|Founded||1 May 1939|
|Founded by||Hashomer Hatzair|
Dalia (Hebrew: דַּלִיָּה) is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located in the Galilee about 30 km southeast of Haifa, it falls under the jurisdiction of Megiddo Regional Council. In 2015 it had a population of 792. The kibbutz was established in 1939.
Kibbutz Dalia was formed by uniting two communities affiliated with Hashomer Hatzair. The first kibbutz, "BaMa'ale", consisted of members from Romania and Transylvania. Many of them finished training in agriculture and industry in their respective countries, and were later united as a group for immigration. The first immigrants arrived in 1933, and stayed mainly in Magdiel and in Kfar Malal in Hadar Ramatayim. They worked in agriculture and other temporary jobs while waiting for permission from the Jewish Agency to settle permanently. The second kibbutz, "BaMifne" in Karkur, consisted of members from Germany. Before immigrating, most of them finished training in agriculture in Denmark, while others had studied in Germany, France and England. The first members immigrated in 1933, while other members arrived in "Bamifneh" where they worked in agriculture, mainly tending vegetable gardens in the area, about 40 dunams (40,000 m²), along with construction work at Gan HaShomron and porterage in Haifa Port. Once a month, they went to see movies or a theater performance, and every three weeks they went on foot to kibbutz Ein Shemer to listen to political lectures.
The kibbutz was founded during the last wave of the tower and stockade movement. In the beginning, members set up their tents in "Migdal", a temporary camp which was eventually changed for living quarters called "Migdalia". In the summer of 1940, the construction of a permanent settlement was begun near Daliat-El-Ruha, an Arab village whose inhabitants, compensated by the Jewish National Fund through "Tzur" company, had left prior to the members' arrival. A single fig tree stood in the settlement area, and on the surrounding hillsides lay only a wilderness of stones.
The kibbutz began with 160 adult members and 14 children, and by 1947 had a population of 320. The soil allotted to the Kibbutz was poor, shallow, and thickly covered with stone. The only water source was the spring in Daliat-El-Ruha, which supplied 3 cubic meters of water per hour. Most of the land was spread across steep slopes and was not suitable for farming. Members were mainly occupied with stone-removal, forestation and planting vegetable gardens. Experts maintained that there was little hope of a future in agriculture for this area. As an alternative, they founded a blacksmith's shop, "a soaping kettle", and craft shops. The blacksmith's shop developed into "Arad", a factory for water meters, and the "soaping kettle" became a Zohar Dalia factory for soap and detergents.
After ploughing, stones were removed and over 600 dunam (600,000 m²) of forests were planted with pine, cypress, and carob. Likewise new agricultural branches were established; crops, orchards - apples, plums, olives, and wine grapes, flocks of sheep, a dairy for milking, poultry, and beehives. However, the kibbutz suffered from a shortage of water which continued for years.
Cultural and communal activities flourished even in these hard conditions. A folk-dancing festival organized by Gurit Kadman in 1944 was held at the "Khan" on the kibbutz during the festival of Shavuot. The Book of Ruth (Megilat Ruth) was the theme of the festival, and residents of the various settlements in this region took part. Three years later, in 1947, a second dance festival was held in the natural amphitheater beside the kibbutz. At this festival, several hundred dancers participated, watched by some ten thousand people from all over the country. Kibbutz theatre director Shulamit Bat-Dori directed the last two dance festivals held at Kibbutz Dalia, in 1958 and 1968. The 1958 production spotlighted 1,500 dancers, while the 1968 festival featured 3,000 dancers and attracted 60,000 audience members.
In 1950 Mekorot drilled for water near the amphitheater for the dance festival, and from a depth of 374 meters, a powerful stream of water burst forth, supplying 300 cube per hour. After this success, additional drills followed, supplying the precious liquid to Dalia and the settlements in the area. This water is still used today to improve the quality of the water from the National Water Supply System which passes near the kibbutz. Water has brought about an essential change in the character of the agriculture and outlook of the settlement. Lawns, gardens and groves were planted, and the bare land was gradually covered by veils of greenery. Industrial factories were also established and consolidated, supplying the members with a variety of work. In 1950, "Harei Efraim", the regional educational institute, was also established near kibbutz Ein HaShofet, as a common school for kibbutzim in the region.
Dalia was the first kibbutz to be physically connected to the Internet (initially via a 128 kbit/s Frame Relay line) in July 1996.
Dalia is the only kibbutz in Israel where volunteers were only required to work for five days a week, instead of the usual six. As a result, this kibbutz were very popular among those volunteers who wanted to help the country and travel around it as well. By November 2006 the Kibbutz ended the international volunteer program.
- "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Jewish National Fund (1949). Jewish Villages in Israel. Jerusalem: Hamadpis Liphshitz Press. p. 29.
- Embodying Hebrew Culture: Aesthetics, Athletics and Dance in the Jewish Community of Mandate Palestine, Nina S. Spiegel
- Ingber, Judith Brin (2011). Seeing Israeli and Jewish Dance. Wayne State University Press. pp. 166–167. ISBN 0814333303.
- Goren-Kadman, Ayala (1 March 2009). "Ethnic Dance in the Yishuv and Israel: 1900-2000". Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 1 January 2017.