Location of Dakshina Kannada in Karnataka,India
|Talukas||Mangalore, Sullia, Puttur, Belthangady, Bantwal|
|• Total||4,559 km2 (1,760 sq mi)|
|• Density||457/km2 (1,180/sq mi)|
|• Regional||Tulu, Konkani, Beary Bhashe, Are Bhashe|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||+ 91 (082xx)|
|Vehicle registration||KA 19, KA 21, KA 62|
Dakshina Kannada is a coastal district in the state of Karnataka in India. Sheltered by the Western Ghats on the east and surrounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, Dakshina Kannada receives abundant rainfall during the monsoon. It is bordered by Udupi District to the north, Chikkamagaluru district to the northeast, Hassan District to the east, Kodagu to the southeast, and Kasaragod District in Kerala to the south. Mangalore city is the district headquarters of Dakshina Kannada.
The district is divided into five talukas namely Mangalore, Bantwal, Puttur, Sullia, and Belthangady. It used to include 4 northern talukas, Udupi, Kundapur, Karkala and Byndoor, but these were separated in August 1997 to form Udupi district. Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kasaragod taluk are often called Tulu Nadu, as Tulu is the majority language in the region. The Alupas ruled this region between the 8th and 14th century CE as a feudatory of all the major Kannada empires of those times and it is for this reason that the Tulu speaking districts are a part of Karnataka. Important towns in Dakshina Kannada include Mangalore, Bantwal, Vittal, Puttur, Sullia, Surathkal, Moodabidri, Uppinangadi, Venur, Mulki, Dharmasthala, Ujire and Subramanya. The district is known for pristine beaches, red clay roof tiles (Mangalore tiles), cashew nut and its products, banking, education, healthcare and exotic cuisine.
Before 1860, Dakshina Kannada was part of a district called Kanara, which was under a single administration in the Madras Presidency. In 1860, the British split the area into South Kanara and North Kanara, the former being retained in the Madras Presidency, while the latter was made a part of Bombay Province in 1862. Kundapura taluk was earlier included in North Kanara, but was re-included in South Kanara later. During the Reorganisation of States in 1956, Kasaragod was split and transferred to the newly created Kerala state and Dakshina Kannada was transferred to Mysore state (present day Karnataka).
South Canara was a district under the British empire which included the present Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Kasaragod districts and Aminidivi islands. Canara district was bifurcated in 1859 to form North Canara and South Canara. Dakshina Kannada became a district of Mysore State in 1956 which later was renamed Karnataka in 1973. Kasargod became a district of Kerala during the Re-organization of States and Aminidivi islands later became a part of Lakshadweep. The Udupi district was formed from the northern taluks of Dakshina Kannada in 1997. Later, the Karnataka Government, for the purpose of administration, split the greater Dakshina Kannada district into Udupi and present day Dakshina Kannada districts on 15 August 1997. Three taluks of the former DK district namely Udupi, Karkala and Kundapura formed the new Udupi district.
According to the 2011 census Dakshina Kannada has a population of 2,089,649, roughly equal to the nation of Macedonia or the US state of New Mexico. This gives it a ranking of 220th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 457 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,180/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 9.8%. Dakshina Kannada has a sex ratio of 1018 females for every 1000 males and a literacy rate of 88.62%. The literacy rate of Mangalore city is 94%.
Tuluvas, distributed among the Billava, Mogaveera, Bunt, Koraga, Kulala, and Devadiga communities, are the largest ethnic group in the district. The Konkani people, Brahmins, Holeyas, Vokkaligas, the hill-tribes (Koragas), Muslims, Mangalorean Catholics and Arebhashe Gowdas comprise rest of the population. The Brahmins belong chiefly to the Shivalli, Saraswat, Havyaka, and Kota sub-sections. The major languages spoken in Dakshina Kannada are Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, Beary Bhashe and Are Bhashe.
major rivers are Netravathi, Kumaradhara, Phalguni, Shambhavi, Nandini or Pavanje and Payaswini which all join the Arabian sea. At Uppinangadi, the Netravathi and Kumaradhara rivers rise during the monsoon and meet, this event is called "Sangam", which in Sanskrit means confluence. Near Mangalore, an estuary is formed by the union of the rivers Netravathi and the Gurupura which merge into the Arabian Sea.
The topography of the district is plain up to 30 km (18.64 mi) inside the coast and changes to undulating hilly terrain sharply towards the east in the Western Ghats. Teak, bamboo and rosewood trees are found in the hilly areas towards the east. The Geological Survey of India has identified this district as a moderately earthquake-prone region and categorised it in the Seismic III Zone. In rural Dakshina Kannada, houses are in the midst of a farm field or plantations of coconut or arecanut, separated by a few hundred metres.
Education and research
In Dakshina Kannada, primary and secondary education have reached every section of the society. A host of educational institutes offering courses in Medicine, Engineering, Pharmacy, Nursing, Hotel and Catering, Law and Management are located in this district. Dakshina Kannada is home to the National Institute of Technology Karnataka (NITK) Surathkal, one of India's top Engineering colleges. The College of Fisheries is located at Yekkur near Kankanady. Mangalore University is a public university in Konaje near Mangalore. It has jurisdiction over the districts of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu. The district is home to many research institutes such as the Directorate of Cashew Research at Puttur. The Central Plantation Crops Research Institute is situated at Vitla in the Bantwal taluk.
The various Engineering colleges in the district include St. Joseph Engineering College, KVG College of Engineering, Mangalore Institute of Technology & Engineering, Canara Engineering College, P A College of Engineering, Srinivas Institute of Technology, Srinivas School of Engineering, Vivekananda College of Engineering & Technology, Shree Devi Institute of Technology, Alvas Institute of Engineering & Technology, Karavali Institute of Technology, Sahyadri College of Engineering & Management, M.V.Shetty Institute of Technology, SDM Institute of Technology, Bearys Institute of Technology and Prasanna College of Engineering & Technology.
The various Medical colleges in the district include A J Institute of Medical Science, Father Muller Medical College, KS Hegde Medical Academy, Kasturba Medical College, Srinivas Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Yenepoya Medical College & Research Institute and KVG Medical College. Manipal College of Dental Sciences Mangalore, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, A J Institute of Dental Sciences, Yenepoya Dental College & Research Institute and Srinivas Institute of Dental Sciences are some of the Dental colleges.
Cultures, traditions and rituals
Even today, most people of the district follow the traditions, customs and rituals. The district has many temples of Hindu gods and goddesses, which are ancient and have deep spiritualism attached to them. The people of Dakshina Kannada worship the serpent god (Subramanya). According to legend, the district was reclaimed by Parashurama from the sea. Nagaradhane or Snake worship is practiced according to the popular belief of the Naga Devatha to go underground and guard the species on the top. Rituals such as Bhuta Kola are performed to satisfy the spirits. Kambla, a form of buffalo race on muddy track in the paddy field, is organised in the 16 sites across the district. Cock fight (Kori Katta in Tulu) is another past time of the rural agrarian people.
Yakshagana is the popular folk art of this district. The Yakshagana is a night-long dance and drama performance practiced in Tulu Nadu with great fanfare. Pilivesha (Tiger dance) is a unique form of folk dance in the region fascinating the young and the old alike, which is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami. Karadi Vesha (Bear Dance) is another popular dance performed during Dasara. The people of Dakshina Kannada also celebrate traditional Hindu festivals like Yugadi (Ugadi), Krishna Janmashtami, Ganesha Chaturthi, Navaratri (Dasara), Deepavali, Ati Hunime etc.
In Dakshina Kannada bus services are run by private players and the state-run KSRTC. The district had public limited (public listed) companies running transport business even before the independence of India in 1947.
The district has four national highways connecting parts of Karnataka and India. NH-17 (now NH-66) connects the district with Udupi, Karwar, Mumbai, Goa and Kochi. NH-13 connects Sholapur in Maharashtra with Dakshina Kannada. NH-48 (now NH-75) connects the district with Bengaluru, Kunigal, Hassan and Sakleshpura. Recently the state highway connecting Mangalore to Mudigere was declared as National Highway-234. The NH-234 connects Mangalore to Viluppuram in Tamil Nadu via Charmadi, Mudigere, Belur, Halebeedu, Chintamani and Vellore. Major ghat sections in Dakshina Kannada include Shiradi Ghat (Nelyadi to Sakleshpura), Charmadi Ghat (Charmadi to Kottigehara), Sampaje Ghat (Sampaje to Madikeri) and Bisle Ghat (Subramanya to Sakleshpura, popularly known as Green Route by trekkers). State Highway 88 (SH-88) connects Dakshina Kannada to Mysore. It starts at Mani and passes through the towns of Puttur, Sullia, Madikeri, Kushalnagar and Hunsur. It ends at Mysore spanning a total length of 220 kilometres (140 mi).
|National Highway 66 (previously NH 17)||Panvel, Maharashtra||Edapally, Kerala|
|National Highway 75 (previously NH 48)||Mangalore||Bangalore|
|National Highway 169 (previously NH 13)||Mangalore||Sholapur, Maharashtra|
|National Highway 234||Mangalore||Viluppuram, Tamil Nadu|
|State Highway 88||Mani||Mysore|
In 1907, the Southern Railway connected Mangalore with Calicut (Kozhikode) along the coastline. This railway line helped connect the district with other places of the Madras presidency during the colonial rule. The Konkan Railway (1998) connects Dakshina Kannada with Maharastra, Goa, Gujarat, Delhi, Rajasthan and Kerala by train. There are direct trains from Mangalore to Mumbai, Thane, Chennai, Goa and Trivandrum. Many trains starting from Kerala, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Delhi pass through this district. Recently train services have started to Bangalore via Hassan and Kukke Subramanya after the conversion from metre gauge to broad gauge track.
The Dakshina Kannada district has a seaport at Panambur. The seaport managed by New Mangalore Port Trust handles cargo, timber, petroleum and coffee exports. It is one of the major seaports on the western coast of India.
The district is connected by air through the Mangalore Airport at Bajpe. Airlines such as Jet Airways, Air India and SpiceJet offer daily flights to national and international destinations near the Persian Gulf.
- Mangaladevi Temple : Mangalore was named after the Hindu deity Mangaladevi.
- Venur : Famous Monolithic Bahubali statue
- Kadri : Famous temple of Lord Sri Manjunatha
- Moodabidri : Site of the ancient Jain temples and the Bhattaraka seat.
- Krishnapura matha : One of the matha (monastery) belonging to ashta matha of Udupi.
- Dharmasthala : Popular temple of Lord Sri Manjunatheshwara is located here
- Kateel : Famous temple of Goddess Sri Durga Parameshwari
- Kudroli: Gokarnanatheshwars Temple
- Mundkur : Sri Durga Parameshwari Temple
- Karinjeshwara Temple : Famous ancient temple of lord Shiva Parvati on a huge rock
- Ullal : Excellent view of sunset in the beach
- Kukke Subramanya : Famous ancient temple of the serpent lord Subramanya is located here.
- Mulki : Durgaparameshwari Temple
- St Aloysius Chapel, Mangalore
- Milagres Church, Mangalore
- Sayyed Madani Mosque and Dargah, Ullal
- Sultan Battery, Mangalore
- Puttur:Popular temple of Lord Sri Mahalingeshwara is located here
- Vittal:Famous ancient temple of the Panchalingeshwara temple is located here.
- Uppinangadi: Sahasralingeshwara temple.
- Kepu,Ananthadi,Balnadu:Famous for goddess ullalthi temple and its unique heritage
- Somanatheswar Temple : Someshwara, Ullal.
- Summer Sand Beach Resort at Ullal
- Pilikula Nisargadhama : Pilikula, Moodushedde, Mangalore
- Kudupu temple : Kudupu,Mangalore
- Kumbladi Balasubrahmanya
- Charvaka Kapileshwara devastana
- Shri Kshetra Daipila
- Masjidu Thaqwa Pumpwell Mangaluru
- Bellye Palli (Big Masjid) Bunder Mangaluru
Dakshina Kannada features a Tropical Monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification. The average annual rainfall in Dakshina Kannada is 4,030 millimetres (159 in). The rainfall varies from 3,796.9 millimetres (149 in) at the Mangalore coast, 4,530 millimetres (178 in) at Moodabidri and 4,329 millimetres (170 in) at Puttur near the Western Ghats. The average humidity is 75% and peaks in July at 89%.
|Climate data for Mangalore, India|
|Record high °C (°F)||36.6
|Average high °C (°F)||32.8
|Average low °C (°F)||20.8
|Record low °C (°F)||16.1
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||1.1
|Average rainy days||0.2||0||0.3||1.6||7||23.5||27.4||24.9||13.7||9.1||3.6||0.6||111.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||62||66||68||71||71||87||89||88||85||79||73||65||75.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||313||296||299||292||276||119||94||133||178||226||271||292||2,789|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department - Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall|
|Source #2: Weather-And-Climate (Humidity and Sunshine hours)|
|Climate data for 1994 rainfall in Mangalore, India|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||2.5
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department - Mangalore climate summary from 1957-2000
|Source #2: TuTiempo - Mangalore climate from 1973-2014
|Climate data for Puttur, India|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.3
|Average low °C (°F)||20.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||0
|Source: Climate-Data.org - Climate Table of Puttur, Karnataka, India|
Agriculture which was once a major occupation of the people of Dakshina Kannada, has now taken a back seat because of the influx of money from natives settled in other cities, states and countries. Significant number of people from this district work in the Gulf (Middle East) countries and other states of India. Farms and fields are being converted into residential plots and commercial (shopping) complexes. Horticulture though has made some strides, and measures have been taken to improve the fruit plantation sector. The main crops of Dakshina Kannada are Paddy, Coconut, Arecanut, Black Pepper, Cashew and Cocoa. Rubber, Banana and Vanilla crops are also cultivated in the Sullia taluk. Rice is generally cultivated three seasons in a year, Karthika or Yenel (May–October), Suggi (October to January) and Kolake (January to April). Urad or Black gram is grown in some areas during the season of Suggi. The Karnataka Milk Federation has a milk processing plant at Kulshekar in Mangalore. This plant processes milk procured from the cattle owned by farmers of the district.
Some of the well known dishes in this district include Kori Rotti (dry rice flakes dipped in chicken gravy), Bangude Pulimunchi (spicy sour silver-grey mackerels), Beeja-Manoli Upkari, Neer dosa, Boothai Gasi, Kadubu, Malpuri and Patrode. In coastal Karnataka, the Mangalorean Fish Curry is a popular dish. The Konkani community's specialities include Daali thoy, Bibbe-upkari (cashew based), Val val, Avnas ambe sasam, Kadgi chakko, Paagila podi, and Chane gashi. Mangalore bajji, also known as Golibaje is a popular snack made from maida, curd, rice flour, chopped onion, coriander leaves, coconut, jeera, green chillies, and salt. Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine, is known and liked throughout the state and the coastal region. Being a coastal district, fish forms the staple diet of most people. Mangalorean Catholics' Sanna-Dukra Maas ("Sanna" means Idli fluffed with toddy or yeast and "Dukra Maas" means Pork), Pork Bafat, Sorpotel and the Mutton Biryani of the Muslims are well-known dishes. Pickles such as happala, sandige and puli munchi are unique to Mangalore.
Commerce and industry
The district along with Udupi district is known as "The Cradle of Indian banking". Major nationalised banks of India such as Canara Bank, Corporation Bank, Syndicate Bank, Vijaya Bank and private sector Karnataka Bank evolved from these two districts.
Red clay tile (Mangalore Tiles), Cashew processing factories and Beedi industry once flourished in this district. Service sector is booming with the setting up of professional education institutes and information technology related services (IT & ITES).
As the district is on the shore of the Arabian sea, fishing is one of the major occupation of many people. The major fishing places are Bunder (Old harbour), Panambur, Surathkal, Kotekar and Sasihitlu.
The major industries in Dakshina Kannada concentrated around Mangalore are Mangalore Chemical and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), The Canara Workshops Limited (manufacturers of Canara Springs) Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd (MRPL), BASF, TOTAL GAZ, Bharati Shipyard Limited(BSL) etc. There is a chocolate manufacturing plant at Puttur run by CAMPCO.
Major information technology and outsourcing companies have started locating their facilities in Mangalore namely Infosys, Lasersoft infosystems Ltd., Mphasis BPO, etc. The Karnataka government has planned to develop IT parks across the state including Mangalore. Two such parks are under construction, one Export Promotion Industrial Park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and a second IT SEZ near Mangalore University, while a third IT SEZ is being proposed at Ganjimutt. The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to set up a multiproduct SEZ (Special Economic Zone) with an investment of over Rs. 35,000 crore. Another IT SEZ of 2 million square feet (180,000 m2) is under construction at Thumbe by the BA group. This will include a business centre, convention centre, mall and helipad facility.
- List of educational institutions in Mangalore
- Mangalorean cuisine
- "Dakshina Kannada District : Census 2011 data". Census 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Dakshina Kannada - the afforest conurbation" (PDF). Ernst & Young. June 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Brief Industrial Profile of Dakshina Kannada District" (PDF). Government of India - Ministry of MSME. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Chapter 3 - Profile of the study Area - Coastal Karnataka" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Dakshina Kannada District Profile" (PDF). Government of Karnataka. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Dakshina Kannada Tehsil Map". Maps Of India. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Chapter III - Profile of Karnataka state" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- B A Viveka Rai. "Epics in the Oral Genre System of Tulunadu" (PDF). Oral Tradition. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Bhat, N. Shyam (1998). South Kanara, 1799–1860: a study in colonial administration and regional response. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-586-9.
- "A Handbook of Karnataka - Chapter IX - Administration" (PDF). Government of Karnataka. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- M N Madhyastha, M Abdul Rahman, K M Kaveriappa. "A brief history of scientific technology, research and educational progress of South Kanara" (PDF). Indian Journal of History of Science. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- V Rangacharya. "Inscriptions of the Madras Presidency" (PDF). Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Imperial Gazetteer of India, South Kanara". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- "Imperial Gazetteer of India - Volume XI" (PDF). Imperial Gazetteer of India. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "States Reorganization Act 1956". Commonwealth Legal Information Institute. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2008.
- "Template for district gazetteer - Lakshadweep" (PDF). National Informatics Centre, Lakshadweep. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Fedrick Sunil Kumar N I. "The Basel Mission in South Canara" (PDF). Department of History, University of Calicut, 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- Amruth M. "Forest-Agriculture Linkage and its Implications on Forest Management: A study of Delampady panchayat, Kasaragod district, Kerala" (PDF). Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development Centre for Development Studies. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- Patsy Lozupone, Bruce M. Beehler, Sidney Dillon Ripley.(2004).Ornithological gazetteer of the Indian subcontinent, p. 82.Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International. ISBN 1-881173-85-2.
- "South Kanara, 1799-1860: A Study in Colonial Administration and Regional Response". N. Shyam Bhat. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
Macedonia 2,077,328 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
New Mexico - 2,059,179
- "Imperial Gazetteer of India, South Kanara". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- "Mangaluru: It has come a long way". The Hindu. 18 July 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Chapter-3 Village: Land, Culture and Ecology" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Tamarapu Sampath Kumaran. "Pilgrimage to Temples in Dakshina Kannada" (PDF). Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Ground Water Information Booklet - Dakshina Kannada" (PDF). Government of India - Ministry of Water Resources. November 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Kumaradhara, Nethravathi rivers merge at Uppinangady". Deccan Herald. 19 July 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- M S Shruthi, M Rajashekhar (30 January 2009). "Ecological observations on the phytoplankton of Nethravati - Gurupura estuary, south west coast of India" (PDF). Marine Biological Association of India. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Mausam: quarterly journal of meteorology, hydrology & geophysics, Volume 56, Issue 1. India Meteorological Department. 2005. p. 76.
- H Santapau. "Common Trees" (PDF). Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Seismic zoning map of India (Map). Geological Survey of India. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "Forest - State of the Environment Report - 2003 (Page 189)" (PDF). Parisara. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Dakshina Kannada pips Udupi to top in PU performance". The Hindu. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "India's 10 top Engineering colleges". Times of India. 23 Feb 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "College of Fisheries, Mangaluru". http://www.kvafsu.kar.nic.in. 31 August 2006. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- "College of Fisheries, Mangalore". http://www.kvafsu.kar.nic.in. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "The Hindu : Karnataka / Mangalore News : Mangalore University all set to celebrate jubilee". hindu.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "ICAR: Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur, Karnataka". DCR. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "ICAR: Central Plantation Crops Research Institute". ICAR. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "The Hindu : Karnataka / Mangalore News : Colleges around Mangalore join hands for Campus Placements". hindu.com. The Hindu. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Dakshina Kannada to get five hospitals". hindu.com. The Hindu. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Chapter Three - Village:Land Culture and Ecology" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Hundreds of devotes throng Shiva temples in Dakshina Kannada". The Hindu. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "History of Mangalore" (PDF). ICICI. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Nagarapanchami Naadige Doddadu". Mangalorean.Com. Retrieved 28 January 2008.
- A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume - K. K. Kusuman - Mittal Publications, 1990 - p.127-128""
- "Colours of the season". The Hindu. 9 December 2006. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- "Yakshagana sapthaha to begin at Ujire from Monday". The Hindu. 17 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Yakshagana". SZCC, Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
- Plunkett, Richard (2001). South India. Lonely Planet. p. 53. ISBN 1-86450-161-8.
- Pinto, Stanley G (26 October 2001). "Human `tigers' face threat to health". Times of India. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
- Stephen D'Souza. "What's in a Name?". daijiworld.com. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
- "Tourism potentialities of Dakshina Kannada - A study with reference to Mangalore" (PDF). Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Wheels of change turn Karnataka State Transport Corporation into winner". timesofindia. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "The Beginning". canarasprings.in. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "NH wise Details of NH in respect of Stretches entrusted to NHAI" (PDF). National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- NH-234 "DK's New NH to connect three states". timesofindia.com. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- "Details Of State Highways". Karnataka PWD. Retrieved 2012-08-19.
- "WIDENING & IMPROVEMENTS TO MYSORE BANTWAL ROAD (SH 88)". KRDCL. Retrieved 2012-08-19.
- "Railways cross a milestone". The Hindu. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- "Chapter II: Origin and Development of Southern Railway" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "A case study of Konkan Railways" (PDF). UNEP - IIM Ahmedabad. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Southern Railway to operate special trains". The Hindu. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- "Bangalore-Mangalore train service from December 8". The Hindu. 24 November 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- "New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT)". New Mangalore Port. Retrieved 13 October 2006.
- "Chapter 1 - Economic development through ports" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Airports Authority of India". Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Tourism potentialities of Dakshina Kannada - A study with reference to Mangalore" (PDF). Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "New arrivals at Pilikula Botanical Museum". The Hindu. 22 April 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- http://www.daijiworld.com/news/news_disp.asp?n_id=43286&n_tit=Mangalore%3A+Newly+Constructed+%27Takwa+Masjid%27+Inaugurated+at+Pumpwell Masjid Thaqwa Pumpwell Mangaluru
- "Climate Table of Moodabidri, Karnataka, India". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Climate Table of Puttur, Karnataka, India". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Average humidity over the year for Mangalore,India". Weather-And-Climate. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "IMD - Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1901 - 2000 data" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- "Extremes of India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Average monthly hours of sunshine over the year for Mangalore,India". Weather-And-Climate. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "IMD - total rainfall summary for Mangalore". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- "TuTiempo - Mangalore climate from 1973-2014". Tutiempo. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- "Agriculture Contingency Plan for District: DAKSHINA KANNADA" (PDF). Agricoop. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Jananie Kalyanaraman, Leah Koskimaki (January 2013). "Dakshina Kannada in the Gulf - Research Report No. 6" (PDF). ProGlo. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Agricultute festival to look at revival of paddy farming in Dakshina Kannada". Times of India. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Clusters formed in Dakshina Kannada to promote fruit plantation crops". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Shannikodi Ashwini (January 2013). "Contemporary Agriculture Issues from Dakshina Kannada: A Field View" (PDF). International Research Journal of Social Sciences. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "South Kanara". http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/. Retrieved 4 September 2006.
- "Chapter 3 - Profile of the study area: Coastal Karnataka" (PDF). Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Go for the Mangalore diet". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "Mangalore Fish Curry". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Konkani recipes delight visitors at festival". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Dosas at Indra Bhavan have retained the taste". The Hindu. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "In Udupi,food is the greatest binder". www.in.rediff.com. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- "Typically home". The Hindu. 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2015-05-05.
- "Dukra maas: a savory Mangalorean Catholic Sunday ritual". National Post. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Ramadan flavors fill Mangalore streets". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Brief history of banking in India". GK Today. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- "The Evolution of Banking in India" (PDF). Avishkar – Solapur University Research Journal, Volume 2, 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Estimates of the economic contributions of the bidi manufacturing industry in India" (PDF). 29 March 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Bharath V, Umesh Maiya (August 2013). "Status of Small Scale industries in Udupi and Dakshina Kannada Districts of Karnataka State" (PDF). Asia Pacific Journal of Research. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "8% rise in fish catch in Udupi, Dakshina Kannada". The Hindu - Business Line. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Shrinidhi Adiga, D S Poornananda (June 2013). "Environmental movement and the media in Dakshina Kannada" (PDF). Global Media Journal – Indian Edition, Sponsored by the University of Calcutta. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "KIOCL Mangalore plant may get iron ore from Iran". Times of India. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited". MRPL. 31 January 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "The CAMPCO Ltd.". Puttur, Karnataka, India: Campco. 31 January 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Infosys begins work on its second campus near Mangalore". The Hindu. 5 September 2006. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Karnataka government to develop IT parks at Belgaum, Mysore and Mangalore". Business Standard. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Two more plans for EPIP cleared". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 31 August 2006. Retrieved 29 September 2006.
- "ONGC's huge outlay for Mangalore SEZ". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 19 September 2006. Retrieved 29 September 2006.
- "Environmental movement and the media in Dakshina Kannada" (PDF). Global Media Journal – Indian Edition/ISSN 2249-5835 Vol.4 No. 1 - Sponsored by the University of Calcutta. June 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Bank finance for Agribusiness:A case study in Dakshina Kannada district" (PDF). Dr. G.V. Joshi. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dakshina Kannada district.|
|Look up Dakshina Kannada in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
||Udupi district||Chikmagalur district|
|Laccadive Sea||Hassan district|
|Kasaragod district, Kerala||Kodagu district|