Da Ming Hunyi Tu

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Da Ming Hunyi Tu
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese大明混一
Literal meaningAmalgamated Map of the Great Ming
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᡩᠠᡳ ᠮᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡳ
ᡠᡥᡝᡵᡳᠯᡝᡥᡝ ᠨᡳᡵᡠᡤᠠᠨ
RomanizationDai Ming Gurun-i Uherilehe Nirugan

The Da Ming Hunyi Tu (Chinese for the "Amalgamated Map of the Ming Empire") is an extensive Chinese map. It was painted in colour on stiff silk and 386 x 456 cm in size.[1] The original text was written in Classical Chinese, but on the surviving copy Manchu labels were later superimposed. The surviving copy of the map shows later revisions, and it is uncertain whether it is (or how closely it matches) the original.

It is one of the oldest surviving maps from East Asia, although the exact date of creation remains unknown. It depicts Eurasia, placing China in the center and stretching northward to Mongolia, southward to Java, eastward to central Japan, and westward to Europe (including the East African coast as an island).[citation needed]


The map was created sometime during the Ming dynasty and then handed over to the new rulers of China, the Qing.[citation needed]

The place names of China on the map reflect the political situation in 1389, or the 22nd year of the reign of the Hongwu Emperor. Thus some Chinese scholars concluded that it was indeed created in 1389 or little later.[1] Others maintain a cautious attitude, suggesting that what was created in 1389 is probably a source map of the Da Ming Hunyi Tu and that the Da Ming Hunyi Tu itself dates much later.[2]

In either case, it is certain that the Ming dynasty created a map around 1389. Japanese scholar Miya Noriko speculated on the motivation behind it: Although the Hongwu Emperor, first of the Ming dynasty, drove the Mongol Yuan dynasty out of China in 1368, Mongols maintained military power that posed a real threat to the new dynasty. The situation was changed in 1388 when Uskhal Khan of Northern Yuan was killed and the Khubilaid line of succession was terminated. It is speculated that the Ming dynasty may have celebrated this historic event by creating a new map.[2]

It has been kept on the Imperial Palace and was called Qingzi Qian Yitong Tu (清字簽一統圖; "Manchu alphabet-labelled unified map") in some catalogs.[3] It is currently kept in protective storage at the First Historical Archive of China, in Beijing. A full-sized digital replica was made for the South African government in 2002.[4]

Relationship to other maps[edit]

Maps had for centuries played an important role in the government of such a vast country, and surviving examples on stone dating from AD 1137 but based on much earlier surveys, show great accuracy, using a grid system. By then the Chinese had also developed the magnetic compass, and in the 13th century western versions of that device allowed European cartography to catch up with Chinese standards of accuracy.

By the early years of the 14th century, when Mongol domination over much of Eurasia created favourable conditions for east-west communication, Islamic maps of Europe and Africa had found its way to China, encouraging Chinese cartographers to create world maps incorporating the new information.

Scholars consider that the Da Ming Hunyi Tu was ultimately based on a now lost world map named Shengjiao Guangbei Tu (聲教廣被圖).[5] It was created by Li Zemin during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. Other extant maps considered to be based on Li's map are some copies of the Kangnido (1402) and a pair of maps named Dongnan Haiyi Tu (東南海夷圖) and Xinan Haiyi Tu (西南海夷圖),[6] which is recorded in the Guang Yu Tu (廣與圖) (1555) by Luo Hongxian (羅洪先). Comparative studies of these extant maps are conducted to restore the content of Li's original world map. The Da Ming Hunyi Tu is especially important because Luo's copies dropped most place names except for coastal areas and islands and because the Kangnido was influenced by Korean cartography.

Compared to the Kangnido, the Da Ming Hunyi Tu provides more detailed information on Mongolia and Central Asia and India.[7] In Manchuria, Changbai Mountain, where the foundation myth of the Manchu Aisin Gioro imperial family was set, is overly portrayed. It presents India as a peninsula while it sinks into the "Chinese continent" on the Kangnido.[8] It is presumed that India was portrayed as a peninsula on Li's map but shrunk by Korean Confucians due to their anti-Buddhist policy.[9] Africa and Arabia on the Da Ming Hunyi Tu resemble those on the Kangnido while Europe is considerably different.[10] It is also distinct from the Kangnido in the depiction of the source of the Yellow River, which looks very similar to that in Luo's Guang Yu Tu.[11]


The Earth's curvature affects even the scale of the Chinese section of the map. Horizontally, it works out at about 1:820,000; but vertically it is around 1:1,060,000.[12] It replicates the curvature of the Earth by compression of areas farthest away from China. Outside China, sub-Saharan Africa is depicted in a good approximation of the correct shape, complete with mountains near the southern tip. The interior of Africa has a river with twin sources (the common depiction in Classical and Islamic maps of the Nile) starts in the south of the continent, but enters the Red Sea, while the Nile has its source in a vast inland sea.[citation needed]

Arabia is squeezed horizontally, but recognisable. The prominent peninsula on the west coast of the Chinese landmass is Malaysia, but India is represented merely as a collection of place-names north-west of Arabia. Dependence on external sources for geographical information, can be seen to the south of Korea, at the far right side of the map, where Japan, over-sized and misshapen, confusingly meets the much more correctly sized and positioned Taiwan.[citation needed]



  1. ^ a b (Wang et al. 1994:51)
  2. ^ a b (Miya 2006:511-512)
  3. ^ Fuchs 1962:2
  4. ^ AFP press release Ancient map of Africa poses questions, Nov 2002- via Google Groups, accessed 2008-03-16
  5. ^ Takahashi 1975:16-21; Miya 2006:511-512
  6. ^ Takahashi 1975:15,20; Miya 2006:509-511
  7. ^ Miya 2007:292
  8. ^ Fuchs 1962:3; Miya 2006:511
  9. ^ Miya 2006:511,590-591
  10. ^ Kinda Akihiro 金田章裕 (2007). "Konitsu kyōri rekidai kokuto no zu no keifu o meguru ichi shikaku" 混一疆理歴代国都之図の系譜をめぐる一視角. In Fujii Jōji 藤井讓治; Sugiyama Masaaki 杉山正明; Kinda Akihiro 金田章裕 (eds.). Daichi no shōzō: Ezu, chizu ga kataru sekai 大地の肖像: 絵図・地図が語る世界 (in Japanese). pp. 448–454.
  11. ^ Miya 2007:289
  12. ^ Wang et al. 1994:51-52


  • Fuchs, Walter (1962). "Pekin no Mindai sekaizu ni tsuite" 北京の明代世界図について. Chirigakushi Kenkyū 地理学史研究. II: 1–4.
  • Miya Noriko 宮紀子 (2006). "Kon'itsu Kyōri Rekidai Kokuto no Zu" e no michi" 「混一疆理歴代国都之図」への道. Mongoru jidai no shuppan bunka. モンゴル時代の出版文化 (in Japanese). pp. 487–651.
  • Miya Noriko 宮紀子 (2007). Mongoru teikoku ga unda sekaizu. モンゴル帝国が生んだ世界図 (in Japanese).
  • Takahashi Tadasi 高橋正 (1975). "Gendai chizu no ichi keifu: shu to shite Ri Takumin zu kei chizu ni tsuite" 元代地図の一系譜: 主として李沢民図系地図について. Machikaneyama Ronsō: Japanology 待兼山論叢 日本学編 (in Japanese) (9): 15–31.
  • Wang Qianjin 汪前进; Hu Qisong 胡启松; Liu Ruofang 刘若芳 (1994). "Juanben caihui Daming Hunyi Tu yanjiu" 绢本彩绘大明混一图研究 [As Regards the Da Ming Hunyi Tu (Amalgamated Map of the Great Ming dynasty) Drawn in Colours on Stiff Silk]. Zhongguo gudai dituji: Ming dai 中國古代地图集 明代 [An Atlas of Ancient Maps in China: The Ming dynasty (1368-1644)] (in Chinese). pp. 51–55.

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