Daimler Company

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This article is about the Daimler brand and its owner the British automobile manufacturer The Daimler Company Limited. For other uses derived from the German engineer and inventor Gottlieb Daimler, see Daimler (disambiguation) For the two direct descendants of Daimler's original enterprise, see Daimler-Benz (and its successor Daimler AG) and Austro-Daimler.
The Daimler Company Limited
Industry Automotive
Fate from 1960 a division of
Jaguar Cars
Abbey Road, Whitley
Coventry CV3 4LF
Successor(s) Jaguar Cars continue to use the Daimler name
Founded 1896
Headquarters Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom
Key people Percy Martin
Edward Manville
Products Motor vehicles
Employees 16,000
Parent from 1910 to 1960 The Birmingham Small Arms Company
Subsidiaries Lanchester Motor Company
Daimler Hire
Daimler Air Hire
Daimler Airway
Transport Vehicles (Daimler)
Hooper & Co
Barker & Co
Carbodies
Hobbs Transmission
Stratton-Instone
Daimler Marque
Daimler logo.svg
Daimler DE 36 "Green Goddess", Hooper limousine (1949) 8853058256.jpg
5½-litre 150 bhp Straight-Eight drop-head coupé 1949
Product type Motor vehicles
Owner Tata Group through Jaguar Land Rover
Introduced 1891
Related brands Jaguar Cars
Markets International
Previous owners The Daimler Motor Company Limited (1896–1904)
The Daimler Motor Company (1904) Limited (1904–1910)
BSA Group (1910–1960)
Jaguar Cars (1960–1966)
British Motor Corporation (1966–1966)
British Motor Holdings (1966–1968)
British Leyland (1968–1984)
Jaguar Cars (1984–1989)
Ford PAG (1989–2007)
Registered as a trademark in not known
Website www.daimlercars.com
Flutes: Daimler's traditional radiator grille topped by now-vestigial cooling fins adopted by 1905

The Daimler Company Limited, until 1910 The Daimler Motor Company Limited, was an independent British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in London by H J Lawson in 1896, which set up its manufacturing base in Coventry. The right to the use of the name Daimler had been purchased simultaneously from Gottlieb Daimler and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft of Cannstatt, Germany. As of 2014, the brand appears to be dormant.

Origin[edit]

Simms and the Daimler engine[edit]

Gottlieb Daimler's railcars "tirelessly ferrying passengers around the Bremen showground as if by magic".
Simms in his Motor Scout, in June 1899.

Engineer Frederick Richard Simms was supervising construction of an aerial cableway of Simms own design for the Bremen Exhibition in 1889 when he saw tiny railcars powered by Gottlieb Daimler's motors. Simms, who had been born to English parents in Hamburg and raised by them there, became friends with Daimler, an ardent Anglophile who had spent from autumn 1861 to summer 1863 in England, working at Beyer-Peacock in Gorton, Manchester.[1][2]

Simms first introduced Daimler’s motors to England in 1890 to power launches. In an agreement dated 18 February 1891, he obtained British and Empire rights for the Daimler patents. That month, DMG lent Simms a motorboat with a 2 hp engine and an extra engine.[3] In June 1891 Simms had set up a London office at 49 Leadenhall Street and founded Simms & Co consulting engineers.[4] In May 1892, the motorboat, which Simms had named Cannstatt, began running on the Thames from Putney.[4] After demonstrating a motor launch to The Honourable Evelyn Ellis, Simms's motor launch business grew rapidly, but became endangered when solicitor Alfred Hendriks was found to have been illegally taking money from the company.[4] Hendriks severed his connections with Simms & Co. in February 1893. Simms' Daimler-related work was later moved into a new company, The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited, which was formed on 26 May 1893.[5]

Simms plans to make cars[edit]

Following the success of Daimler-powered Peugeots and Panhards at the 1894 Paris–Rouen competition, Simms decided to open a motor car factory,[6] possibly the UK's first motor company.[citation needed]

On 7 June 1895 Simms told the board of the Daimler Motor Syndicate that he intended to form The Daimler Motor Company Limited to acquire the British rights to the Daimler patents and to manufacture Daimler engines and cars in England.[7] That month, he arranged for the syndicate to receive a ten percent (10%) commission on all British sales of Daimler-powered Panhard & Levassor cars.[8]

At the same meeting, Simms produced the first licence to operate a car under the Daimler patents. It was for a 3½ hp Panhard & Levassor that had been bought in France by The Honourable Evelyn Ellis, who had three Daimler motor launches moored by his home at Datchet. On 3 July, after Ellis bought the licence, the car was landed at Southampton and driven by Ellis to Micheldever near Winchester where Ellis met Simms and they drove together to Datchet. Ellis later drove it on to Malvern. This was the first long journey by motorcar in Britain.[7] Simms later referred to the car as a "Daimler Motor Carriage".[8]

Later in 1895, Simms announced plans to form The Daimler Motor Company Limited and to build a brand-new factory, with delivery of raw materials by light rail, for 400 workmen making Daimler engines and motor carriages. Simms asked his friend Daimler to be consulting engineer to the new enterprise.[7] Works premises at Eel Pie Island on the Thames[9] where the Thames Electric and Steam Launch Company, owned by Andrew Pears of Pears Soap fame, had been making electrically-powered motor launches,[10] were purchased to be used to service Daimler-powered motor launches.[7][9]

Simms sells out to Lawson[edit]

Investor Harry John Lawson had set out to use The British Motor Syndicate Limited to monopolise motor car production in Britain by taking over every patent he could. As part of this goal, Lawson approached Simms on 15 October 1895, seeking the right to arrange the public flotation of the proposed new company and to acquire a large shareholding for his British Motor Syndicate.[6] Welcomed by Simms, the negotiations proceeded on the basis that this new company should acquire The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited as a going concern, including the name and patent rights.[11]

In order that the Daimler licences could be transferred from Simms to the new company, all the former partners would have to agree to the transfer. By this time, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach had withdrawn from Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft's business to concentrate on cars and engines for them.[12] Simms offered to pay DMG £17,500 for the transfer and for a licence for Daimler and Maybach's Phénix engine, which DMG did not own. Simms therefore insisted that the transfer be on the condition that Daimler and Maybach rejoined DMG.[12][13] This was agreed in November 1895 and the Daimler-Maybach car business re-merged with DMG's. Daimler was appointed DMG's General Inspector and Maybach chief Technical Director.[14][13] At the same time Simms became a director of DMG but did not become a director of the London company. According to Gustav Vischer, DMG's business manager at the time, Simms getting Daimler to return to DMG was "no mean feat".[15]

The sale of Daimler Motor Syndicate to Lawson's interests was completed by the end of November 1895. The shareholders of the Syndicate had made a profit of two hundred percent (200%) on their original investment.[16]

Independent (1896-1910)[edit]

Daimler 6 hp[note 1] twin-cylinder shooting brake 1897 example

Acquisition[edit]

On 14 January 1896 Lawson incorporated The Daimler Motor Company Limited. A prospectus was issued on 15 February.[17] The subscription lists opened on 17 February[17] and closed, oversubscribed, the next day.[18] The Daimler Motor Company Limited bought The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited from Lawson's British Motor Syndicate as a going concern. Simms was appointed consulting engineer to the new business but was not to be on the board of directors,[18] possibly because he had become a director of the Cannstatt firm.

One of the duties assigned to Simms was to find a suitable location for the factory. Simms found the Trusty Oil Engine Works, a company in receivership whose six-acre site at Cheltenham included a foundry, a machine shop, and testing facilities.[19][20] Simms recommended buying the works immediately since, with ready facilities and the availability of skilled workers, they could start up in a very short time.[19] Instead, at the first statutory meeting of the company, held while Simms was overseas, Lawson persuaded the board to buy a disused four-storey cotton mill in Coventry which was owned by Lawson's associate Ernest Terah Hooley.[19] Despite Simms' later protest and pleas to sell the mill and buy the Trusty Oil Engine Works, Daimler stayed with the mill as the site of Britain's first automobile factory.[21]

1896 passed with car sales limited to imported Panhard and Peugeot cars. Aside from engines Cannstatt seemed curiously unable to supply ordered components or specially commissioned working drawings. Four experimental cars were built in Coventry and some (redesigned in detail) Daimler engines.[22]

The first car left the works in January 1897, fitted with a Panhard engine, followed in March by Daimler-engined cars. The first Coventry Daimler-engined product made its maiden run on 2 March 1897.[22] By mid-year they were producing three of their own cars a week and producing Léon Bollée cars under licence. Lawson claimed to have made 20 cars by July 1897 making the Daimler Britain's first motor car to go into serial production, an honour that is also credited to Humber Motors who had also displayed, but in their case their production models, at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1896. The Daimlers had a twin-cylinder, 1526 cc engine, mounted at the front of the car, four-speed gearbox and chain drive to the rear wheels.

In mid-1900 Frederick Simms, as a director of DMG, proposed a union between the Daimler Motor Company in Coventry and DMG in Cannstatt, but nothing came of the proposal.[22]

Royal patronage[edit]

The first Royal car 6 hp 2-cylinders 1527 cc fitted with a "mail phaeton" body purchased by the Prince of Wales, 1900. Currently on display at Sandringham

Known as Britain's oldest car manufacturers, Daimler became the official transportation of royalty in 1898, after the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, was given a ride on a Daimler by John Douglas-Scott-Montagu later known as Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. Scott-Montagu, as a member of parliament, also drove a Daimler into the yard of the British Parliament, the first motorised vehicle to be driven there.[citation needed]

In early 1900, Daimler had sold the Prince of Wales a mail phaeton.[23][24] In 1902, upon buying his second Daimler, King Edward VII awarded Daimler a royal warrant as suppliers of motor cars.[24]

In 1903, Undecimus Stratton met E. G. Jenkinson, the chairman of Daimler, when Jenkinson's Daimler was stranded by the roadside. Upon seeing the stranded motorist, Stratton stopped his Daimler and offered assistance.[25] Jenkinson was impressed by Stratton and by his motoring knowledge. At the time, Jenkinson was looking to replace the head of Daimler's London depot, a particularly sensitive position because of the royal cars. Taking the position, Stratton soon found himself having to select better royal chauffeurs and mechanics.[23] He quickly became an occasional motoring companion to the King.[26] In 1908, through Stratton's Royal connections, Daimler was awarded a "Royal Appointment as suppliers of motor cars to the Court of Spain" by King Alfonso XIII[27] and a Royal Warrant as "Motor Car Manufacturer to the Court of Prussia" by Kaiser Wilhelm II.[28] Stratton also sold Daimlers to the Sultan of Johor.[27] In 1911 he spent some weekends at Sandringham tutoring the new Prince of Wales on the workings and driving of an automobile.[29][30]

In 1921 Stratton went into partnership with Daimler's commercial mangager Ernest Instone. Stratton and Instone took charge of the Daimler showrooms at 27 Pall Mall, naming the business Stratton-Instone.[31] Stratton died in July 1929 after a brief illness.[31] His successors and Instone bought out Daimler's interest in 1930 and renamed the business Stratstone Limited.[citation needed] The following summer the future King Edward VIII rented Stratton's house at Sunningdale from his widow.[31]

Every British monarch from Edward VII to Elizabeth II has been driven in Daimler limousines. In 1950, after a persistent transmission failure on the King's car, Rolls-Royce was commissioned to provide official state cars and as Daimlers retired they were not replaced by Daimlers. The current official state car is either one of a pair which were specially made for the purpose by Bentley, unofficial chauffeured transport is by Daimler. Her Majesty's own car for personal use is a 2008 Daimler Super Eight but she is also seen to drive herself in other smaller cars.

Fluted radiator[edit]

Daimler 22 hp[note 1] 4 cyl. 4,503cc 45 mph as driven by Sir Thomas Lipton (1903 example)

Since 1904, the fluted top surface to the radiator grille has been Daimler's distinguishing feature. This motif developed from the heavily finned water-cooling tubes slung externally at the front of early cars and clearly visible in the photograph of the 1903 car to the right. Later, a more conventional, vertical radiator had a heavily finned header tank. Eventually these fins were echoed on a protective grille shell and, even later, on the rear licence plate holder.

Sleeve-valve engines[edit]

Knight-Daimler engine, transverse section

Attracted by the possibilities of the "Silent Knight" engine Daimler's chairman contacted Charles Yale Knight in Chicago and Knight settled in England near Coventry in 1907. Daimler contracted Dr Frederick Lanchester as their consultant for the purpose and a major re-design and refinement of Knight's design took place in great secrecy. Knight's design was made a practical proposition.[22] When unveiled in September 1908 the new engine caused a sensation. "Suffice it to say that mushroom valves, springs and cams, and many small parts, are swept away bodily, that we have an almost perfectly spherical explosion chamber, and a cast-iron sleeve or tube as that portion of the combustion chamber in which the piston travels."[32]

Daimler 22 hp[note 1] open 2-seater
among the first of the sleeve-valve Daimlers (1909 example)

The Royal Automobile Club held a special meeting to discuss the new engine, still silent but no longer "Wholly Knight". The Autocar reported on "its extraordinary combination of silence, flexibility and power." In recognition of the design's success the RAC awarded Daimler their coveted Dewar Trophy. Daimler bought rights from Knight "for England and the colonies" and shared ownership of the European rights, in which it took 60%, with Minerva of Belgium. Daimler dropped poppet-valve engines altogether. Sales outran the works' ability to supply.

Daimler's sleeve valve engines idle silently but when they left royal engagements Daimlers often departed in a just-visible haze of oil smoke. These engines had quite high oil consumption, oil being needed to lubricate the sleeves particularly when cold, but by the standards of their day they required almost no maintenance.[22]

Daimler kept their silent sleeve-valve engines until the mid-1930s. The change to poppet valves began with the Fifteen of 1933.[22]

Impact on British life and culture, 1896-1910[edit]

In 1899 a Daimler 6 hp was involved in the first motor accident in the UK to be recorded as having involved the death of the driver. A young engineer was killed when the rim of a rear wheel collapsed and the car he was driving collided with a wall on a sloping road in Harrow on the Hill. The engineer's passenger was thrown from the car and died in hospital three days later.[33][34]

Review of independent management[edit]

It has been suggested[by whom?] that Simms and Daimler soon withdrew from their initial association with Lawson because Lawson showed little potential ability for managing a manufacturing business. It was felt[by whom?] Lawson's was an unsatisfactory group of people to be associated with. They were described by Frederick Lanchester as "the Coventry Company Promoting Gang".[35] Once relieved of Lawson, the next period, Sturmey's chairmanship, suffered from the division between his supporters and his opponents. Sturmey departed in 1899.

Yet in the early 1900s, the achievement of a Royal Warrant and acquisition of some capable talent led to improved fortunes. Under the chairmanship of Sir Edward Jenkinson, an American, Percy Martin, a substantial shareholder and electrical engineer, was promoted to works manager and Ernest Instone to general manager. Jenkinson was succeeded in 1906 by Edward Manville, a distinguished consulting electrical engineer who was to become chairman of BSA.

Owned by BSA (1910-1960)[edit]

Acquisition by BSA[edit]

Daimler 20 hp[note 1] open drive limousine for the Empress of Korea
Daimler 20 hp[note 1] open tourer
torpedo-style body (1913 example)

Under an agreement dated 22 September 1910[36] the shareholders of The Daimler Motor Company Limited "merged their holdings with those of the Birmingham Small Arms Company (BSA) group of companies". They handed in their Daimler shares for new BSA shares.[citation needed] This business deal was engineered by Dudley Docker, deputy-chairman of BSA, who was famous for previous successful business mergers.[22]

Daimler, a manufacturer of motor vehicles, had a payroll of 4,116 workmen and 418 staff immediately before the merger. BSA produced rifles, ammunition, military vehicles, bicycles, motorcycles and some BSA-branded cars. The chairman of the combined group was Edward Manville, who had been chairman of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders – founded by Simms – since 1907.

However the merger was not a great success. By 1913 Daimler had a workforce of 5,000 workers which made only 1,000 vehicles a year.[37]

Transport of emperors, kings and princes[edit]

Daimler, the choice of British royalty...

By 1914 Daimlers were in the service of royal families including those of Great Britain, Russia, Germany, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Greece; its list of owners among the British nobility "read like a digest of Debrett"[who said this?]; the Bombay agent supplied Indian princes; the Japanese agent, Okura, handled sales in Manchuria and Korea.[citation needed]

World War I work[edit]

War was declared on 4 August 1914.

The military took the normal production cars, lorries, buses and ambulances together with a scout army vehicle and engines used in ambulances, trucks, and double-decker buses. Special products included aero-engines and complete aircraft, tank and tractor engines and munitions.

Aero=engines manufactured by Daimler included the French-designed Gnome Monosoupape rotary, the RAF 1 and 1a air-cooled V8s, the RAF 4a V12, the Le Rhone rotary, and the Bentley BR2 rotary.

Daimler trained air force mechanics in its works and its training methods became the standard for all manufacturers instructing RAF mechanics.[22]

Having its own body shop, Daimler built complete aircraft. By the end of 1914, they had built 100 units of the Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c. These were followed by the BE12 and RE8. Their own test-ground beside the factory was compulsorily purchased and became the main RAF testing ground for aircraft built in the Coventry district. Although Daimler tooled up for production of the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.4 bomber the aircraft was cancelled due to poor performance. The last wartime aircraft produced was the Airco DH.10 bomber when they were building 80 aeroplanes a month.[22]

The first special production in late 1914 were the power trains used in the Fosters of Lincoln artillery tractors built to haul 15-inch (380 mm) howitzers. As a result Daimler produced engines for the very first British tanks ever built ("Little Willie" and "Mother"). One major difficulty for the tanks was the fine oil haze above their Daimler engines which the enemy quickly learned meant tanks were operating nearby if out of sight. The early tanks weighed up to 28 tons. They were all Daimler powered. Modifications designed by W. O. Bentley upgraded output from 105 to 125 horsepower during production. Derivatives included a gun-carrier and a supply vehicle and a salvage machine to rescue broken-down tanks and heavy guns.[22]

Daimler made more twelve inch (305 mm) shells than any other business in the country, 2000 a week. Each was machined from a 994 lb forging down to a finished weight of 684 lb.[22]

Wartime production
Bentley BR2
aero engine 
12-inch
artillery shells 
Daimler transport
on the Western Front 
Daimler-Foster
105 hp[note 1]
artillery tractor 
B.E.2f
at Masterton, New Zealand 2009 
Daimler lorry
CB-type 40hp[note 1]
3-tonner 1915 

Civil aviation[edit]

De Havilland DH.34
Daimler Airway livery red and white

After the Armistice it was decided that Daimler Hire should extend its luxury travel services to include charter aircraft through a new enterprise, Daimler Air Hire. Following the take-over of Airco and its subsidiaries in February 1920 services included scheduled services London-Paris as well as "Taxi Planes" to "anywhere in Europe". In 1922 under the name of Daimler Airway services extended to scheduled flights London to Berlin and places between. Frank Searle, managing director of Daimler Hire and its subsidiaries moved with his deputy Humphery Wood into the new national carrier Imperial Airways at its formation on 1 April 1924. Searle and Wood and their Daimler Airway machines formed the core of Imperial Airways operations.

Commercial vehicles[edit]

In late 1920s, it, together with Associated Equipment Company (AEC), formed the Associated Daimler Company to build commercial vehicles. The association was dissolved in 1928 with each company retaining manufacture of its original products.[38]

Lanchester acquisition and badging[edit]

Lanchester Ten[note 1]

In 1930 the bulk of Daimler's shareholding in its subsidiary Daimler Hire Limited was sold to the Thomas Tilling Group[39] and, in January 1931, Daimler completed the purchase of The Lanchester Motor Company Limited.[39] The new Lanchester 15/18 model introduced in 1931 was fitted with Daimler's fluid flywheel transmission.[39]

Although at first they produced separate ranges of cars with the Daimler badge appearing mainly on the larger models, by the mid-1930s the two were increasingly sharing components leading to the 1936 Lanchester 18/Daimler Light 20 differing in little except trim and grille.[40]

This marketing concept already employed with their BSA range of cars continued to the end of Lanchester and BSA car production. Some very important customers were supplied with big Daimler limousines with Lanchester grilles.[22] The Daimler range was exceptionally complex in the 1930s with cars using a variety of six- and eight-cylinder engines with capacities from 1805 cc in the short lived 15 of 1934 to the 4624 cc 4.5-litre of 1936.

Review of BSA management before World War II[edit]

Low-chassis Daimler double-six 50 hp[note 1]
four-seater drophead coupé (1931)
by Corsica of Cricklewood
chassis modified by Reid Railton at Thomson & Taylor Ltd

By 1930, the BSA Group's primary activities were BSA motorcycles and Daimler vehicles.[41]

The involvement of the Docker family, father and son, beginning in 1910 failed to solve boardroom difficulties which transferred to BSA and in the end may have brought about disaster but in any case until the late 1920s the collective Daimler leadership did well and the business prospered. Its repute and its profits grew. "Side by side with an apprenticeship scheme which was as good as any in the trade, they had begun to attract pupils from public schools with such success that shortly before (World War I) there was a hostel full of them in a pleasant house in St Nicholas Street near the Coventry works."[42] During that war, the labour force grew from 4,000 to 6,000 men. The acquisition of Airco in February 1920 was a financial disaster for the BSA group, the blame since laid at Percy Martin's door, and all dividends were passed from 1920 to 1924. Martin had been strongly in favour of its purchase with its extensive aircraft or motor vehicle production facilities near London and no one thought to exercise "due diligence", which would have revealed Airco's true circumstances.

All the quality car businesses experienced financial difficulties in the late 1920s. Daimler's situation seemed[by whom?] particularly serious. Sales fell sharply in 1927–1928, a period of losses ensued and no dividends were paid between 1929 and 1936. The sleeve valve engine was now well out of date, Daimler's production methods had become old-fashioned, they had an extravagantly large range of products. Their bankers noted the dwindling sales volume, the poor performance for price and the need for installation of up-to-date machine tool equipment. Stratton-Instone's new dominance of distribution was removed and new outlets arranged. The interests in Singer and the Daimler Hire business were sold and Lanchester bought. The in-house bodywork department was closed and by the spring of 1931 car production ceased, only commercial vehicle production and aero engine work kept Daimler in business.[43]

Laurence Pomeroy joined Damler in late 1926, at first working on commercial vehicles but from 1928 he worked at the products of the main Daimler operation. Pomeroy introduced redesigned poppet valve engines with the Daimler Fifteen in September 1932, developed new models of Daimlers, recommended what became the September 1932 introduction of the small BSA and Lanchester Tens with poppet valve engines to help Daimler survive the depression and according to Percy Martin these things rescued the business from total collapse in 1932.[43] 1934's new Straight-Eights were a personal triumph for Pomeroy.[44]

With the 1930s, another gradual slide began. Manville died in harness in 1933, Percy Martin was forced out two years later, and Frederick Lanchester resigned as consultant in 1936. That same year, Laurence Pomeroy was not re-elected to the board and left for de Havilland. Ernest Instone had left the works in the early 1920s to concentrate his efforts on distribution (Stratton-Instone) but he too died, in 1932.[44] Daimler was not paying dividends and the 1936 BSA shareholders' meetings were stormy. Attempted solutions had included the Lanchester acquisition and the introduction of smaller cars, the lower-priced 10 hp Lanchester and its matching but six-cylinder stable-mate the Daimler Fifteen (later DB17 and DB18) introduced in the early thirties. This particular product line as the Lanchester Fourteen and Daimler Conquest was to run through to almost the very end.

Edward H. W. Cooke attempted a revival and from 1937 introduced saloons with a freshness of design new to Daimler. The new products had successes in competitions and rallies. His policy was proved sound but another war, post-war austerity and yet more boardroom battles, this time in public, seemed to put an end to Daimler's once-proud business.[42]

Daimler's semi-automatic transmissions[edit]

Shift lever Daimler Fifteen 1934 example

Daimler became a proponent of the Wilson self changing gearbox matched with Fottinger's fluid flywheel further developed from Vulcan's and their own patents. They were introduced by Daimler in October 1930 on their new Light Double-Six for an extra £50[45][46] and soon they were used in all Daimler vehicles. The chairman reported to the shareholders at their Annual General Meeting in November 1933 "The Daimler Fluid Flywheel Transmission now has three years of success behind it and more than 11,000 vehicles, ranging from 10 h.p. passenger cars to double-deck omnibuses, aggregating over 160,000 h.p., incorporate this transmission. . . . . it has yet to be proved that any other system offers all the advantages of the Daimler Fluid Flywheel Transmission. Our Daimler, Lanchester and BSA cars remain what we set out to make them—the aristocrats of their class and type. . . . We have also received numerous inquiries from overseas markets. (Applause)".[47] These transmissions remained in production until replaced by Borg-Warner fully automatic units beginning in the mid-1950s. Late in that period a new Lanchester model with a Hobbs fully automatic gearbox did not, in the end, enter full production.

Royal Daimlers[edit]

A wide variety of engines were made in the earlier years. In an attempt to give some kind of indication of the complexities involved what follows is a list, by year of first supply, of the different engines in cars supplied to the King. In many cases a number of cars were supplied with the same engine and over a period of some years.

All-weather tourer, Sydney NSW 1954
State landaulette, 1947 on display to
celebrate the royal diamond jubilee
Goodwood Festival of Speed 2012
  • 1899 6 hp 2-cylinder 1.527 litres
  • 1901 12 hp 4-cylinder 2.324 litres TA
  • 1903 22 hp 4-cylinder 5.733 litres TB
  • 1904 22 hp 4-cylinder 5.702 litres TB
  • 1904 28 hp 4-cylinder 6.786 litres TB
  • 1905 30 hp 4-cylinder 7.246 litres TJ
  • 1905 35 hp 4-cylinder 8.462 litres TK
  • 1905 35 hp 4-cylinder 9.236 litres TK
  • 1907 30 hp 4-cylinder 4.942 litres TO
  • 1908 42 hp 4-cylinder 7.964 litres TC
  • 1908 58 hp 4-cylinder 10.431 litres TC
  • 1909 38 hp 4-cylinder 6.281 litres TC
  • 1909 57 hp 6-cylinder 9.420 litres TC
  • 1911 23 hp 6-cylinder 3.921 litres TA
  • 1911 38 hp 6-cylinder 9.420 litres TH
  • 1914 20 hp 4-cylinder 3.308 litres TO
  • 1914 45 hp 6-cylinder 7.412 litres TB
  • 1920 30 hp 6-cylinder 4.962 litres TL
  • 1923 45 hp 6-cylinder 7.413 litres TJ
  • 1924 20 hp 6-cylinder 2.648 litres C
  • 1925 45 hp 6-cylinder 8.458 litres N "The largest production car in the world"
  • 1926 35 hp 6-cylinder 5.764 litres R
  • 1928 30 hp 12-cylinder 3.744 litres V Light Double Six
  • 1929 25 hp 6-cylinder 3.568 litres V
  • 1931 40/50 hp 12-cylinder 6.511 litres OP Double Six, fluid flywheel, self-changing gearbox
  • 1935 25 hp 8-cylinder 3.746 litres Light Straight Eight
  • 1935 50 hp 12-cylinder 6.511 litres Double Six
  • 1936 32 hp 8-cylinder 4.624 litres Straight Eight
  • 1937 24 hp 6-cylinder 3.317 litres EL24

The production programme for 1930 encompassed six engine types and seventeen variants on seven chassis types. A substantial part of the programme had been completed and sold by November 1929. Orders held for 1930 were:

  • 16 hp 1,180
  • 20 hp 2,176
  • 25 hp 1,735
  • 35 hp 396
  • 30 hp 236 Light Double Six
  • 50 hp 74 Double Six
25 hp[note 1]
landaulette
1911 example 
45hp[note 1]
all-weather tourer
1920 example 
57 hp[note 1] 6-cyl 9½-litres
limousine by Hooper
1923 example
private purchaser but as supplied to
King George V 
30 hp[note 1]
limousine
1925 example 
35/120
all-weather tourer
1928 example 
32 hp[note 1] Straight-Eight
limousine
1936 example 
24 hp[note 1] (EL24)
drophead coupé
1937 example
IFS has allowed the engine to be put between the front wheels and the radiator grille to the front 
24 hp[note 1] (EL24)
six-light limousine coachwork by Windovers Limited
1939 example 
30 hp[note 1] Light-Straight-Eight owner driver
four-light saloon coachwork by Vanden Plas 1939 example 
mid-size Daimlers
Sixteen
open tourer
1872 cc
1925 example 
Fifteen
drophead coupé
1805 cc
1934 example 
Fifteen
sports saloon
2166 cc
1936 example 
New Fifteen
saloon
2192 cc
1937 example 
Fifteen
4-dr all-weather tourer
2522 cc
1940 example 
Eighteen
saloon
2522 cc
1947 example 
Consort
saloon
2522 cc
1951 example 
Conquest
saloon
2433 cc
1955 example 
Conquest Century
drophead coupé
2433 cc
1955 example 

World War II work[edit]

War was declared on 3 September 1939. It would last until 15 August 1945 and again involve much of the world in the conflict.

During World War II, Daimler turned to military production. A four-wheel-drive scout car, known to the Army as the Dingo had a 2.5-litre engine and the larger Daimler Armoured Car powered by a 4.1-litre engine and armed with a 2-pounder gun were produced, both with six-cylinder power units, fluid flywheels and epicyclic gearboxes.[48] These military vehicles incorporated various innovative features including all-round disc brakes.[48] The Dingo was a BSA design, Daimler's own design had proved inferior but the "Dingo" name was retained.

During the war Daimler built over 6,600 scout and some 2,700 Mk I and Mk II armoured cars. Tank components, particularly epicyclic gearboxes were provided for some 2,500 Crusader, Covenanter and Cavalier tanks. No complete aircraft as in the previous war but 50,800 radial aero-engines—Bristol Mercury, Hercules and Pegasus—with full sets of parts for a further 9,500 of these engines; propeller shafts for Rolls-Royce aero-engines; 14,356 gun-turrets for bombers including their Browning machine guns; 74,000 Bren guns—bombed-out that production had to be moved to a boot and shoe factory in Burton-on-Trent. Over 10 million aircraft parts were produced during the war.[22] All this production is Daimler's alone excluding BSA's other involvements.

Daimler's peak workforce, 16,000 people, was reached in this period.[22]

After that war, Daimler produced the Ferret armoured car, a military reconnaissance vehicle based on the innovative 4.1-litre-engined armoured car they had developed and built during the war, which has been used by over 36 countries.

Brown's Lane[edit]

The original Sandy Lane plant, used as a government store, was destroyed by fire during intensive enemy bombing of Coventry, but there were by now 'shadow factories' elsewhere in the city including one located at Brown's Lane, Allesey—now itself destroyed—but which after the Jaguar takeover became for several decades the principal Jaguar car plant.[48]

Postwar large cars
Thirty-Six
Hooper
touring limousine
1946 example 
Thirty-Six
Hooper
all-weather tourer
1948 example 
Twenty-Seven[note 1] limousine 1950
in May 2011 the oldest car in Sweden's Royal Mews in regular use 
Regency
Hooper Empress
saloon 
Eighteen
Hooper Empress
drophead coupé
1951 example 
Special Sports
Barker
drophead coupé
1952 example 
One-O-Four
saloon
1955 example 
Sportsman
sports saloon
1957 example 
Majestic
saloon
1960 example 
Majestic Major V8
saloon
1961 example 
DK400 4½-litre 6
limousine 
DR450 4½-litre V8
limousine 

Postwar decline[edit]

Lanchester Ten, body by Briggs Motor Bodies
Daimler Ambulance

Churchill, for many years a regular customer, did his electioneering for his first postwar election sitting on the top of the back seat of a discreetly fast and luxurious low-slung Dolphin two-door drophead coupé first registered in 1944. The government ordered new limousines for the top brass of the occupying forces. New straight-eights were supplied to the former colonies for the planned royal tours.[note 2]

Foreign monarchs[note 3] re-ordered to replenish their fleets. The 1946 golden jubilee of the founding of the business was celebrated with a luncheon at the Savoy.[22]

However 'austerity' seemed infectious. The new Lanchester looked just like a Ford Prefect and its body was made in the same factory. A new model Eighteen with a lot of aluminium because of the steel supply shortage, a modified pre-war Fifteen, was introduced with technical innovations limited to a new cylinder head and curved glass in its side windows now framed by elegant chromed metal channels. Windows were 'in'. The big DE27 and DE 36 models were the first series-built cars with electrically operated windows.[22] Daimler ambulances became a common sight.

Then in June 1947 purchase tax was doubled—home market sales had already been restricted to cars for "essential purposes". Petrol remained rationed, ten gallons a month. Princess Elizabeth took her 2½-litre drophead coupé, an 18th-birthday gift from her father, to Malta, where her new husband was stationed. The King took delivery of a new open tourer straight-eight in March 1949. In the commodities boom caused by the 1950 Korean War Australasian woolgrowers reported the new electrically operated limousine-division to be 'just the thing' if over-heated sheepdogs licked the back of a driver's ears. The newest royal Daimler's transmission failed again and again.
This schedule shows where what should have been Daimler repeat-orders went to. Daimler subsidiary Hoopers at least got to make some of the bodies.

Consorts discounted[edit]

Daimlercade President Eisenhower
Kabul Afghanistan 9 December 1959

Sir Bernard Docker took the extra responsibility of Daimler's managing director in January 1953 when James Leek was unable to continue through illness. Car buyers were still waiting for the new (Churchill) government's easing of the 'temporary' swingeing purchase tax promised in the lead up to the snap-election held during the 1951 Earl's Court motor show. Lady Docker told her husband to rethink his marketing policies. 3-litre Regency production was stopped. In the hope of keeping 4,000+ employed the Consort price was dropped from 4 February 1953 to the expected new tax-inclusive level.

Stagnation of all the British motor industry was relieved by the reduction of purchase tax in the April 1953 budget. Daimler announced the introduction of the moderately sized Conquest in May (apparently developed in just four months from the four-cylinder Lanchester 14 or Leda with a Daimler grille).

Daimler and Lanchester (there were no more BSA cars) struggled after the War, producing too many models with short runs and limited production, and frequently selling too few of each model, while Jaguar seemed to know what the public wanted and expanded rapidly. Daimler produced heavy, staid, large and small luxury cars with a stuffy, if sometimes opulent image. Jaguar produced lower quality cars at a remarkably low price, designed for enthusiasts.

The BSA group's leadership of the world's motorcycle market was eventually lost to Japanese manufacturers.

Lady Docker's Daimlers[edit]

Blue Clover, her second show car
Golden Zebra 2-dr coupé by Hooper

Sir Bernard Docker was the managing director of BSA from early in WWII, and married Norah Lady Collins in 1949. Nora was twice-widowed and wealthy in her own right. This was her third marriage. She had originally been a successful dance hall hostess. Lady Docker took an interest in her husband's companies and became a director of Hooper, the coachbuilders.

Daughter of an unsuccessful Birmingham car salesman[49] Lady Docker could see that the Daimler cars, no longer popular with the royal family, were in danger of becoming an anachronism in the modern world. She took it upon herself to raise Daimler's profile, but in an extravagant fashion, by encouraging Sir Bernard to produce show cars.

The first was the 1951 "Golden Daimler", an opulent touring limousine, in 1952, "Blue Clover", a two-door sportsmans coupe, in 1953 the "Silver Flash" based on the 3-litre Regency chassis, and in 1954 "Stardust", redolent of the "Gold Car", but based on the DK400 chassis as was what proved to be her Paris 1955 grande finale, a 2-door coupé she named "Golden Zebra", the "last straw" for the Tax Office and now on permanent display at The Hague.

At the same time Lady Docker earned a reputation for having rather poor social graces when under the influence, and she and Sir Bernard were investigated for failing to correctly declare the amount of money taken out of the country on a visit to a Monte Carlo casino. Sir Bernard was instantly dumped "for absenteeism" by the Midland Bank board without waiting for the court case.[50][51] Norah drew further attention. She ran up large bills and presented them to Daimler as business expenses but some items were disallowed by the Tax Office. The publicity attached to this and other social episodes told on Sir Bernard's standing as some already thought the cars far too opulent and perhaps a little vulgar for austere post-war Britain.[52] To compound Sir Bernard's difficulty, the royal family shifted allegiance to Rolls-Royce. By the end of 1960 all the State Daimlers had been sold and replaced by Rolls-Royces.

Turner's engines[edit]

Main article: Daimler V8 engines
Daimler SP250 (1961 example)

In 1951 Jack Sangster sold his motorcycle companies Ariel and Triumph to BSA, and joined their board. In 1956 Sangster was elected chairman, defeating Sir Bernard 6 votes to 3. After a certain amount of electioneering by the Dockers an extraordinary shareholders' meeting backed the board decision and Bernard and Norah left buying a brace of Rolls-Royces as they went registering them as ND5 and BD9. Many important European customers turned out to have been Docker friends and did not re-order Daimler cars.[22]

Sangster promptly made Edward Turner head of the automotive division which as well as Daimler and Carbodies (London Taxicab manufacturers) included Ariel, Triumph, and BSA motorcycles. Turner designed the lightweight hemi head Daimler 2.5 & 4.5 Litre V8 Engines. The small engine was used to power a production version of an apprentice's exercise, the very flexible Dart and the larger engine installed in the Majestic Major, a relabelled Majestic. Under Sangster Daimler's vehicles became a little less sober and more performance oriented. The Majestic Major proved an agile high-speed cruiser on the new motorways. Bill Boddy described the SP250 as unlikely to stir the memories of such ghosts as haunt the tree-lined avenues near Sandringham, Balmoral and Windsor Castle.[53]

Daimler limousine DR450 1967 example

The two excellent Turner V8 engines disappeared with British Leyland's first rationalisation, the larger in 1968 and the smaller a year later.

Buses 1911–1973[edit]

Daimler CVD6 coach 1948 example

A significant element of Daimler production was bus chassis, mostly for double deckers. Daimler had been interested in the commercial vehicle market from 1904. In 1906 it produced, using the Auto-Mixte patents of Belgian Henri Pieper, a petrol-electric vehicle and on 23 May 1906 registered Gearless Motor Omnibus Co. Limited.[54] It was too heavy. Following the introduction of Daimler-Knight sleeve-valve engines re-designed for Daimler by Dr Frederick Lanchester Lanchester also refined the Gearless design and it re-emerged in 1910 as the KPL (Knight-Pieper-Lanchester) omnibus, a very advanced integral petrol electric hybrid. The KPL bus had four-wheel brakes and steel unitary body/chassis construction.[22] Failure to produce the KPL set bus design back twenty years.

Introduction of the KPL was stopped by a patent infringement action brought by London General Omnibus's associate Tilling-Stevens in early May 1911 when just twelve KPL buses had been built. This was just after Daimler had poached LGOC's Frank Searle and announced him to be general manager of its new London bus service which would be using its new KPL type to compete directly with LGOC.[55]

Some of LGOC's vehicles used Daimler engines. With the collapse of Daimler's plans Searle, an engineer and designer of the LGOC X-type and AEC B-type bus, instead joined Daimler's commercial vehicle department. Reverting to (before LGOC) omnibus salesman Searle rapidly achieved some notable sales. 100 to Metropolitan Electric Tramways and 250 to LGOC's new owner, Underground.

First Searle designed for Daimler a 34-seater with gearbox transmission (the KPL used electric motors each side) very like the B-Type and it was introduced by Daimler in early 1912.[54] The main difference from what became the AEC B-Type was the use of Daimler's sleeve-valve engine. In June 1912 what had been LGOC's manufacturing plant was hived off as AEC. Between 1913 and 1916 AEC built some Daimler models under contract and Daimler sold all AEC vehicles which were surplus to LGOC needs. After war service now Colonel Searle moved to Daimler Hire Limited and its involvement in aviation. The Searle models were developed after World War I, but from 1926–8 Daimler entered into a joint venture with AEC vehicles being badged as Associated Daimler.

In the 1930s the Daimler CO chassis became the main model, followed by a similar, but heavier, CW 'austerity' model produced during World War II (100 with the Gardner 5LW engine (CWG5), the rest with the AEC 7.7-litre engine – CWA6) and in postwar years production worked through the Daimler CV to the long-running Daimler CR Fleetline, built from 1960 to 1980 (CVG5 and CVG6 had been a common type of bus in Hong Kong between 1950 to 1988 and Fleetline had also become a major type of bus in Hong Kong until 1995). Small numbers of single deck vehicles were also built. Many British bus operators bought substantial numbers of the vehicles and there were also a number built for export. The standard London double-decker bus bought from 1970 to 1978 was the Daimler Fleetline.

Daimler Fleetline 1968 example

Daimler buses were fitted with proprietary diesel engines, the majority by the Gardner company, of Eccles, Manchester, although there were a few hundred Daimler diesels built in the 1940s & 1950s, and the Leyland O.680 was offered as an option on the Fleetline (designated CRL6) after the merger with Leyland. The bus chassis were also fitted with bodywork built by various outside contractors, as is standard in the British bus industry, so, at a casual glance, there is no real identifying feature of a Daimler bus, apart from the badges (Front engined Daimler buses retained the distinctive fluted radiator grille top). The last Daimler Fleetline was built at the traditional Daimler factory in Radford, Coventry, in 1973. After that date, the remaining buses were built at the Leyland factory in Farington, Preston, Lancashire, the final eight years of Fleetline production being badged as Leylands. The last Fleetline built was bodied by Eastern Coach Works in 1981.

During that Jaguar-owned period 1960–1968, Daimler became the second-largest (after Leyland) double-decker bus manufacturer in Britain, with the "Fleetline" model. At the same time, Daimler made trucks and motorhomes. BMH merged with the Leyland Motor Corporation to give the British Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968. Production of Daimler buses in Coventry ceased in 1973 when production of its last bus product (the Daimler Fleetline) was transferred to Leyland plant in Farington. Daimler stayed within BLMC and its subsequent forms until 1982, at which point Jaguar (with Daimler) was demerged from BL as an independent manufacturer.

Owned by Jaguar Cars (1960-1966)[edit]

In May 1960, the Daimler business was purchased from BSA by Jaguar Cars[56] for 3.4 million pounds.[57] William Lyons was looking to expand manufacture, wanted the manufacturing facilities and had to decide what to do with the existing Daimler vehicles.

Jaguar had been refused planning permission for a new factory in the area in which it wanted it to be. Daimler had shrunk to representing just 15% of BSA group turnover in 1959–1960 and BSA wished to dispose of its motoring interests.[56] "Jaguars reiterate their previous statement that the production of the current range of Daimler models is to be continued. Furthermore, research and development work in connexion with future Daimler models will proceed normally. Jaguars deny rumors to the effect that sweeping changes, including even the extinction of the Daimler marque, are to be expected. The company's long term view envisages not merely the retention of the Daimler marque, but the expansion of its markets at home and overseas, it is stated."[57]

Paul Skilleter, in his book "Jaguar saloon cars" states that Jaguar put a Daimler 4.5L V8 in a Mark X, and it went better than the Jaguar version, achieving 135 mph at the MIRA banked track, even with an inefficient prototype exhaust.

The Daimler Majestic Major and the sporty Dart, already in production, were continued for a number of years, using the Daimler V8 engine. In 1961 Daimler introduced the DR450, a limousine version of its Majestic Major with a longer chassis and bodyshell and higher roofline. It continued in production until the DS420 arrived in 1968, by which time it had sold almost as many as the "Major" saloon.

They were the last Daimlers not designed by Jaguar.

Daimler 2.5 V8 and V8-250[edit]

Daimler V8-250, hybrid
Small Daimler V8 in a re-badged Jaguar car
the most popular Daimler (1968 example)

The last car to have a Daimler engine was the 2.5 V8 later V8-250 which was essentially, apart from a fluted top to its grille, different badges and drivetrain, a more luxurious Jaguar Mk 2. Its distinctive personality may have attracted buyers who would have avoided the matching Jaguar.

While this car became the most popular Daimler ever produced it had two remarkable characteristics:

  • buyers did not include previous Daimler owners but rather people trading up from the bigger Ford, BMC or Rover cars.
  • No-one traded their V8-250 for a new V8-250. This at a time when 60% of new Jaguars were sold in exchange for Jaguars.

Daimler Sovereign[edit]

Daimler Sovereign (1969 example)

The decision was straightforward, now there would be no more than a Daimler label for a luxury version of a Jaguar car. After discussion it was decided it would not be a Royale but a Sovereign.

Daimler Company, owned by BMH (1966-1968)[edit]

Jaguar was taken over by British Motor Corporation (BMC), the new masters of badge-engineering, in 1966 and a few months later BMC was renamed British Motor Holdings (BMH).[58][59][60]

Sir William Lyons[edit]

Though Jaguar had diversified by adding, after Daimler, Guy trucks and Coventry-Climax to their group they remained dependent on Pressed Steel for bodies. Once BMC had taken control of Pressed Steel Lyons felt compelled to submit to the BMC takeover. Lyons remained anxious to see that Jaguar maintained its own identity and came to resent the association with British Leyland. He was delighted by Sir John Egan's accomplishments and by the new independence arranged in 1984.[61]

In 1967, British Leyland's New York advertising agency advised and it was accepted that there was insufficient in the group advertising budget to cope with maintaining the marketing of the Daimler brand in USA.[22]

Owned by British Leyland (1968-1984)[edit]

Jaguar's Daimler-trained chief executive[edit]

Lofty England, a Daimler apprentice 1927–1932, joined Jaguar in 1946. His background was as Service manager, Jaguar Cars 1946–56, service director 1956–61, assistant managing director 1961–66, deputy managing director 1966–67, joint managing director 1967–68, deputy chairman 1968–72, chairman and chief executive 1972–74.[62]

Daimler DS420 Limousine[edit]

Daimler DS420 Limousine
a heavily modified Jaguar Mk X

The Daimler DS420 Limousine introduced in 1968 and withdrawn from production in 1992 employed a strengthened Mk X Jaguar unitary carcass with a new roof and a rear extension—21 inches were let in to the floor pan behind the front seat by Rubery Owen. Finishing from the bare metal was carried out by Vanden Plas who had lost their Princess. The floor pan with mechanicals—a drive-away chassis— was also sold for specialised bodywork, mostly hearses. The very last hearse was delivered on 9 February 1994 to a Mr Slack, funeral director of Cheshire.[22]

Though entirely a Jaguar the DS420 was unique to Daimler. These stately limousines, wedding and funeral cars and the hearses made by independent coachbuilders, their majestic bulk preceded by the fluted grille, are now the way most remember Daimler cars.[note 4]

Daimler Sovereign, Daimler Double-Six[edit]

Daimler Sovereign 4.2 SI (1972 example)
Daimler Double-Six SIII (1988 example)

These were the first series of vehicles that were badge-engineered Jaguars (XJ Series), but given a more luxurious and upmarket finish. For example the Daimler Double-Six was a Jaguar XJ-12, the Daimler badge and fluted top to its grille and boot handle being the only outward differences from the Jaguar, with more luxurious interior fittings and extra standard equipment marking it out on the inside.

Continental Europe[edit]

Jaguar to Daimler 'conversion'

The Daimler name was dropped in Europe for two or three years in the early 1980s. Jaguar adopted the Sovereign designation. The Daimler name returned in Europe at the end of 1985. Jaguar decided it would have its part of the fortune European dealers were making from importing conversion kits of Daimler body parts to convert Jaguars to Daimlers.

Visitors to USA found fluted Daimlers labelled 'Jaguar Vanden Plas'.[22]

Chairmen[edit]

One strategy to sell Daimlers was through fleet sales of Jaguars to boards of directors; Jaguar would offer to include a more prestigious and better appointed Daimler for the chairman.[22]

When the new XJ40 came into production in 1986 the series III was kept in production a further six years to 1992 to carry the big Double Six engines.[22]

Owned by Jaguar Cars (1984-1989)[edit]

Daimler Six Europe specification
XJ40 produced 1986–1994
Daimler Double Six Europe specification
XJ81 produced 1992–1994

If Jaguar was not to follow Daimler into becoming just another once iconic brand it needed immense amounts of capital to develop new models and build and equip new factories. This was beyond the ability of the BMH—now British Leyland—Group.[63] It was decided to market the Jaguar business by first obtaining a separate London Stock Exchange listing to fix a price then ensuring any successful bid for all the listed shares in the whole business would be from a bidder with, or with access to, the necessary capital.[64] That bidder proved to be Ford.

1984 produced a record group output of 36,856 cars but less than 5% were badged Daimler. Two years later Daimler's share had reached 11.5%—in fact almost 23% if the Vanden Plas for USA is included.


Owned by Ford (1989-2007)[edit]

Further information: Premier Automotive Group
Daimler XJS, Coventry Motor Museum, England

In 1989 the Ford Motor Company paid £1.6 billion to buy Jaguar and with it the right to use the Daimler name. In 1992, Daimler (Ford) stopped production of the DS420 Limousine, the only model that was a little more than just a re-badged Jaguar.[note 4]

When Ford bought Jaguar in 1990, the British press showed a coloured computer-generated image of a proposed 'new' Daimler car – not merely a rebadged Jaguar XJ. A webpage shows a project concerned with this endeavour, i.e. http://www.myds420.info/newlimo.html.

Daimler remained the flagship Jaguar product in every country except the USA where the top Jaguar is known as the "XJ Vanden Plas" — Jaguar may have feared that the American market would confuse Jaguar Daimler with Daimler AG. Marketing of the Daimler name in USA had ceased in 1967.[65]

Century[edit]

Double Six
X300
Double Six

Daimler's centenary was celebrated in 1996 by the production of a special edition: 100 Double Six and 100 straight-six cars, each with special paint and other special finishes including electrically adjustable rear seats.

X300 1994–1997[66] SWB LWB
Daimler Six 1,362 1,330
Daimler Double Six 1,007 1,230
Daimler Century Six 100
Daimler Century Double Six 100

The single 2-door 4-seater convertible built in 1996 to commemorate Daimler's centenary and called Daimler Corsica was based on the Daimler Double-Six saloon. The prototype, which lacked an engine, had all the luxury features of the standard saloon but a shorter wheelbase. Painted "Seafrost" it was named after a 1931 Daimler Double-Six with a body by Corsica. Jaguar Daimler Heritage Trust have decommissioned it to operate as a fully functional road-legal car[67] and it is on display at their museum at Browns Lane in Coventry, England.

Daimler Super V8[edit]

Daimler Super V8
X308
Daimler Super V8

1997 saw the end of production of the Double Six. It was superseded by the introduction of a (Jaguar) V8 engine and the new car was given the model name Mark II XJ. The engine was the only significant change from the previous XJ40. The replacement for the Double Six was the supercharged Super V8, the supercharger to compensate for the loss of one-third of the previous engine's capacity.

X308 1997–2003[66] SWB LWB
Daimler Eight 164 2,119
Daimler Super V8 76 2,387


Daimler Super Eight[edit]

After a three-year break a new Daimler, the Super Eight, was presented in July 2005. It had a new stressed aluminium monocoque/chassis-body with a 4.2 L V8 supercharged engine which produced 291 kW (396 PS; 390 bhp) and a torque rating of 533 N·m (393 lb·ft) at 3500 rpm. This car was derived from the Jaguar XJ (X350).

Owned by Tata (2007-)[edit]

At the end of 2007 (the formal announcement was delayed until 25 March 2008), it became generally known that India's Tata Group had completed arrangements to purchase Jaguar and Daimler.

Tata had spoken to the press of plans to properly relaunch England's oldest car marque.[68] In July 2008 Tata Group, the current owners of Jaguar and Daimler, announced they were considering transforming Daimler into "a super-luxury marque to compete directly with Bentley and Rolls-Royce".[69] Until the early 1950s it was often said "the aristocracy buy Daimlers, the nouveau riche buy Rolls-Royce".[22]

Current status[edit]

The Daimler Company Limited, now The Daimler Motor Company Limited, is still registered as active and accounts are filed each year though it is currently marked "non-trading".[70] Until 20 December 1988 its name was The Daimler Company Limited.

All the Daimler shares were purchased from BSA by Jaguar Cars in 1960. After the introduction of the Daimler DR450 new models used Jaguar bodies with Daimler grilles and badging.[note 5] Daimler remains in the ownership of Jaguar Cars which now belongs to Tata Group of India.

Before 5 October 2007 Jaguar, while still controlled by Ford, reached agreement to permit then de-merging DaimlerChrysler to extend its use of the name Daimler. The announcement of this agreement was delayed until the end of July 2008 and made by Jaguar's new owner, Tata.[note 6]

By 2007, Jaguar's use of the Daimler brand was limited to one model, the Super Eight, which was to be last Daimler model to be produced.

In 2009, Jaguar lost the right to trademark the Daimler name in the United States.[65]

Other concerns of similar name[edit]

In 1895, the Daimler Motor Syndicate obtained from Gottlieb Daimler and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) the right to use the Daimler name and the British rights to Daimler's patents. This is the sole link between the British and German entities. The Daimler Motor Syndicate sold these rights to the Daimler Motor Company in 1896, which was bought by BSA in 1910 and renamed The Daimler Company. Jaguar Cars bought the Daimler Company in 1960 and renamed it Daimler Motor Company in 1988.

Austro-Daimler bought similar rights from DMG to use the Daimler name and patents in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austro-Daimler was later absorbed into Steyr-Daimler-Puch. The automotive division of this corporation was eventually absorbed by Magna International and renamed Magna Steyr. The military vehicle division was renamed Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeug GmbH (SSF) and was bought by General Dynamics.

DMG used the Daimler name on all its cars until 1901, when it began using the Mercedes name on some of its cars. After 1908, all DMG cars used the name Mercedes. In 1926, DMG merged with Benz und Cie to form Daimler-Benz. This name continued until 1998 when they merged with the Chrysler Corporation to form DaimlerChrysler in 1998. Upon selling Chrysler in 2007, the company was renamed Daimler AG.

List of Daimler cars[edit]

Some of the more well-known vehicles produced by Daimler and their factory catalogued variants by Barker and Hooper prior to Daimler's acquisition by Jaguar in 1960 were:

  • 1896 First Daimler Vehicle
1908 switch to sleeve-valve engines
1932 switch to poppet valves for new engines
Hybrid
Jaguar

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r RAC Rating
  2. ^ Among these was a fleet of six 1948 Daimler DE 36 hp Landaulette models originally commissioned by Australian Prime Minister Ben Chifley in 1948 for the proposed 1949 Royal Tour of Australia by King George VI. When the tour was cancelled due to the King's poor health, the fleet, already crated and ready for transport to Australia, had to be dispersed. Two were sold by Australia's High Commissioner, Jack Beasley, to the Maharajah of Mysore, but the remaining four were shipped to Australia in 1949, where they became part of the government car pool. Occasionally used by the Governor-General, Sir William McKell, the four cars were recalled for duty for the Royal Tour of Queen Elizabeth two years later. Only two of these cars survive, one of which is being restored at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra.
  3. ^ The Queen of the Netherlands, The King of Thailand, The Aga Khan (and Prince Aly Khan), The Emperor of Ethiopia, The Prince of Monaco, The King of Afghanistan
  4. ^ a b "Proposed fluted replacements". Myds420.info. 19 June 1985. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  5. ^ The hybrid Daimler V8-250 of 1962 used the Turner-designed Daimler 2½-litre V8 in the small Jaguar body
  6. ^ Jaguar now shares the rights to the Daimler name with Daimler AG, the German car manufacturer created when DaimlerChrysler was split up. Jaguar agreed terms in 2007 which allow the German company to use the Daimler brand as the title of a trading company, a trade name, or a corporate name – rights it did not hold previously. The renegotiated terms did not affect Jaguar's rights to build Daimler cars. A spokesman for Jaguar said, “The extended usage agreement does not affect either company's existing right to use the Daimler name for a product.” The Times, 28 July 2008.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Press Kit: Mercedes-Benz in the UK. Stuttgart, 13 June 2007; Daimler Global Media
  2. ^ Christoph Ehland, editor, Thinking Northern: Textures of Identity in the North of England Editions Rodopi, Amsterdam, 2007
  3. ^ Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century pp. 13-14
  4. ^ a b c Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 15
  5. ^ Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 16
  6. ^ a b Burgess-Wise, Daimler: Limousines Fit for Kings and Nobility p.484.
  7. ^ a b c d Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 18
  8. ^ a b Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 19
  9. ^ a b Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 20
  10. ^ References:
    • "THAMES ELECTRIC AND STEAM LAUNCH COMPANY". The Electrical Journal (D. B. Adams) 29: 438. Retrieved 2013-06-19. "Mr. Andrew Pears has taken over the Electric and Steam Launch Buildings and Public Charging Station, now in course of construction upon Eel Pie Island, Twickenham, formerly the property of Mr. W. S. Sargeant, of Strand-on-the-Green, Chiswick and Twickenham, and the firm in future will be worked as the "Thames Electric and Steam Launch Company"." 
    • "Business Announcement". The Electrical Review (Electrical review) 36: 714. 1895. Retrieved 2013-06-19. "A circular signed "Andrew Pears " states that from June 1st the works of the Thames Electric and Steam Launch Company, of Twickenham, are under new management, and all communications should be addressed to the company and not to employis (sic)." 
  11. ^ Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century pp. 20-21
  12. ^ a b Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century pp. 21-22
  13. ^ a b Dick, Robert (2005). "3 Systéme Panhard". Mercedes and Auto Racing in the Belle Epoque, 1895-1915. Jefferson, NC USA: McFarland. pp. 19–22. ISBN 0-7864-1889-3. LCCN 2004016405. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  14. ^ Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 22
  15. ^ Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century pp. 22-23
  16. ^ Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 23
  17. ^ a b Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 26
  18. ^ a b Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 27
  19. ^ a b c Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 31
  20. ^ John Henry Knight's Trusty Oil Engine Works. Automobile Quarterly, Volume 4, Issue 1.
  21. ^ Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David: Daimler Century p. 32
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Lord Montagu and David Burgess-Wise Daimler Century ; Stephens 1995 ISBN 1-85260-494-8
  23. ^ a b Burgess-Wise, David, Cars for King and Court – Undecimus Stratton, p. 57
  24. ^ a b Pigott, Peter (2005). Royal Transport: An Inside Look at the History of Royal Travel. Dundum Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-55002-572-9. Retrieved 2013-06-25. "In 1902, for Ascot week, the new King Edward VII ordered a second Daimler and honoured the company with a royal warrant." 
  25. ^ Burgess-Wise, David, Cars for King and Court – Undecimus Stratton, p. 56
  26. ^ Burgess-Wise, David, Cars for King and Court – Undecimus Stratton, pp. 58-59
  27. ^ a b Burgess-Wise, David, Cars for King and Court – Undecimus Stratton, p. 59
  28. ^ Burgess-Wise, David, Cars for King and Court – Undecimus Stratton, p. 60
  29. ^ Burgess-Wise, David, Cars for King and Court – Undecimus Stratton, p. 61
  30. ^ The sun., January 28, 1912, SECOND SECTION, Page 3, Image 19, column 6
  31. ^ a b c Burgess-Wise, David, Cars for King and Court – Undecimus Stratton, p. 63
  32. ^ Automobile Notes The Times, Tuesday, 22 September 1908; pg. 11; Issue 38758
  33. ^ "Daimler history". Archived from the original on 2012-04-18.  Gives the date as July 1899
  34. ^ The commemorative plaque at the top of the street in question gives the accident date as the 25th of February 1899.
  35. ^ Anthony Bird & Francis Hutton-Stott, Lanchester Motorcars, A History, Cassell, London 1965
  36. ^ "Motor Trade Amalgamation". The Times, Monday, 26 September 1910; pg. 6; Issue 39387
  37. ^ Davenport-Hines, R. P. T. (2002). Dudley Docker: The Life and Times of a Trade Warrior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-521-89400-X
  38. ^ Anderson, Roy Claude; Frankis, G. (1985). History of Royal Blue express services (Second ed.). David & Charles. p. 175. ISBN 0-7153-8654-9. 
  39. ^ a b c The Birmingham Small Arms Company A Difficult Trading Year, Important Transactions Effected The Times Saturday, 28 November 1931; pg. 17; Issue 45992
  40. ^ Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1. 
  41. ^ The Birmingham Small Arms Company The Times, Saturday, 1 November 1930; pg. 20; Issue 45659
  42. ^ a b Kenneth Richardson The British Motor Industry 1896–1939 Archon Books London 1977 ISBN 0-208-01697-X
  43. ^ a b David Thoms and Tom Donnelly, The Motor Car Industry in Coventry since the 1890s, 1985 St Martin's Press ISBN 0709924569
  44. ^ a b Brian E Smith, The Daimler Tradition, Transport Bookman, Isleworth, 1980 ISBN 0851840140
  45. ^ Simpler And Safer Driving The Times, Thursday, 1 May 1930; pg. 13; Issue 45501
  46. ^ A New Daimler Novel Transmission Combination The Times, Tuesday, 1 July 1930; pg. 14; Issue 45553
  47. ^ Birmingham Small Arms Company The Times, Friday, 17 November 1933; pg. 22; Issue 46604
  48. ^ a b c "75 Years of Daimler: A look back at one of the first car manufacturers in this country". Autocar 134 (3914): pages 16–19. 1 April 1971. 
  49. ^ Richard Davenport-Hines, ‘Docker, Sir Bernard Dudley Frank (1896–1978)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
  50. ^ Move To Unseat Sir B. Docker From Board. Resolution For Meeting of Midland Bank (News). The Times Saturday, 24 January 1953; pg. 6; Issue 52528
  51. ^ Sir B. Docker Fined £50. No Serious Breach of Regulations The Times, Saturday, 28 February 1953; pg. 3; Issue 52558
  52. ^ Sir B. Docker in B.S.A. Split. No Longer on board of directors The Times, Friday, 1 June 1956; pg. 10; Issue 53546
  53. ^ Motorsport May 1959
  54. ^ a b Charles F Klapper, The Golden Age of Buses, 1978, Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0232-6
  55. ^ The New Motor-Omnibus Company. The Times, Saturday, 6 May 1911; pg. 10; Issue 39578
  56. ^ a b Jaguar Buys Daimler Company From B.S.A. The Times, Friday, 27 May 1960; pg. 24; Issue 54782
  57. ^ a b Daimler Sale Complete Jaguar's Pay £3,400,000 The Times Monday, 20 June 1960; pg. 20; Issue 54802
  58. ^ Jaguars To Join Up With B.M.C. £18m. deal to strengthen front against Detroit The Times, Tuesday, 12 July 1966; pg. 1; Issue 56681
  59. ^ 90PC OF JAGUAR TAKE BMC The Times, Wednesday, 14 September 1966; pg. 18; Issue 56736
  60. ^ British Motor Takes That New Label The Times, Thursday, 15 December 1966; pg. 17; Issue 56815
  61. ^ Steven Morewood, ‘Lyons, Sir William (1901–1985)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006
  62. ^ Jonathan Wood, Obituaries: LOFTY ENGLAND The Independent Friday, 9 June 1995
  63. ^ Motor merger is Britain's biggest £800m sales a year for BMH-Leyland group The Times, Thursday, 18 January 1968; pg. 17; Issue 57152
  64. ^ BL wants to keep 25% holding in privately owned Jaguar The Times, Saturday, 11 February 1984; pg. 21; Issue 61755
  65. ^ a b USPTO 77035168
  66. ^ a b Thorley, Nigel (September 2003). Jaguar: All the Cars. Haynes Publishing. ISBN 1-84425-001-6. 
  67. ^ "Daimler Corsica project". David Marks Garages. Retrieved 23 September 2010. 
  68. ^ Hardigree, Matt (2008-07-29). "Tata Considers Relaunching Daimler Luxury Brand". Jalopnik. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on 2011-08-13. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  69. ^ The TImes 28 July 2008
  70. ^ "Company Details". Companies House. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  71. ^ a b "Daimlers for Africa, 1947". Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Michael Sedgwick, Mark Gillies A-Z of Cars 1945–1970, Bay View Books 1998

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Daimler Company vehicles at Wikimedia Commons