D battery

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A carbon-zinc D battery, positive terminal up.
D cell batteries.

A D battery (D cell or IEC R20) is a size of dry cell. A D cell is cylindrical with an electrical contact at each end; the positive end has a nub or bump. D cells are typically used in high current drain applications, such as in large flashlights, radio receivers and transmitters and other devices that require an extended running time. A D cell may be either rechargeable or non-rechargeable. Its terminal voltage and capacity depend upon its cell chemistry.

The National Carbon Company introduced the first D cell in 1898. Before smaller cells became more common, D cells were widely known as flashlight batteries. The U.S. military designation for this battery has been BA-30 since sometime before World War II.[1] During World War II it was designated the Type C battery by the U.S. Navy leading to confusion with the smaller C cell battery (BA-42).

In 2007, D batteries accounted for 8% of alkaline primary battery sales (numerically) in the US. In 2008, Swiss purchases of D batteries amounted to 3.4% of primary and 1.4% of secondary sales.[2][3]

Dimensions and capacity[edit]

D, C, AA, AAA, AAAA and 9-Volt batteries
  Zinc–carbon Alkaline Li-FeS2 NiCd NiMH
IEC name R20 LR20 FR20 KR20 HR20
ANSI/NEDA name 13D 13A 13LF    
Typical capacity charge 8000 mAh 12000-18000 mAh 2000-5500 mAh 2200–12000 mAh
energy 12 Wh 18-27 Wh 2.5-6.9 Wh 2.75-15 Wh
Nominal voltage 1.5 V 1.5 V 1.5 V 1.25 V 1.25 V
Rechargeable No Special type only No Yes Yes

A battery's capacity depends upon its cell chemistry and current draw. Energizer brand rates its alkaline D cell at approximately 20,000mAh at 25mA draw, but estimates performance closer to about 10,000mAh at 500mA draw.[4] This effect is generally less pronounced in cells with NiCd and NiMH chemistries; see Peukert's law. Many commonly available size D rechargeable cells are actually sub-C cells in a D-sized holder.

D batteries have:
Nominal diameter of 33.2 ± 1 millimeters (1.3 inches).
Overall length of 61.5 millimeters (2.42 inches). [5]

Other common names[edit]

[citation needed]

  • HP2 / SP2 / U2 (in Britain until the 1980s)
  • Flashlight Battery
  • MN1300
  • MX1300
  • Mono
  • Goliath
  • Type 373 (Soviet Union/Russia)
  • BA-30 (US Military Spec World War II–1980s)
  • UM 1 (JIS)
  • #1 (China)
  • 6135-99-464-1938 (NSN, carbon-zinc)
  • 6135-99-109-9428 (NSN, alkaline)
  • B006 (NiMH)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Army Flashlight".
  2. ^ Life Cycle Impacts of Alkaline Batteries with a Focus on End-of-Life - EPBA-EU Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Absatzzahlen 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2012. INOBAT 2008 statistics.
  4. ^ "MN1300 Size: D (LR20) Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide Battery" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2012.
  5. ^ IEC 60086-2 §7.1.4

External links[edit]