products it uses, and the rest are imported.[14] To become technology research and production leader, reduce reliance on the imports and increase self-reliance, DRDO Chief called for more collaboration with the industry, private sector, research and education institutes including IITs and NITs.[14] India's military–industrial complex has had little success and only recently private sector was allowed to enter the defence production.[15] To expedite the development cycle of new technologies and to better fit the end user requirements, army has asked DRDO to take more army staff on deputation to be part of DRDO technology development project teams.[16]

Indian forces are using numerous indigenous technologies produced by the DRDO, including Varunastra, Maareech, Ushus, TAL by navy; Electronic Warfare Technologies, radars, composite materials for LCA, AEW&C, Astra, LCA Tejas by airforce; and ASAT, BrahMos, ASTRA, Nag missile, SAAW, Arjun MBT Mk 1A, 46-metre Modular Bridge, MPR, LLTR Ashwin by the army.[17] In September 2019, DRDO formulated the "DRDO Policy and Procedures for Transfer of Technology" and released information on "DRDO-Industry Partnership: Synergy and Growth and DRDO Products with Potential for Export".[17]

During the Vibrant Goa Global Expo and Summit 2019 in October, DRDO signed technology transfer contracts with 16 Indian companies, including 3 startups, to produce products for the use by Indian Armed Forces.[18] This included high shelf life, high nutrition, ready-to-eat on-the-go food products to be consumed in the difficult terrain and bad weather.[18] DRDO and ISRO have agreed to collaborate in India's crewed orbital spacecraft project called Gaganyaan during which DRDOs various laboratories will tailor their defence capabilities to suit the needs of ISRO's human space mission with critical human-centric systems and technologies like space grade food, crew healthcare, radiation measurement and protection, parachutes for the safe recovery of the crew module and fire suppression system etc.[19] Kalyani Group is developing the DRDO Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS).[19]

DRDO with Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) under Advance Assessment Technology and Commercialisation Programme is helping Lakes and Waterways Development Authority (LAWDA) to keep Dal Lake clean by providing low cost Biodigesters for the treatment of human excreta, animal waste disposal, grey water and kitchen waste release that works fine in ambient as well as sub zero temperature which are also supplied to Indian Railways.[20][21]

Defence Research and Development Establishment (DRDE) which works in the field of chemical weapon, biological agent detection and research is helping Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in augmenting diagnostic capability for COVID–19 outbreak. It has created special hand sanitiser formulation and diagnostic kits following WHO standards and guidelines that are supplied in large numbers to civilian and defence officials.[22][23] Medical staff all over India dealing with Coronavirus contamination are using protective waterproof clothing with special sealant used in submarine applications developed by Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) for CBRN defense that is made up of high strength polyester coated with breathable polymer.[24] The clothing underwent successful trials at the South India Textile Research Association and exceeds the criteria of currently available suits in the market.[25] The suit is washable, passed all critical CBRN and ASTM standards and is now manufactured by two private players, Venus Industries from Mumbai and IMTEC from Kolkata.[26] Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory (DEBEL) developed causality evacuation bag for COVID-19 infected patients that can withstand Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) environments and is protected against blood and viral penetration. The bag is made up of durable water repellent nonwoven fabric. It is rigid cylindrical in shape with air and water proof zippers and ventilators. Already ordered 500 in numbers, DRDO will now transfer the technology to private sector for manufacturing.[27]

Under Society for Biomedical Technology (SBMT) programme, DEBEL has developed five-layer nanomesh based N99 masks and is collaborating with startup company Scanray Tech for the production of ventilators using current available technologies with Indian made parts due to unavailability of imports. It is also working on a new multiplexed ventilator technology that will be able to support several infected individuals on a single ventilator. The prototype development stage is complete and the initial model is now undergoing various improvements suggested by a team of medical researchers and doctors.[28] The technology will finally be transferred to Tata Motors, Mahindra and Mahindra, Hyundai Motor India, Honda Cars India and Maruti Suzuki for immediate mass production.[29][30] DRDO signed agreement with Indian Telephone Industries Limited for tech transfer on low cost multiplexed ventilator technology with 80% to 90% of components are now make in India.[31]

DRDO as of 11 April 2020 transferred technologies to 30 major companies to manufacture various non-medicine products against the COVID-19 pandemic which includes ventilator, sanitiser, personal protective equipment, face shield and isolation shelter. The technology for the newly developed multiplexed ventilator came from on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) developed for HAL Tejas. Private sector players like Raksha Polycoats and Accurate Savan Defence are now producing protective clothing, isolation shelters based on DRDO tech developed for high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) bags, submarine escape suit and satellite recovery systems. Hyderabad based jewellary making startup iMake with Modern Manufacturers and Kirat Mechanical Engineering from Chandigarh, Wipro 3D from Bengaluru and Global Healthcare from Delhi are 3D printing visor-based face shields which is an offshoot of the tech developed for high-altitude military parachuting. Setco from Mumbai is producing sealants developed for submarines of Indian Navy at DRDO labs for personal protection equipments.[32]

Research Centre Imarat (RCI) and Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) developed product called Aerosol Containment Box for enclosure of intubation procedure made with Poly(methyl methacrylate). It is cubical in shape designed for both adults and minors that covers the COVID-19 infected patients during medical examination and treatment from head to chest to stop the transmission of droplets containing the virus to others. Employees' State Insurance Corporation Medical College, Hyderabad helped RCI in prototype development while Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research helped in testing, validation and acceptance of product for medical use. The technology is now transferred to private industries located in Chandigardh and Hyderabad for mass manufacturing.[33] RCI at DRDO Missile Complex, Hyderabad is now supplying technology of brushless DC motors (BLDC) used for missile actuators and high response solenoid valves used in missile control for ventilator pumps that validated the prototype testing stages.[34]

Centre for Fire, Explosive and Environment Safety (CFEES) developed two sanitising equipments of 50 litres tank capacity consists of portable backpack type that covers an area of 300 metres while another trolley mounted for large area sanitisation of up to 3000 metres by spraying 1% hypochlorite solution.[35]

Vehicle Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) developed portable disinfection chamber and special face protection mask for health professionals combating COVID-19 outbreak in India. The personnel decontamination system is equipped with sanitiser and soap dispenser. The full-body decontamination starts using for pedal with an electrically operated pump creating disinfectant mist of 700-litre of hypo sodium chloride. The system takes 25 seconds for full decontamination with automatic shut-off procedure and can decontaminate 650 personnels until next refill. The face mask developed for COVID-19 patients uses the A4 size Over-Head Projection (OHP) film for protection and light weight materials for long duration comfortable use.[36] VRDE developed full-body decontamination chamber was designed and validated within 4 days with All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi became the first premier institution to use it. The mass manufacturing of the portable decontamination chamber is now done by Dass Hitachi Limited.[37]

Development cum Production Partner programme[edit]

As part of Make In India and Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative, DRDO under Development cum Production Partner programme (DCPP) allowed handholding of domestic private sector industries to improve their development and production cycle of complex defence systems.

VL-SRSAM (Vertical Launch - Short Range Surface to Air Missile) and Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS) became some of the successful projects of this programme.[38]

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited on 17 December 2021, secured order for manufacturing, assembly, integration, testing and supply of DRDO Abhyas from Aeronautical Development Establishment. The order will be completed under Development-cum-Production Partner (DcPP) with a private sector industry.[39]

On 16 December 2021, Ashok Leyland signed partnership agreement with Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) to develop 600 hp engine for Future Combat Vehicle Programme.[40] Instruments Research and Development Establishment (IRDE) on 27 December 2021 transferred technologies for developing border surveillance system to Indian private sector company Paras Defence and Space. The system consists of radar, electro-optical sensors mounted on pan tilt platform.[41] On 28 December 2021, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS) transferred technology to manufacture extreme cold weather clothing system to RHD Business Services, SBNX Innovation, Shiva Texyarn Limited, Kusumgar Corporates and Ginni Filaments Limited.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About DRDO". gistconvention.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "BUDGET 2021-22". Press Information Bureau. Government of India. 1 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  4. ^ "Main focus to work towards fulfilling the mission mandated for DRDO: G. Satheesh Reddy". Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
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  6. ^ "DRDO Scientist Job – DRDO Scientist B recruitment- Scientist recruitment DRDO". Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
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  12. ^ Srivastava, Pranchal (3 April 2021). "DRDO research centre to come up in Lucknow, says Rajnath Singh". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
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  15. ^ Why unlocking defence land bank to meet military's needs isn't a bad idea Archived 20 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Economic Times, 4 November 2019.
  16. ^ NEWS Army wants DRDO to take in more of its personnel on deputation, give them more access Archived 5 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine, liistudio.com, 18 October 2019.
  17. ^ a b Rajnath Singh Pushes For Indigenisation Of Defence Equipment Archived 4 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine, NDTV, 16 September.
  18. ^ a b DRDO signs pacts on Transfer of Technology with 16 companies, The Economic Times, 18 October 2019.
  19. ^ a b ISRO, DRDO sign MoUs for Gaganyaan mission, The Economic Times, 17 September.
  20. ^ Service, Tribune News. "Biodigesters to help treat sewage from houseboats". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
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  26. ^ "DRDO suit ideal for COVID-19 warriors too". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 28 March 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 29 March 2020.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
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  28. ^ Pioneer, The. "DRDO developing ventilator prototype". The Pioneer. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
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  32. ^ Ramesh, M. "30 companies to manufacture 'counter Covid-19 products' with DRDO technology". @businessline. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  33. ^ "DRDO does it again! Develops Aerosol Barrier for Safety of Medical Professionals". The Financial Express. 10 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
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  42. ^ Dutta, Amrita Nayak (31 December 2021). "DRDO Giving Extreme Cold Clothing Technology to 5 Indian Firms Latest in 1,400 Such Tech-transfer Pacts". News18. PTI. Retrieved 29 December 2021.

External links[edit]