Dai dai shogi

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Dai dai shōgi (大大将棋 'huge chess') is a large board variant of shogi (Japanese chess). The game dates back to the 15th century and is based on the earlier dai shogi. Apart from its size, the major difference is in the range of the pieces and the "promotion by capture" rule. It is the smallest board variant to use this rule.

Because of the terse and often incomplete wording of the historical sources for the large shogi variants, except for chu shogi and to a lesser extent dai shogi (which were at some points of time the most prestigious forms of shogi being played), the historical rules of dai dai shogi are not clear. Different sources often differ significantly in the moves attributed to the pieces, and the degree of contradiction (summarised below with the listing of most known alternative moves) is such that it is likely impossible to reconstruct the "true historical rules" with any degree of certainty, if there ever was such a thing. It is not clear if the game was ever played much historically, as the few sets that were made seem to have been intended only for display.

Rules of the game[edit]

Objective[edit]

The objective is to capture the opponent's king. Unlike standard shogi, pieces may not be dropped back into play after being captured.

Game equipment[edit]

Two players, Black and White (or sente and gōte), play on a board composed of squares in a grid of 17 ranks (rows) by 17 files (columns) with a total of 289 squares. The squares are undifferentiated by marking or color.

Each player has a set of 96 wedge-shaped pieces of 64 different types. In all, the players must remember 68 different moves. The pieces are of slightly different sizes, from largest to smallest (or roughly most to least powerful) they are:

Many of the English-language names are chosen to correspond to their rough equivalents in Western chess, not necessarily as translations of the Japanese names. (Sometimes the queen is called the "free king", a direct translation of its Japanese name. The kirin's name is sometimes anglicised as kylin.)

Each piece has its name in the form of two Japanese characters marked on its face. On the reverse side of some pieces are one or two other characters, often in a different color (e.g., red instead of black); this reverse side is used to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play.

Listed below are the pieces of the game and, if they promote, which pieces they promote to.

Table of pieces[edit]

Relatively few pieces promote (or demote) in dai dai shogi. A few pieces (*asterisked) only appear upon promotion.

Piece Kanji Rōmaji Abbrev. Promotes to
Jeweled general 玉将 gyokushō K
King general 王将 ōshō K
Angry boar 嗔猪 shincho AB
Bishop 角行 kakugyō B
Blind monkey 盲猿 mōen BM mountain witch
Blue dragon 青龍 seiryū BD
Cat sword 猫刄 myōjin CS dragon horse
Copper general 銅将 dōshō C
Dove 鳩槃 kyūhan Do
Dragon horse 龍馬 ryūme DH
Dragon king 龍王 ryūō DK
Eastern barbarian 東夷 tōi Ea lion
Enchanted badger 変狸 henri EB dove
Enchanted fox 変狐 henko EF she-devil
Evil wolf 悪狼 akurō EW
Ferocious leopard 猛豹 mōhyō FL
Flying dragon 飛龍 hiryū FD dragon king
Flying horse 馬麟 barin FH queen
Fragrant elephant 香象 kōzō FE
Free demon 奔鬼 honki Fr
Free dream-eater 奔獏 honbaku FT
*Furious fiend 奮迅 funjin FF
Gold general 金将 kinshō G
Golden bird 金翅 kinshi GB
Great dragon 大龍 dairyū GD
*Great elephant ‡ 大象 taizō GE
Hook mover 鉤行 kōgyō HM
Howling dog 𠵇犬 † kiken HD 𠵇
Iron general 鉄将 tesshō I
Kirin 麒麟 kirin Kr great dragon
Lance 香車 kyōsha L
Left chariot 左車 sasha LC
Left general 左将 sashō LG
Lion 獅子 shishi Ln furious fiend
Lion dog 狛犬 komainu LD great elephant ‡
Long-nosed goblin 天狗 tengu Lo
*Mountain witch 山母 sambo MW
Neighboring king 近王 kinnō NK standard bearer
Northern barbarian 北狄 hokuteki No fragrant elephant
Old kite 古鵄 kotetsu OK long-nosed goblin
Old rat 老鼠 rōso OR wizard stork
Pawn 歩兵 fuhyō p
Phoenix 鳳凰 hōō Ph golden bird
Poisonous snake 毒蛇 dokuja Po hook mover
Prancing stag 踊鹿 yōroku PS 鹿 square mover
Queen 奔王 honnō Q
Racing chariot 走車 sōsha Ra
Reverse chariot 反車 hensha Rv
Right chariot 右車 usha RC
Right general 右将 ushō RG
Rook 飛車 hisha R
Rushing bird 行鳥 gyōchō RB free demon
Savage tiger 猛虎 mōko ST
She-devil 夜叉 yasha SD
Side mover 横行 ōgyō SM
Silver general 銀将 ginshō S
Southern barbarian 南蛮 namban So white elephant
Square mover 方行 hōgyō Sq
Standard bearer 前旗 zenki SB
Stone general 石将 sekishō St
Vertical mover 竪行 shugyō VM
Violent bear 猛熊 mōyū VB
Violent ox 猛牛 mōgyū VO
Water buffalo 水牛 suigyū WB free dream-eater
Western barbarian 西戎 seijū We 西 lion dog
White elephant 白象 hakuzō WE
White tiger 白虎 byakko WT
*Wizard stork 仙鶴 †† senkaku WS
Wood general 木将 mokushō W

† The first kanji of Howling Dog may not appear in some fonts. It is a combined 口 and 奇.
‡ The great elephant is mentioned as the promoted lion dog in the Shōgi Rokushu no Zushiki, but not in the other two Edo-era sources, when the lion dog does not promote.
†† The second character in 'wizard stork' is not present in most fonts: it should be 而 atop 鷦 (Shougi kaku.png).

The queen could also be abbreviated FK (for free king) and the kirin as Ky (for kylin).

Setup[edit]

Below is a diagram showing the setup of one player's pieces. The way one player sees their own pieces is the same way the opposing player will see their pieces.

Board layout
8
7           HD           HD          
6 p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p
5 LC SM VO AB EW VB FL ST SB ST FL VB EW AB VO SM RC
4 BD FE No We W St I C GB C I St W Ea So WE WT
3   VM   EF   WB   S GD S   FH   EB   B  
2 Rv OK Ln OR PS CS Ph G NK G Kr RB FD BM LD Po Rv
1 L Lo SD Ra DH Fr Q LG K RG FT DK Sq R Dv HM L
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q
AB = Angry Boar B = Bishop BM = Blind Monkey BD = Blue Dragon
CS = Cat Sword C = Copper General Dv = Dove DH = Dragon Horse
DK = Dragon King Ea = Eastern Barbarian EB = Enchanted Badger EF = Enchanted Fox
EW = Evil Wolf FL = Ferocious Leopard FD = Flying Dragon FH = Flying Horse
FE = Fragrant Elephant Fr = Free Demon FT = Free Dream-Eater G = Gold General
GB = Golden Bird GD = Great Dragon HM = Hook Mover HD = Howling Dog
I = Iron General K = King Kr = Kirin L = Lance
LC = Left Chariot LG = Left General Ln = Lion LD = Lion Dog
Lo = Long-nosed Goblin NK = Neighboring King No = Northern Barbarian OK = Old Kite
OR = Old Rat P = Pawn Ph = Phoenix Po = Poison Snake
PS = Prancing Stag Q = Queen Ra = Racing Chariot Rv = Reverse Chariot
RC = Right Chariot RG = Right General R = Rook RB = Rushing Bird
ST = Savage Tiger SD = She-Devil SM = Side Mover S = Silver General
So = Southern Barbarian Sq = Square Mover SB = Standard Bearer St = Stone General
VM = Vertical Mover VB = Violent Bear VO = Violent Ox WB = Water Buffalo
We = Western Barbarian WE = White Elephant WT = White Tiger W = Wood General

Game play[edit]

The players alternate making a move, with Black moving first. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game, but are not literally correct.) A move consists of moving a piece on the board and potentially promoting the piece. Each of these options is detailed below.

Promotion[edit]

Unusually for a large-board shogi variant, only a minority of pieces (21 of 64) are able to promote. The rule for promotion in these larger games is different from smaller board variants.

A piece promotes at the end of its first capturing move. Promotion has the effect of changing how the piece moves (see the table above for what each piece promotes to), and is effected by turning the piece over after it moves, revealing the name of its promoted rank. Promotion for pieces able to do so is both compulsory and permanent.

This is very different from smaller shogi variants, where pieces promote when they cross a promotion zone (the enemy camp), and where promotion is optional. The dots on the dai dai shogi board that would represent promotion zones in other games only function as placement guides for the initial setup of the two camps.

Most promoting pieces promote to a piece that exists in the initial setup of the board. However, such a promoted piece cannot then promote a second time as its namesake does. For example, a lion promotes to a furious fiend. However, while an eastern barbarian promotes to a lion on its first capturing move, it does not further promote to a furious fiend on its second. Rather, it remains a lion for the rest of the game. This should be obvious from the game pieces, which only have two sides.

If a piece which is only able to move forward (a pawn, lance, stone general, wood general, or iron general) reaches the far rank, it is unable to move further and must remain there until captured.

The promoting pieces appear on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th ranks of the initial setup. Pieces on the middle three files or the edge file do not promote. Most promoting pieces stand close to their promoted versions in the initial setup.

Movement and capture[edit]

An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player).

Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). The lion, lion dog, and furious fiend are exceptions, in that they do not move, or are not required to move, in a straight line.

If a piece that cannot retreat or move aside advances across the board until it can no longer move, it must remain there until captured. This applies to the pawn, lance, stone general, wood general, and iron general.

Many pieces are capable of several kinds of movement, with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. The movement categories are:

Step movers[edit]

Some pieces move only one square at a time. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured.)

Limited ranging pieces[edit]

Some pieces can move along a limited number (2, 3, or 5) of free (empty) squares along a straight line in certain directions. Other than the limited distance, they move like ranging pieces (see below).

Jumping pieces[edit]

Several pieces can jump, that is, they can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either. These are the lion, lion dog, kirin, phoenix, and poisonous snake.

Ranging pieces[edit]

Many pieces can move any number of empty squares along a straight line, limited only by the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all.

Hook moves (changing tack)[edit]

The hook mover and long-nosed goblin (tengu) can move any number of squares along a straight line, as a normal ranging piece, but may also abruptly change tack left or right by 90° at any one place along the route, and then continue as a ranging piece. Turning a corner like this is optional.

The range covered by a hook move is the equivalent of two moves by a rook, or two moves by a bishop, depending the piece. However, a hook move is functionally a single move: The piece cannot capture twice in one move, nor may it capture and then move on. It must stop before an intervening piece (unless it first changes direction to avoid it), and must stop when it captures, just like any other ranging piece. It can only change direction once per move.

Lion moves (multiple captures)[edit]

The lion, lion dog, and furious fiend have sequential multiple-capture abilities, called "lion moves". The details of these powerful moves are described for the lion and lion dog, below.

Individual pieces[edit]

In the diagrams below, the different types of moves are coded by symbol and by color: Blue for step moves, yellow for jumps, green for multiple capture, and gray for range moves, as follows:

Notation
Steps a limited number of squares along a straight line.
Jumps to this square, bypassing any intervening piece.
! Igui (capture without moving). Counts as two steps.
May jump directly to this square, or reach it through a multiple-step move.
Ranges along a straight line, crossing any number of empty squares
May turn 90° at this square.

Piece names with a grey background are present at the start of the game; the four with a blue background only appear with promotion. Betza's funny notation has been included in brackets for easier reference, with the extension that the notation xxxayyyK stands for an xxxK move possibly followed by an yyyK move, not necessarily in the same direction. By default continuation legs can go into all directions, but can be restricted to a single line by a modifier 'v' ("vertical", interpreted relative to the piece's current position on its path). The default modality of all legs is the ability to move and capture: other possibilities are specified explicitly. Thus while aK moves twice as a king and can capture on both its moves, mKaK moves twice as a king but must stop when it captures.

There are many divergent descriptions in the Edo-era sources; mostly, the rules from The Chess Variant Pages are followed below, with the exception of the great elephant. Some divergent moves are detailed in the footnotes.

King (challenging) 玉将 gyokushō King (reigning) 王将 ōshō
             
             
       
       
       
             
             
  • Step: The king can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. (K)
             
             
       
       
       
             
             
  • Step: The king can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. (K)
Promoting pieces
Long-nosed goblin 天狗 tengu Hook mover 鉤行 kōgyō
     
         
   
       
   
         
     
  • Hook move: The tengu can move any number of free squares along one of the four diagonal directions, then (optionally) make a 90° turn and move any number of free squares in a perpendicular diagonal direction.
It may only change directions once per move.
  • Step: It can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. (WmBaB)[1]
   
   
   
   
   
   
  • Hook move: The hook mover can move any number of free squares along one of the four orthogonal directions, then (optionally) make a 90° turn and move any number of free squares in a perpendicular orthogonal direction. (RmaR)
It may only change directions once per move.[2]
Old kite 古鵄 kotetsu Poisonous snake 毒蛇 dokuja
             
           
       
   
           
           
             
  • Limited range: The old kite can step one or two squares in one of the four orthogonals.
  • Step: It can step one square diagonally forward. (R2fF)[3]

The old kite promotes to a tengu (above).

             
           
             
       
             
         
             
  • Jump: The poisonous snake can jump to the second square directly forward or diagonally backward.
  • Step: It can step one square to either side. (rlWfDbA)[4]

The poisonous snake promotes to a hook mover (above).

Great elephant 大象 taizō Furious fiend 奮迅 funjin
               
               
           
      !      
! 大象 !
      ! ! !      
           
           
           
  • Range: The great elephant, should it exist in this game (there is some dispute on this point among the Edo-era sources), can move any number of free squares along one of the four orthogonal directions, or diagonally backward.
  • Limited range: It can move up to two free squares along either of the forward diagonals.
  • Lion move/triple capture: It has the three-step lion move of the lion dog, but only along the orthogonals and backward diagonals.[5]

The great elephant does not exist except as a promoted lion dog (below).

       
   
  ! ! !   
! !
  ! ! !   
   
       
  • The furious fiend can move as a lion or as a lion dog. (NADaKafavK)[6]

The furious fiend does not exist except as a promoted lion (below).

Lion dog 狛犬 komainu Lion 獅子 shishi
       
       
    ! ! !    
! !
    ! ! !    
       
       
  • Lion move/triple capture: The lion dog can make a three-step lion move along any one of the eight orthogonal or diagonal directions. That is, unlike the lion itself, but like the soaring eagle and horned falcon, it is restricted to moving along a straight line and cannot move to the in-between squares. This lion power includes jumping, igui, and skipping a turn.
    • A piece may be captured on all three steps.
    • The lion dog may capture a piece on the first and second square, and then retreat to the first square. Or it may snatch a piece off the first square as in normal igui. (Note however that it may not then continue in the opposite direction: it is restricted to one orthogonal or diagonal.)
    • It may jump to the second square, and then continue to the third square, capturing up to two pieces. Or it may jump directly to the third square.
    • It is not required to take all three steps. (KavKafavK)[7]

As it finishes a capturing move, the lion dog promotes to a great elephant (above). In rules that do not use the great elephant, the lion dog cannot promote.

             
   
  ! ! !  
  ! !  
  ! ! !  
   
             
  • Double move: The lion can step in any direction, and capture, up to twice a turn. The two steps do not need to be in the same direction, so this move is equivalent to two turns of a king. As a piece does not promote until its turn ends, an unpromoted lion has a chance for a double capture.
    • By moving back to its starting square, it can effectively capture a piece on an adjacent square without moving. This is called 居喰い igui "stationary feeding".
    • It can also do the same to an empty square, without capturing anything. This is traditionally indicated by tapping the lion and leaving it in place.
  • Jump: A lion can jump anywhere within a distance of two squares: That is, anywhere it could reach in two step-moves on an empty board, though of course it cannot land on a square occupied by a friendly piece. This is equivalent to jumping in any of the eight diagonal or orthogonal directions, or making any of the jumps of a knight in Western chess. (NADaK)

As it finishes a capturing move, the lion promotes to a furious fiend (above).

Western barbarian 西戎 seijū Eastern barbarian 東夷 tōi
             
             
       
  西  
           
             
             
  • Limited range: The western barbarian can move one or two squares orthogonally sideways.
  • Step: It can step one square directly forward or backward, or diagonally forward. (rlR2fbWfF)[8]

The western barbarian promotes to a lion dog (above).

             
           
       
       
           
           
             
  • Limited range: The eastern barbarian can move one or two squares directly forward or backward.
  • Step: It can step one square orthogonally sideways or diagonally forward. (fbR2rlWfF)[9]

The eastern barbarian promotes to a lion (above).

Fragrant elephant 香象 kōzō White elephant 白象 hakuzō
         
       
       
   
       
       
             
  • Range: The fragrant elephant can move any number of free squares along either of the forward diagonals.
  • Limited range: It can move one or two squares along any of the other directions (orthogonally, or diagonally backwards). (fBR2bB2)[10]
             
       
       
  白象  
       
       
         
  • Range: The white elephant can move any number of free squares diagonally backward.
  • Limited range: It can move one or two square in one of the other six diagonal or orthogonal directions. (bBR2fB2)[11]
Northern barbarian 北狄 hokuteki Southern barbarian 南蛮 namban
             
         
         
       
         
             
             
  • Limited range: The northern barbarian can move one or two squares diagonally forward.
  • Step: It can step one square orthogonally sideways or diagonally backward. (fB2rlWF)

The northern barbarian promotes to a fragrant elephant (above).[12]

             
             
         
       
         
         
             
  • Limited range: The southern barbarian can move one or two squares diagonally backward.
  • Step: It can step one square orthogonally sideways or diagonally forward. (bB2rlWF)[13]

The southern barbarian promotes to a white elephant (above).

Free dream-eater 奔獏 honbaku Free demon 奔鬼 honki
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
  • Range: The free dream-eater can move any number of free squares diagonally.
  • Limited range: It can move one to five squares orthogonally sideways. (fbRBrlR5)[14]
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
  • Range: The free demon can move any number of free squares in the diagonal directions, or directly sideways.
  • Limited range: It can move one to five squares directly forward or backward. (rlRBfbR5)[15]
Water buffalo 水牛 suigyū Rushing bird 行鳥 gyōchō
         
       
       
       
       
         
  • Range: The water buffalo can move any number of free squares in the four diagonal directions, or orthogonally sideways.
  • Limited range: It can move one or two squares directly forward or backward. (rlRBfbR2)[16]

The water buffalo promotes to a free dream-eater (above).

       
       
       
         
         
         
  • Range: The rushing bird can move any number of free squares in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal, except directly backwards. (BfrlR)[17]

The rushing bird promotes to a free demon (above).

Queen 奔王 honnō Standard bearer 前旗 zenki
       
       
       
       
       
       
  • Range: The queen can move any number of free squares in any of the eight directions, orthogonal or diagonal. (Q)
       
       
       
   
       
       
             
  • Range: The standard bearer can move any number of free squares along any of the three forward directions (diagonal or orthogonal).
  • Limited range: It can step one or two squares along any of the other directions (orthogonally sideways, diagonally backwards, or directly backwards). (Q2fQ)[18]
Flying horse 馬麟 barin Neighboring king 近王 kinnō
             
         
       
       
           
             
             
  • Limited range: The flying horse can step one or two squares diagonally forward.
  • Step: It can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. (fB2W)[19]

The flying horse promotes to a queen (above).

             
             
       
       
       
             
             
  • Step: The neighbor king can step one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal. (K)[20]

The neighboring king promotes to a standard bearer (above).

Mountain witch 山母 sambo Wizard stork 仙鶴 senkaku
         
         
       
           
       
       
       
  • Range: The mountain witch can move any number of free squares along one of the four diagonal directions, or directly backward; or,
  • Step: It can step one square directly forward. (BbRfW)[21]

The mountain witch does not exist except as a promoted blind monkey (below).

       
       
       
           
       
         
         
  • Range: The wizard stork can move any number of free squares along one of the four diagonal directions, or directly forward; or,
  • Step: It can step one square directly backward. (BfRbW)[22]

The wizard stork does not exist except as a promoted old rat (below).

Blind monkey 盲猿 mōen Old rat 老鼠 rōso
             
             
         
       
         
             
  • Step: The blind monkey can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions or either orthogonal sideways. (FrlW)[23]

The blind monkey promotes to a mountain witch (above).

             
         
         
           
           
           
             
  • Limited range: The old rat can move one or two squares along a forward diagonal or the rear orthogonal, giving it three directions of movement. (fB2bR2)[24]

The old rat has the same move as the enchanted fox (see below), but the old rat promotes to a wizard stork (above).

Dove 鳩槃 kyūhan She-devil 夜叉 yasha
                 
                 
                 
               
               
           
               
               
                 
                 
                 
  • First limited range: The dove can move one to five squares in one of the four diagonal directions.
  • Second limited range: It can step one or two squares in one of the four orthogonal directions. (R2B5)[25]
                   
                   
                   
               
               
               
               
                   
                   
                   
  • First limited range: The she-devil can move one to five squares along one of the four orthogonal directions.
  • Second limited range: It can step one or two squares along one of the four diagonal directions. (R5B2)[26]
Enchanted badger 変狸 henri Enchanted fox 変狐 henko
             
           
           
   
             
             
             
  • Limited range: The enchanted badger can move one or two squares orthogonally forward or sideways. (frlR2)[27]

The enchanted badger promotes to a dove (above).

             
         
         
           
           
           
             
  • Limited range: The enchanted fox can move one or two squares along a forward diagonal or the rear orthogonal, giving it three directions of movement. (fB2bR2)[28]
This is the same move as the old rat (see above), but the enchanted fox promotes to a she-devil (above).
Dragon horse 龍馬 ryūme Dragon king 龍王 ryūō
The dragon horse moves as either a bishop or a king.
         
         
       
       
       
         
         
  • Range: The dragon horse can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions.
  • Step: It can step one square in any orthogonal direction. (WB)
The dragon king moves as either a rook or a king.
           
           
       
       
           
           
  • Range: The dragon king can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions.
  • Step: It can step one square in any diagonal direction. (FR)
Cat sword 猫刄 myōjin Flying dragon 飛龍 hiryū
             
             
         
           
         
             
             
  • Step: The cat sword can move one square in one of the four diagonal directions. (F)
Because it cannot move orthogonally, an unpromoted cat sword can only reach half the squares on the board.

The cat sword promotes to a dragon horse (above).

             
         
         
           
         
         
             
  • Step: The flying dragon can move one or two squares along one of the four diagonal directions. (B2)
Because it cannot move orthogonally, an unpromoted flying dragon can only reach half the squares on the board.

The flying dragon promotes to a dragon king (above).

Racing chariot 走車 sōsha Square mover 方行 hōgyō
           
           
           
       
           
           
  • Range: The racing chariot can move any number of free squares along one of the four orthogonal directions.
  • Step: It can step one square diagonally behind. (RbF)[29]

Nothing promotes into a racing chariot, but it was included here due to the symmetry of its move with that of the square mover (right).

In several English sources the name of this piece is mistranslated as "side chariot".
           
           
       
           
           
           
  • Range: The square mover can move any number of free squares along one of the four orthogonal directions.
  • Step: It can step one square on either forward diagonal. (RfF)[30]
  Prancing stag 踊鹿 yōroku
 
             
             
       
  鹿  
         
             
             
  • Limited range: The prancing stag can move one or two squares directly sideways.
  • Step: It can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions, or directly forward. (rlR2FfW)
It cannot move directly backwards.

The prancing stag promotes to a square mover (above).

Golden bird 金翅 kinshi Great dragon 大龍 dairyū
       
       
       
   
       
       
       
  • Range: The golden bird can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward.
  • 1st limited range: It can move one to three squares along any one of the four diagonals.
  • 2nd limited range: It can move one or two squares directly sideways. (fbRB3rlR2)[31]
         
       
       
       
       
         
  • Range: The great dragon can move any number of free squares directly to the side.
  • 1st limited range: It can move one to three squares along any one of the four diagonals.
  • 2nd limited range: It can move one or two squares directly forward or backward. (rlRB3fbR2)[32]
Phoenix 鳳凰 hōō Kirin 麒麟 kirin
             
         
           
       
           
         
             
  • Step: The phoenix can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions.
  • Jump: It can jump to the second square in one of the four diagonal directions. (WA)

The phoenix promotes to a golden bird (above).

             
           
         
       
         
           
             
  • Step: The kirin can step one square in one of the four diagonal directions.
  • Jump: It can jump to the second square in one of the four orthogonal directions. (FD)
Because of its unusual movement, an unpromoted kirin can only reach half the squares on the board.

The kirin promotes to a great dragon (above).

Non-promoting pieces
Bishop 角行 kakugyō Rook 飛車 hisha
         
         
         
           
         
         
         
  • Range: The bishop can move any number of free squares along any of the four diagonal directions. (B)

Because it cannot move orthogonally or promote, a bishop can only reach half the squares on the board.

           
           
           
           
           
           
  • Range: The rook can move any number of free squares along any of the four orthogonal directions. (R)
Left chariot 左車 sasha Right chariot 右車 usha
         
         
         
      左車      
         
           
           
  • Range: The left chariot can move any number of free squares straight forward, or along the forward left or rear right diagonals. (fR[fl][br]BbW)
  • Step: It can step one square directly backward.[33]
         
         
         
      右車      
         
           
           
  • Range: The right chariot can move any number of free squares straight forward, or along the forward right or rear left diagonals.
  • Step: It can step one square directly backward. (fR[fr][bl]BbW)[34]
White tiger 白虎 byakko Blue dragon 青龍 seiryū
         
         
       
  白虎  
           
           
           
  • Range: The white tiger can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward, or along the forward left diagonal.
  • Limited range: It can step one or two squares directly sideways. (fbR[fl]BrlR2fF)
  • Step: It can step one square diagonally forward to the right.[35]
           
         
       
           
           
             
  • Range: The blue dragon can move any number of free squares directly to either side, or along the forward right diagonal.
  • Limited range: It can step one or two squares directly forward or backward. (rlR[fr]BfbR2fF)
  • Step: It can step one square diagonally forward to the left.[36]
Side mover 横行 ōgyō Vertical mover 竪行 shugyō
             
             
           
           
             
             
  • Range: The side mover can move any number of free squares directly sideways.
  • Step: It can move one square directly forward or backward. (rlRW)
           
           
           
       
           
           
           
  • Range: The vertical mover can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward.
  • Step: It can move one square directly sideways. (fbRW)
Howling Dog 𠵇犬 kiken Reverse chariot 反車 hensha
           
           
           
      𠵇      
           
             
             
  • Range: The howling dog can move any number of free squares directly forward.
  • Step: It can step one square directly backwards. (fRbW)
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  • Range: The reverse chariot can move any number of free squares directly forward or backward, giving it two directions of movement. (fbR)
Violent ox 猛牛 mōgyū Lance 香車 kyōsha
             
           
           
   
           
           
             
  • Limited range: The violent ox can move one or two squares in one of the four orthogonal directions. (R2)[37]
           
           
           
           
             
             
             
  • Range: The lance can move any number of free squares directly forward, giving it only one direction of movement. (fR)

A lance that reaches the far rank is trapped.

Angry boar 嗔猪 shincho Violent bear 猛熊 mōyū
             
             
           
       
           
             
             
  • Step: The angry boar can step one square in one of the four orthogonal directions. (W)
             
         
         
       
             
             
             
  • Limited range: The violent bear can move one or two squares diagonally forward, or,
  • Step: It can step one square orthogonally sideways. (fB2rlW)[38]
Left general 左将 sashō Right general 右将 ushō
             
             
       
      左将    
       
             
             
  • Step: The left general can move one square in any direction except directly left. It is called the left general because it guards the left side of the board. (FfrbW)[39]
             
             
       
    右将      
       
             
             
  • Step: The right general can step one square in any direction except directly right. It is called the right general because it guards the right side of the board. (FflbW)[40]
Gold general 金将 kinshō Ferocious leopard 猛豹 mōhyō
             
             
       
       
           
             
             
  • Step: The gold general can step one square in the four orthogonal directions, or diagonally forward, giving it six directions of movement. (WfF)
It cannot move diagonally backward.
             
             
       
           
       
             
             
  • Step: The leopard can step one square in the four diagonal directions, or directly forward or backward, giving it six directions of movement. (FfbW)
That is, it can move to any of the six adjacent squares ahead or behind it.
Silver general 銀将 ginshō Evil wolf 悪狼 akurō
             
             
       
           
         
             
             
  • Step: The silver general can move one square in the four diagonal directions, or directly forward, giving it five directions of movement. (FfW)
             
             
       
       
             
             
             
  • Step: The evil wolf can step one square orthogonally sideways or forward, or diagonally forward. (frlK)
Copper general 銅将 dōshō Savage tiger 猛虎 mōko
             
             
       
           
           
             
             
  • Step: The copper general can move one square directly forward or backward, or one square diagonally forward, giving it four directions of movement. (fFfbW)
             
           
       
           
           
           
             
  • Limited range: The savage tiger can move one or two squares orthogonally forward or backward
  • Step: It can step one square diagonally forward. (fbR2fF)[41]
Iron general 鉄将 tesshō Wood general 木将 mokushō
             
             
       
           
             
             
             
  • Step: The iron general can move one square forward, either orthogonally or diagonally, giving it three directions of movement. (fK)
An iron general that reaches the far rank is trapped.
             
         
         
           
             
             
             
  • Limited range: The wood general can move one or two squares along a forward diagonal. (fB2)
A wood general that reaches the far rank is trapped.
Stone general 石将 sekishō Pawn 歩兵 fuhyō
             
             
         
           
             
             
             
  • Step: The stone general can step one square diagonally forward, giving it two possibilities. (fF)
A stone general that reaches the far rank is trapped.
             
             
           
           
             
             
             
  • Step: A pawn can step one square directly forward. (fW)
A pawn that reaches the far rank is trapped.

Repetition[edit]

A player may not make a move if the resulting position is one that has previously occurred in the game with the same player to move. This is called repetition (千日手 sennichite). Note that certain pieces have the ability to pass in certain situations (lions, lion dogs, and furious fiends). Such a pass move leaves the position unchanged, but it does not violate the repetition rule, as it will now be the turn of the other player to move. Of course, two consecutive passes are not possible, as the first player will see the same position as before.

However, evidence from chu shogi problems suggests that this at least does not apply to a player who is in check or whose pieces are attacked, as otherwise one could win via perpetual check or perpetual pursuit. The modern chu shogi rule as applied by the Japanese Chu Shogi Association (JCSA) is as follows, and presumably dai dai shogi should be similar. If one side is making attacks on other pieces (however futile) with his moves in the repeat cycle, and the other is not, the attacking side must deviate, while in case of checking the checker must deviate regardless of whether the checked side attacks other pieces. In the case of consecutive passes, the side passing first must deviate, making turn passing to avoid zugzwang pointless if the opponent is in a position where he can pass his turn too. Only the fourth repetition is forbidden by these rules. If none of these are applicable, repetition is a draw.

Check and mate[edit]

When a player makes a move such that the opponent's king could be captured on the following move, the move is said to give check to the king; the king is said to be in check. If a player's king is in check and no legal move by that player will get the king out of check, the checking move is also a mate, and effectively wins the game.

Game end[edit]

A player who captures the opponent's king wins the game. In practice this rarely happens; a player will resign when loss is inevitable and the king will be taken on the opponent's next move (as in International Chess) because of the tradition that it is seen as an embarrassment to lose.

A player who makes an illegal move loses immediately. (This rule may be relaxed in casual games.)

Game notation[edit]

The method used in English-language texts to express shogi moves was established by George Hodges in 1976. It is derived from the algebraic notation used for chess, but differs in several respects. Modifications have been made for dai dai shogi.

A typical example is P-8g. The first letter represents the piece moved (see above). Promoted pieces have a + added in front of the letter. (e.g., +BM for a mountain witch, or promoted blind monkey). The designation of the piece is followed by a symbol indicating the type of move: - for an ordinary move or x for a capture. Next is the designation for the square on which the piece lands. This consists of a number representing the file and a lowercase letter representing the rank, with 1a being the top right corner (as seen from Black's point of view) and 17q being the bottom left corner. (This method of designating squares is based on Japanese convention, which, however, uses Japanese numerals instead of letters. For example, the square 2c is denoted by 2三 in Japanese.)

If a lion captures by 'igūi’, the square of the piece being captured is used instead of the destination square, and this is preceded by the symbol '!'. If a double capture is made, than it is added after the first capture.

If a capture mandates the player to promote the piece, then a + is added to the end to signify that the promotion was taken. For example, CSx7c+ indicates a cat sword capturing on 7c and promoting.

In cases where the above notation would be ambiguous, the designation of the start square is added after the designation for the piece in order to make clear which piece is meant.

Moves are commonly numbered as in chess.

Strategy[edit]

Piece values[edit]

According to the German Chu Shogi Association, the average values of the pieces are (using the interpretations of The Shogi Association, e.g. the lion dog as only a three-square range mover with no lion power):[42]

Average piece values
Piece name Approximate value Promotion Approximate value
King 4
Hook Mover 114
Long-Nosed Goblin 46
Lion 22 Furious Fiend 23
Queen 15
Rushing Bird 14 Free Demon 14
Free Dream-Eater 14
Free Demon 14
Water Buffalo 13 Free Dream-Eater 14
Standard Bearer 12
Golden Bird 10
Fragrant Elephant 10
Great Dragon 9
Dove 9
White Tiger 9
She-Devil 9
Lion Dog 8 Great Elephant 9
White Elephant 7
Dragon King 10
Dragon Horse 10
Square Mover 9
Blue Dragon 8
Rook 8
Bishop 7
Left Chariot 7
Right Chariot 7
Racing Chariot 9
Vertical Mover 5
Side Mover 5
Old Kite 4 Long-Nosed Goblin 46
Poisonous Snake 1 Hook Mover 114
Eastern Barbarian 4 Lion 22
Prancing Stag 4 Square Mover 9
Flying Horse 4 Queen 15
Neighbouring King 3 Standard Bearer 12
Northern Barbarian 3 Fragrant Elephant 10
Western Barbarian 3 Lion Dog 8
Southern Barbarian 3 White Elephant 7
Kirin 3 Great Dragon 9
Phoenix 3 Golden Bird 10
Old Rat 2 Wizard Stork 11
Blind Monkey 2 Mountain Witch 9
Enchanted Badger 2 Dove 9
Enchanted Fox 2 She-Devil 9
Flying Dragon 3 Dragon King 10
Cat Sword 2 Dragon Horse 10
Reverse Chariot 4
Lance 3
Howling Dog 3
Left General 3
Right General 3
Gold General 3
Violent Ox 3
Ferocious Leopard 3
Savage Tiger 3
Violent Bear 3
Evil Wolf 3
Silver General 2
Copper General 2
Wood General 2
Iron General 2
Angry Boar 2
Stone General 1
Pawn 1

These average values do not take into account the special status of the king as a royal piece. They have also been normalized so that the pawn is worth 1 point to avoid fractions. Additionally, pieces gain in value if they have a good chance of promotion. This is particularly significant for the old kite and poisonous snake, which promote to the two most powerful pieces in the game.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • 'Sho Shogi Zushiki', Nishzawa Teijin, 1694

Notes on pieces with conflicting descriptions[edit]

These descriptions are taken from Japanese Wikipedia, which references the Edo-era publications 象戯図式 Shōgi Zushiki (SZ), 諸象戯図式 Sho Shōgi Zushiki (SSZ), and 象棋六種之図式 Shōgi Rokushu no Zushiki (SRZ). The first two are generally though not always in agreement, but the third differs in the case of most pieces which are not found in smaller shogi variants.

  1. ^ In the Edo-era sources, the step move is absent. It is present in the SRZ's description of the long-nosed goblin for tai shogi, which usually has the same moves. Removing the step move makes the long-nosed goblin identical to the capricorn from maka dai dai shogi and tai shogi; although there are some pieces in the large games that move identically despite having different names, it seems unlikely for such a powerful piece.
  2. ^ This is the move as given in the SZ and SSZ. There are two contradictory descriptions in the SRZ, but one of them agrees with the SZ and SSZ anyway.
  3. ^ This is the description of the old kite found in the SSZ. In the SZ, it has the power to move two squares orthogonally or range forward diagonally (fBR2). In the SRZ, it moves one square orthogonally or two squares diagonally (WB2). Japanese Wikipedia illustrates the piece as moving two squares sideways or ranging forward diagonally (fBsR2) in dai dai shogi, but gives the move of the main text for tai shogi. The SZ and SSZ indicate that the piece moves the same way in dai dai shogi and tai shogi, which usually have the same moves; but the SRZ claims that it moves two squares diagonally or one square sideways in tai shogi (B2rlW), the same as in taikyoku shogi, which usually has different moves.
  4. ^ This is the description in the SZ and SSZ. The SRZ says that it moves two squares orthogonally or one square diagonally forward (R2fF), which is the move of the old kite in the SSZ. The Japanese Wikipedia gives it a move of two squares to the left, right, or straight forward; or one square straight backward or diagonally forward, which matches none of these.
  5. ^ This is the move given in the SRZ; though it diverges from the other sources for many pieces, its moves are generally consistent with them for the power pieces. In the SZ and SSZ, the lion dog does not promote, and so the great elephant does not exist. Japanese Wikipedia does not include the lion-move possibility in the main text; in a note, however, it has instead the ability to jump over up to three pieces (friend or foe) and continue its slide on the other side, on top of its ranging and limited ranging moves. The piece has yet another move in taikyoku shogi, but that game typically has different moves from dai dai shogi. English-language sources based on The Shogi Association's rules often give it the move of five squares sideways or diagonally backwards, or three squares in the other directions (rlR5bB5fbR3fB3); but this move is widely discredited nowadays, as it is based on a misunderstanding of the lion dog's move. The Japanese Chu Shogi Association recommends yet another version based on this, which keeps the lion dog's move, but adds the ability to range five squares sideways or diagonally backwards.
  6. ^ In English-language sources, it usually has the powers of a lion and a limited-range queen restricted to three squares (Q3NADaK). But this is based on a misunderstanding of the lion dog as a three-square limited range piece.
  7. ^ In English-language sources, the lion dog has only the power of ranging three squares in any direction (Q3). But this must be a mistake, as it makes the description of the teaching king of maka dai dai shogi nonsensical. That piece is described in the Edo-era sources as having the powers of queen plus lion dog, but the lion dog's moves under the English interpretation are a subset of the queen's moves.
  8. ^ In the SZ, the diagonal move is missing (rlR2fbW). The SRZ gives the taikyoku shogi move when describing dai dai shogi: two squares vertically, and one square horizontally or diagonally forward (fbR2rlWfF). But when describing tai shogi it gives a move of one square orthogonally (W).
  9. ^ This is the move given in the SRZ for dai-dai shogi, but the same source describes it as moving one square orthogonally (W) in tai shogi, which normally has the same moves. In the SZ, it is described verbally as moving one or two squares vertically or one square directly to the right, but the diagram shows one or two squares vertically or one square directly to the left. The Japanese Wikipedia shows the former version for dai-dai shogi; in taikyoku shogi, it has the move shown in the main text, although that game usually has different moves. The SRZ reading seems the most plausible, as it makes the eastern and western barbarians symmetrical, like the northern and southern barbarians.
  10. ^ The SRZ gives two inconsistent descriptions: one moves two squares in all directions (Q2), and the other moves two squares horizontally and diagonally as well as one square vertically (B2rlR2fbW).
  11. ^ In the SZ, the diagram does not allow it to move backward, but the verbal explanation does (and agrees with the main text here). The SRZ instead gives it a move of two squares in all directions in dai dai shogi, but two squares sideways, straight forward or diagonally forward and one square directly backward in tai shogi.
  12. ^ In the SRZ, the movement for dai dai shogi is as in taikyoku shogi: two squares sideways, one square vertically, or one square diagonally forward (rlR2fKbW). But in tai shogi the diagonal forward moves are absent (rlR2fbW).
  13. ^ In the SZ and SSZ it moves two squares diagonally backward or one square to the left, which is unusual for shogi as it then cannot move forward. The SRZ gives for dai dai shogi: two squares sideways and one square vertically or diagonally forward (same as taikyoku). But in tai shogi it gives two squares horizontally or one square vertically.
  14. ^ The SRZ allows ranging on all four diagonals but restricts the horizontal move to at most five squares in dai-dai shogi. In tai shogi, it has the same move as the free demon. Japanese Wikipedia only allows ranging along the backward diagonals in taikyoku shogi, a game which normally has different moves. On the other hand, promotions in dai dai shogi are usually beneficial, and without the backward diagonals, it is questionable if this is an upgrade over the water buffalo.
  15. ^ In the SRZ, the free demon moves up to three squares forward or diagonally, or up to five squares backward in dai-dai shogi. But it moves two squares diagonally forward and has unlimited range sideways and backward in tai shogi. Japanese Wikipedia only allows ranging along the backward diagonals in taikyoku shogi, a game which normally has different moves. On the other hand, promotions in dai dai shogi are usually beneficial, and without the backward diagonals, it is questionable if this is an upgrade over the rushing bird.
  16. ^ In the SRZ: unlimited range on the backward diagonals, and two squares on the forward diagonals.
  17. ^ According to the SRZ for dai dai shogi, the movement is two squares straight forward or one square diagonally or sideways (as in taikyoku shogi). But the same source gives in tai shogi: two squares forward or sideways, or one square diagonally forward.
  18. ^ This is the move given in The Chess Variant Pages, the English-language sources, and the main table on Japanese Wikipedia. In the SZ the backward moves are restricted to one step rather than two in the illustration (fQrlR2bK), but the text gives any number of squares horizontally, orthogonally forward, or diagonally forward, and up to two squares horizontally (which overlaps), orthogonally backward, or diagonally backward (Q2frlQ). The SSZ allows up to two squares sideways, orthogonally backward, or diagonally backward; or unlimited range sideways (which overlaps), orthogonally forward, or diagonally forward (frlQbQ2). In the SRZ it simply has a five-square range in any direction (Q5).
  19. ^ The SZ agrees with this description in its text, but in its diagram the forward orthogonal move is given as two steps instead of one (fQ2W). The SRZ gives for dai dai shogi: two steps orthogonally or diagonally forward, and one square sideways or backward. It gives for tai shogi: unlimited range diagonally forward, and two squares diagonally backward.
  20. ^ This move is used by The Chess Variant Pages and Japanese Wikipedia. The SRZ gives it the same move as the drunk elephant in other shogi variants (one square in any direction except directly backward). The English-language sources give this move, as does Japanese Wikipedia for taikyoku shogi (which usually has different moves from dai dai shogi). But in tai shogi (which usually has the same moves) the SRZ removes the forward right diagonal instead of the backward orthogonal.
  21. ^ In the SRZ, it has unlimited range vertically, or diagonally backward.
  22. ^ This move makes it symmetrical with the mountain witch, and accords with how Western sources describe the move in maka dai dai shogi. When describing dai dai shogi, the SZ does not have the forward move (BbW), which is how the Japanese Wikipedia describes this piece. The SSZ gives it unlimited range forward orthogonally and diagonally and one step directly backward (fQbW), while the SRZ gives it unlimited range vertically and diagonally forward (fBfbR). In maka dai dai shogi, all three Edo-era sources give it unlimited range diagonally forward and orthogonally sideways and backward (fBrlbR), according to Japanese Wikipedia.
  23. ^ In the SRZ's description of dai dai shogi, it moves one square orthogonally; in its description of tai shogi, it moves two squares sideways or diagonally forward or one square diagonally backward. (There is another description which allows for moving one square on the forward left diagonal, but a misprint cannot be ruled out.)
  24. ^ In the SRZ for dai dai shogi: one square diagonally forward or one square on the left backward diagonal. But the same source lets it move one square orthogonally in tai shogi.
  25. ^ In the SRZ, the diagonal move has unlimited range.
  26. ^ The SRZ gives two inconsistent descriptions in dai dai shogi. One is this one; the other gives three steps sideways or one step backward or diagonally forward (as in taikyoku shogi). In maka dai dai shogi, the SRZ is missing the orthogonal ranging move.
  27. ^ In the SRZ, it is given the taikyoku shogi move in dai dai shogi: two squares in any orthogonal direction (R2). In tai shogi it is given unlimited vertical range and two squares diagonally (B2fbR).
  28. ^ In the SRZ it moves two squares diagonally (B2).
  29. ^ In the SRZ, it is only allowed to range to the left and right in dai dai shogi. In tai shogi it is allowed to range in the three forward directions.
  30. ^ The step move is absent in the SRZ, making it identical to a rook.
  31. ^ The SRZ gives two inconsistent descriptions. In one, it has unlimited range diagonally forward with the possibility of jumping over up to three pieces, and has a simple unlimited range forward and a range of three squares sideways or diagonally backward. But in the other description the unlimited range straight forward is replaced by an unlimited range straight backward. In taikyoku shogi, the Japanese Wikipedia gives the union of these two, i.e. with unlimited range straight forward and backward.
  32. ^ This is the description in English-language sources and also how Japanese Wikipedia describes the great dragon as a promoted kirin. However, Japanese Wikipedia describes the starting great dragon as moving very differently: ranging horizontally, jumping to the second or third square horizontally, one or two squares vertically, or up to three squares along the backward diagonals. This is the same description it gives for tai shogi. Promoted pieces move the same as their unpromoted namesakes, so one of these is in error. The weight of the evidence—the English-language sources, half of Japanese Wikipedia descriptions, and symmetry with the golden bird—point to the description given here. The SZ gives this description in the text; its picture limits the sideways move to three squares. The SSZ agrees with the description given in this article. The SRZ gives the taikyoku shogi move for both dai dai shogi and tai shogi: unlimited range on the diagonals and three squares vertically.
  33. ^ In the SZ and SSZ, the description is any number of squares straight forward, on the forward right diagonal, or on the backward left diagonal; or one step straight to the left. This is how the Japanese Wikipedia describes it for taikyoku shogi only. The SRZ gives the same description in dai dai shogi and tai shogi as the SZ and SSZ, except that the possibility to move straight forward is missing.
  34. ^ In the SZ and SSZ, the description is any number of squares straight forward, on the forward left diagonal, or on the backward right diagonal; or one step straight to the right. This is how the Japanese Wikipedia describes it for taikyoku shogi only. The SRZ gives the same description in dai dai shogi and tai shogi as the SZ and SSZ, except that the possibility to move straight forward is missing.
  35. ^ The SZ and SSZ describe it this way, but in the SZ's picture left and right are reversed. In the SZ, it is not described for tai shogi, so it presumably moves the same way as in dai dai shogi; in the SSZ it is described again, but differently: two squares orthogonally, any number of squares on the forward left diagonal, and one square on the forward right diagonal. The SRZ gives different moves in the two games. In dai dai shogi it gives unlimited range horizontally and along the forward left diagonal, and up to two squares vertically and along the forward right diagonal. In tai shogi it has unlimited range along the forward left and backward right diagonals, and one square in the other directions.
  36. ^ The SZ describes it this way, but in its picture left and right are reversed. In the SZ, it is not described for tai shogi, so it presumably moves the same way as in dai dai shogi; in the SSZ it is described again, but the same way. The SRZ gives different moves in the two games. In dai dai shogi it gives unlimited range vertically and along the forward right diagonal, and up to two squares horizontally and along the forward left diagonal. In tai shogi it has unlimited range along the forward left and backward right diagonals, and one square along the horizontal, the forward right diagonal, and the backward left diagonal (giving symmetry with the vermillion sparrow).
  37. ^ In the SRZ, it moves two squares vertically or any number of squares diagonally forward. But that seems unlikely since this piece is already used in dai shogi with the R2 move.
  38. ^ In the SRZ for tai shogi, it additionally has the power of unlimited range forward (fRfB2rlW).
  39. ^ The SZ agrees with this description in the main text, but the picture additionally forbids it from moving directly backward as well as left. In the SRZ, for dai dai shogi it is allowed to move one square in any direction, like the king. For tai shogi the SRZ agrees with the SZ's picture (not allowed to move directly backward or left), but this makes it asymmetrical with the right general, and so is probably a misprint.
  40. ^ So in the SZ and SSZ. In the SRZ, for dai dai shogi it moves one square in any direction, like the king. But for tai shogi the SRZ permits it to move one square in any direction except directly left. (The SZ and SSZ do not mention the piece in tai shogi, so it presumably moves as in dai dai shogi.)
  41. ^ So in the SZ and SSZ, but in the SRZ it has the power to range directly forward, identically to the lance. (Which agrees with taikyoku shogi.)
  42. ^ http://katakas.org/documents/FigurenWerte_110922.pdf[bare URL PDF]

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