DR Class 130 family
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DR 242 in Stralsund (June 1993)
The DR 130 family of locomotives comprises the DR Class 130 (DBAG Class 230), DR Class 131 (DBAG Class 231), DR Class 132 (DBAG Class 232 as well as Classes 233, 234 and 241 produced through modifications) and DR Class 142 (DBAG Class 242).
They were produced in the Soviet Union in Luhansk, Ukraine from the 1970s onwards, and were imported into the GDR. After the reunification of Germany the Deutsche Bahn (DBAG) inherited them and continue to make use of them mainly as heavy freight locomotives.
Nicknamed Ludmilla, over 700 units were produced between 1970 and 1982. Two of these machines are classed as works vehicles with the designation Class 754.
- 1 History
- 2 Design
- 3 Classes
- 4 Usage
- 5 Variants
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
During the 1960s the East German government decided to focus on diesel traction. Due to RGW guidelines the GDR had to stop their production of diesel-hydraulic locomotives. Instead GDR imported heavy-duty engines from the USSR, starting with the a version of the M62 known as the V200 (later Class 120; Class 220 after reunification) for freight trains.
Lacking electric train supply and with a top speed of 100 km/h (62 mph) the Class 120s were unsuitable for passenger work; to meet these demands the Luhansk locomotive works introduced the DR Class 130 in 1970 capable of a top speed of 140 km/h (87 mph). Unfortunately the soviet industry could not provide an electric heating feature, therefore the engines were restricted to freight trains for which their gearing was too high. Subsequently the 'DR Class 131 with a reduced top speed of 100 km/h (62 mph) (and thus a higher tractive force) was delivered for freight services.
When in 1972 an electric heating system was available, two prototypes were constructed. Due to poor track conditions in GDR the top speed was limited to 120 km/h (75 mph), and so the DR Class 132s top speed was reduced to that. This class became the backbone of GDR diesel traction. Later six 2,940 kW (3,940 hp) DR Class 142 units were produced in 1977, but due to the planned electrification of many major lines such powerful engines were not necessary any more.
After reunification Classes were renumbered according to West German practice, thus as mainline diesels the prefix "2" was necessary: the Class 130 was renumbered to DBAG Class 230 and Class 131 to DBAG Class 231; both were soon pulled out of service. The renumbered DBAG Class 232 are still in service and have taken over many freight services in Western Germany.
Some Class 132s underwent reconstruction under DBAG ownership, forming the classes 234 (top speed 140 km/h (87 mph), class 233 (new 12-cylinder engine) and 241 (new engines with 2,940 kW (3,940 hp).
The locomotives are constructed on a steel frame with attached carbody; units with electric heating are 200 mm (7.87 in) longer due to the extra space requirements.
The two 3-axle bogies pivot on a central pin, with primary suspension being of the coil spring type with additional dampers. The power transmission is electric. In the original Class 130 a 16-cylinder turbo-charged diesel engine created electric energy for the nose-suspended DC traction motors. (Some rebuilt locomotives have 12-cylinder engines).
Due to construction and the electric power transmission the class 232 locomotives are very heavy. The axle load of 20.3 t allows usage only on main lines.
The power for the unmodified classes is powered by a direct-injection, 16-cylinder, four-stroke, Diesel engine (of type 5D49) delivering when turbocharged 2,200 kW (3,000 hp) The fuel capacity is 6000 litres, additionally 1100 litres of engine oil is used.
The diesel engine of the V 300 had significant initial problems; the original crankshaft was made from ductile cast iron but was prone to cracking, particularly after the winter. The cast cranks were replaced with forged versions providing running for 20,000 hours, but initially they suffered from low surface hardness; this problem was solved by nitriding the surface, and by locally heating the surface with a CO2 laser (see annealing).
The engine drives an AC generator whose current is rectified by six-way rectification using 240 diodes. Traction motor power control is achieved via the engine (i. e. using the throttle) and by thyristor 'choppers'.
DR Class 130 / DBAG Class 230
The first locomotive was given to the Leipzig Hbf-South railway, and it was here that the nickname Ludmilla was given to these machines.
The 80 machines in the Class 130 series had bogies and gearing suitable for movement at 140 km/h (87 mph), but without train heating, so were used mainly for heavy freight service (a task for which they were not optimally suited, being geared for 140 km/h (87 mph) with a corresponding lower tractive effort.)
All but a few locomotives had their top speed reduced to 100 km/h (62 mph) - these locomotives ran as the subclass DR 131.1.
The two test machines for electric heating were given the operating numbers 130 101 and 102, being structurally most similar to the main tranche of Class 130s.
After reunification the machines became members of Class 230, previously this designation had applied to the single DB Class V 200 variant also known as V 300.001
DR Class 131 / DBAG Class 231
When it became evident that the locomotives would be used mainly for freight due to the lack of electric heating, 76 vehicles were re-geared for maximum speed of only 100 km/h (62 mph) (without electric brake). These 76 machines were classified as Series 131.
DR Class 132 / DBAG Class 232 and variants
When electric heating eventually became available for locomotives built in Woroschilowgrad the DR Class 132 were made.
The first two test machines (built in 1972) had a maximum allowable speed of 140 km/h (87 mph) and were therefore considered to be of Class 130 numbers 101 and 102. They were always stationed at the test centre VES-M Halle, and when incorporation into the new Deutsche Bahn came they were classed as the 754 series.[note 1]
The Class 132s entered service in 1974, 709 locomotives of this class were built. Under the Deutsche Reichsbahn the maximum allowable line speed was limited and so in operation these locomotives had a top speed of 120 km/h (75 mph).
Under the Deutsche Bahn numerous locomotives of this class were rebuilt:
DBAG Class 232.9
Some of Class 234 which had been upgraded to 140 km/h (87 mph) operations were subsequently returned to 120 km/h (75 mph) top speed operation.
DBAG Class 233
These locomotives were renovated and remotorised with Kolomna 12 D 49 M engines, and other more minor improvements: A replacement engine for the 232 series was sought because the engine was reaching its wear limit. Different new engines were tested: a Caterpillar engine, a MaK engine and the Russian 5D49. For cost reasons and because the Russian engine could be used with the fewest modifications the 5D49 was selected. However, the Russian producer proved no longer capable of supplying this engine, as a result an engine largely similar to the 5D49 but with only twelve cylinders was supplied. This engine can have sets of cylinders turned off to save fuel at low workloads. By 2003, 65 locomotives had been rebuilt.
DBAG Class 234
Converted for operation at 140 km/h (87 mph) using higher speed bogies found in the scrapped Class 130s. 64 examples were made.
DBAG Class 241
Ten examples of the Class 232 were converted in 1997 for freight only operation with a new diesel engine of increased power output of 4,000 hp (2,980 kW), as well as new electrical transmission components (including anti-wheel-slip provision) and enhanced brakes. The top speed was reduced to only 100 km/h (62 mph).
DR Class 142 / DBAG Class 242
Between 1977 and 1978 six locomotives with a power of 4,000 hp (2,980 kW) were built, and designated Class 142 in operation. However, it had been decided at the political level that the main lines would be electrified, thus there would be no need in future for such a powerful locomotive, and further machines were not built.
The Class 142 was the most powerful single-engined diesel in Europe (along with the rebuilt DBAG 241 and the SNCF Class CC 72000) until 2006 when the Voith Maxima 40 CC was built with an even greater power of 3,600 kW (4,830 hp) (this power had been already reached in 1975 by the French prototype CC 72075).
During GDR times the class 132 pulled everything that was fast or heavy such as express trains on non-electrified lines or coal or lime trains of 1800 to 2200 tonnes in weight. Due to the higher axle load and weight their use was not as flexible as the DR Class 118 and DR Class 119
After the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, these locomotives would take their trains outside the former GDR, with Hamburg, Kassel, Nuremberg and Kiel being destinations. With the merger of the two German train companies in 1994 the Ludmillas were seen even further afield – taking over many of the workings of the DB Class V 160 family – due to their higher power.
After restructuring of DBAG the Class 232 locomotives were assigned to DB Cargo (now Railion) for freight services. Class 232 locomotives could be seen all through Germany and also operating in the Netherlands, the higher-power Class 241 are mainly used on heavy coal trains into the Netherlands. These were replaced in the Netherlands in 2006 by Baureihe 189 locomotives. The higher-powered Class 242 also worked extremely heavy freight trains, though are now in private ownership.
Some intercity services (such as the Berlin-Warsaw express)[note 2] are still provided by DB Fernverkehr using the higher speed Class 234s. These were later replaced by Polish EuroSprinter locomotives.
The locomotives are still (2016) used in Germany, Poland, Romania and Hungary.
The Class 230s were the first of the family to be withdrawn, next went locomotives of the type 231, since without heating they had no use. A few of these classes were acquired by private companies including EBW, others are in museums.
The 242 series were also withdrawn from DBAG usage, but have since entered private use.
As of February 2009 locomotives of Class 232 with its variants 233, 234 and 241 are still in main line work.
Similar engines were produced for other Soviet bloc countries:
- Bulgaria: 07, similar to class 131.
- Czech Republic, Slovakia: T679.2 similar to class 132.
- USSR: TЭ109, double engines 2TЭ109, TЭ125, TЭ129.
- The 7xx class designations are used for infrastructure, testing and maintenance vehicles
- As of November 2008
- Statistik der Baureihe 130/ 230 (Statistics of Class 130/230 br232.de
- Bestandliste Baureihe 231 (Inventory of Class 231 br232.de
- Statistik der Baureihe 232 (Statistics of Class 232) (and links therein.) br232.de
- Statistik der Baureihe 242 (Statistics of Class 242) br232.de
- Technische Daten der Baureihe 241 (Technical data for Class 241) br232.de
- Technische Daten der Baureihe 230 (Technical data for Class 230) br232.de
- Technische Daten der Baureihe 231 (Technical data for Class 231) br232.de
- Technische Daten der Baureihe 232 (Technical data for Class 232) br232.de
- Technische Daten der Baureihe 233 (Technical data for Class 233) br232.de
- Technische Daten der Baureihe 234 (Technical data for Class 234) br232.de
- Technische Daten der Baureihe 242 (Technical data for Class 242) br232.de
- Bauartänderungen der Baureihe 233 gegenüber der Baureihe 232 (Design changes from the Class 232 to Class 233) br232.de
- Einsatzgebiet der Baureihe 241 (Uses of Class 241) br232.de Archived November 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Böhnke, Thomas, ed. (2006). "Ludmilla" im Wandel - Die V 300-Familie der DB in drei Jahrzehnten. Eisenbahn-Bildarchiv (in German). Freiburg: EK-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-88255-365-9.
- Brinker, Helmut (1998). ""Russische Westflotte". Fünf Jahre Baureihe 232 im Ruhrgebiet". Eisenbahn-Kurier (in German). EK-Verlag GmbH. 32 (306): 52–56. ISSN 0170-5288.
- Köhler, Kurt; Stange, Andreas (2000). Die V 300 - Familie der Deutschen Reichsbahn. Die Baureihen 130, 131, 132 und 142 (in German). Freiburg: EK-Verlag. ISBN 3-88255-130-5.
- Weiske, Günter (1995). "Die Baureihe V 300. Wegbereiterin einer erfolgreichen Fahrzeugfamilie". In Ebel, Jürgen U. Vor 25 Jahren: Die DR 1970. Eisenbahn-Kurier-Themen Bd. 20. Freiburg: EK-Verlag. pp. 48–54.
- Модернизация магистральных тепловозов, Железные дороги мира (in Russian), archived from the original on 2007-05-29
- Ю. Ботев (2000), Железопътен транспорт (9): 16–17 Missing or empty
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Type TE109 diesel locomotives.|
- br232.com Stock lists and work histories of entire class family br232.de, see also br232.de
- Triebfahrzeug-Lexikon : Die Baureihe 232 Brief description and technical information schiebebuehne.de
- Br 132 / 232 gallery @ Trainspo
- Br 130 series @ Trainspo
- Pictures in the European railway gallery (via railfaneurope.net):