Dakshineswar Kali Temple
|Dakshineswar Kali Temple
দক্ষিণেশ্বর কালী মন্দির
|Proper name||Dakshineswar Kali Temple|
|Devanagari||दक्षिणेश्वर काली मन्दिर|
|Sanskrit transliteration||दक्षिणेश्वर काली मन्दिर|
|Bengali||দক্ষিণেশ্বর কালী মন্দির|
|District||North 24 Parganas|
|Primary deity||Bhavatarini Kali|
|Important festivals||Kali Puja, Snana Yatra, Kalpataru Day|
|Architectural styles||Bengal architecture|
|Number of temples||12:Shiv Lings and 1:Main Temple|
|History and governance|
Dakshineswar Kali Temple (Bengali: দক্ষিণেশ্বর কালী মন্দির Dokkhineshshôr Kali Mondir, Sanskrit: दक्षिणेश्वर काली मन्दिर) is a Hindu temple located in Dakshineswar near Kolkata. Situated on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River, the presiding deity of the temple is Bhavatarini, an aspect of Kali, meaning, 'She who liberates Her devotees from the ocean of existence i.e. Saṃsāra'. The temple was built in 1855 by Rani Rashmoni, a philanthropist and a devotee of Kali. The temple is famous for its association with Ramakrishna, a mystic of 19th Century Bengal.
The temple compound, apart from the nine-spired main temple, contains a large courtyard surrounding the temple, with rooms along the boundary walls. There are twelve shrines dedicated to Shiva—Kali's companion—along the riverfront, a temple to Radha-Krishna, a bathing ghat on the river, a shrine dedicated to Rani Rashmoni. 'Nahavat-Khana', the chamber in the northwestern corner just beyond the last of the Shiva temples, is where Ramakrishna spent a considerable part of his life.
The Dakshineswar Kali Temple was founded around the middle of the 19th Century by Rani Rashmoni. Rani Rashmoni was a Mahishya by caste and was well known for her philanthropic activities. In the year 1847, Rashmoni, prepared to go upon a long pilgrimage to the sacred Hindu city of Kashi to express her devotions to the Divine Mother. Rani was to travel in twenty four boats, carrying relatives, servants and supplies. According to traditional accounts, the night before the pilgrimage began, Rashmoni had a vision of the Divine Mother, in the form of the goddess Kali in a dream and reportedly said,
There is no need to go to Banaras. Install my statue in a beautiful temple on the banks of the Ganges river and arrange for my worship there. Then I shall manifest myself in the image and accept worship at that place.
Profoundly affected by the dream, Rani immediately looked for and purchased a 20-acred plot in the village of Dakshineswar. The large temple complex was built between 1847 and 1855. The 20-acre (81,000 m2) plot was bought from an Englishman, John Hastie and was then popularly known as Saheban Bagicha, partly old Muslim burial ground shaped like a tortoise, considered befitting for the worship of Shakti according to Tantra traditions, it took eight years and nine hundred thousand rupees to complete the construction, and finally the idol of Goddess Kali was installed on the Snana Yatra day on 31 May 1855, amid festivities at the temple formally known as Sri Sri Jagadishwari Mahakali, with Ramkumar Chhattopadhyay as the head priest; soon his younger brother Gadai or Gadadhar (later known as Ramakrishna) moved in and so did nephew Hriday to assist him. On 31 May 1855 more than 1 lakh Brahmins were invited from different parts of the country to grace the auspicious occasion. The next year, Ramkumar Chhattopadhyay died, the position was given to Ramakrishna, along with his wife Sarada Devi, who stayed in the south side of the Nahabat (music room), in a small room on the ground floor, which now a shrine dedicated to her.
From then until his death 30 years later in 1886, Ramakrishna was responsible for bringing much in the way of both fame and pilgrims to the temple.
Rani Rashmoni lived only for five years and nine months after the inauguration of the temple. She seriously fell ill in 1861. Realizing that her death was near she decided to handover the property she purchased in Dinajput (now in Bangladesh) as a legacy for the maintenance of the temple to the temple trust. She accomplished her task on 18 February 1861 and died on the next day.
Built in the traditional 'Nava-ratna' or nine spires style of Bengal architecture, the three-storeyed south-facing temple has nine spires distributed in upper two storeys, and stands on a high platform with a flight of stairs, overall it measures 46 feet (14 m) square and rises over 100 feet (30 m) high.
The garbha griha (sanctum sanctorum) houses an idol of goddess Kali, known as Bhavataraini, standing on the chest of a lying Shiva, and the two idols are placed on a thousand-petaled lotus made of silver.
Close to the main temple are the row of twelve identical Shiva temples built facing the east in the typical aat-chala Bengal architecture, they are built on either side of the ghat on the Hoogly river. To the North east of the Temple Complex is the Vishnu Temple or the Radha Kanta’s Temple. A flight of steps lead to the columned verandah and into the temple where a silver throne rests with a 21 1⁄2-inch (550 mm) idol of Lord Krishna and a 16-inch (410 mm) idol of Radha.
Ramakrishna came to the temple in 1855, as an assistant to his elder brother, Ramkumar, the head priest, a job he took over the next year, after Ramkumar's death
Photograph of Dakshineshwar temple from Views of Calcutta and Barrackpore, taken by Samuel Bourne
- Mehrotra 2008 p.11
- "History of the temple". Dakshineswar Kali Temple. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- "Dakshineswar - A Heritage". Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
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- Harding 1998, p.xii
- Sen, Amiya P. (June 2006). "Sri Ramakrishna, the Kathamrita and the Calcutta middle classes: an old problematic revisited". Postcolonial Studies. 9 (2): 165–177. doi:10.1080/13688790600657835.
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- Prabhananda 2003
- Swami Chetanananda (2001). God lived with them. Advaita Ashrama.
- Balakrishnan, S (9 May 2003). "Kali Mandir of Kolkata". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Dutta, Krishna (2003). Calcutta: a cultural and literary history (illustrated ed.). Signal Books. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-902669-59-5.
- Prabhananda, Swami (October 2003). "The Kali Temple at Dakshineswar and Sri Ramakrishna". Vedanta Kesari.
- "Map of Kali Temple at Dakshineshwar". Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
- Harding, Elizabeth U. (1998). Kali: The Black Goddess of Dakshineswar. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1450-9.
- Mehrotra, Rajiv (2008). Thakur: A Life Of Sri Ramakrishna. Penguin Books India. ISBN 0-14-306371-5.
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