Dalian Rapid Transit (DRT)
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||3|
|Number of stations||26|
|Daily ridership||145,000 (2012 Daily Avg.)
200,000 (Peak Record) 
|Annual ridership||43.8 million (2011)|
|Operator(s)||Dalian Public Transportation Group Co. Ltd. (Line 3, 7, 8, & Jinpu)
Daiian Metro Co. Ltd. (Line 1 & 2)
|System length||103.83 km (65 mi)|
|Commonly abbreviated as|
|Second alternative Chinese name|
The Dalian Metro or Dalian Rapid Transit is an elevated rapid transit system in the city of Dalian, China (as of 2014, Dalian does not have a fully underground subway system). The metro opened on 1 May 2003. The system currently in operation consists of 3 lines: Line 3, Line 7, and Line 8.
After 1950, Dalian faced a high rate of population growth. Due to its location, cultural heritage and transportation it attracted native and foreign people, leading to an increasing number of automobiles and buses. The traffic created a problem for the trams, and the transport authority decided to greatly reduce the tram network. Eight tram routes were closed, one by one, before 1980. By then, over-dependence on automobiles and buses caused traffic and environmental problems. The tram network had been reduced to three routes; opening old routes was impossible, since almost all of those routes were already occupied by bus traffic. Mindful of the problems between trams and buses, the transport authority tried a solution merge both types of transport: the trolleybus. Trolleybuses run on electricity and do not cause air pollution; however, they use existing roads (already congested with motor-vehicle traffic). Therefore, expansion of the trolleybus network was impractical. At that time, a subway system was proposed. After overcoming financial and political obstacles, construction began on the first line in September 2000. October 2002 saw the trial opening of the first line, which was put into full operation in May 2003. Trial runs of the San Haoxian branch began in June 2008; December 28 marked the beginning of full passenger operation.
- Length: 103.8 kilometres (64.5 mi)
- Stations: 26
- Traction: overhead wire
- Gauge: standard
- Cars per train: 4–6
- Frequency: every 20 minutes during peak hours; every 30 minutes at other times
The first trains leave from Dalian Railway Station and the Tax Protection District about 06:00, and the last trains leave around 20:00. Trains leave from Jinshitan about 06:30, and the last trains leave about 18:30. A single trip takes about 50 minutes, and trains leave in each direction at an interval of twenty minutes during peak times.
The lowest fare between two stations is one yuan; the fare between more than two stations is two yuan. The full fare between Dalian Station and Golden Pebble Beach is eight yuan; between Dalian Station and Jiuli the fare is seven yuan. The Pearl Card is a discounted, monthly smart card.
The trains were developed and manufactured by DLoco, Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Company. As of 2012, 10 trains are running on line 3 at an average speed of 60 km/h (37 miles/hr).
- 1500 volts DC voltage
- Train length: 78 meters
- Train width 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in)
- Train height 3.8 metres (12 ft)
- Axle load: 14 tons
- Capacity: 800 passengers (176 seated)
- Seats: 176
- Traction power for AC drive: 1,440 kilowatts (180 kW × 8)
- Maximum speed: 100 km per hour
- Full range of cars equipped with 20 seats (FG0001-0020—includes 0001-0010 as the first batch, 0011-0020 for the second batch; two groups of slightly-different vehicles)
Dalian Metro ordered 38 type B trainsets in six-car formations. 18 and 20 sets will run on the future lines 1 and 2 respectively. They will have a similar lightweight, corrosion-resistant stainless-steel body. The design speed is set to 80 km per hour; each train will have a capacity of 1,440 passengers.
Line 3, locally known as Kuaigui #3 (rapid transit line 3), connects the Dalian Development Zone and Jinshitan with Dalian city center. It is a serpentine line, mostly elevated or at grade, and runs from the Dalian railway station to Jinshitan. The northern area of the city, where the Economic and Technology Development Zone is located, is not well-served by buses. The metro line beginning at the downtown commercial center (near the Dalian railway station) runs through five administrative districts of the city and serves as an express transport between the northern (developing) region and the downtown area. The line extends northward to Golden Pebble Beach (Jinshitan Scenic Area), a national scenic park 50 km (31 mi) from the city center.
All stations have side platforms. Tracks in the platform area have no ballast (gravel); however, tracks outside the station are on ballast. All stations are covered by a combination of transparent corrugated sheets and a concrete roof.
Line 7, locally known as Kuaigui #7 (rapid transit line 7), open on 2008 and this line connects central Dalian with Jinzhou with 14.3 km² with seven station from south to north. This line begins at Kaifaqu Station and stretches northwest ending at Jiuli Station. Similar to Line 3 all the stations have side platforms with tracks in the platform area have no ballast (gravel); however, tracks outside the station are on ballast. Also all stations are covered by a combination of transparent corrugated sheets and a concrete roof.
Alignment and interchanges
Both Line 3 and Line 7 are almost completely at grade or above ground; 13.89 kilometres (8.63 mi) is elevated, 1.123 kilometres (0.698 mi) is underground and 31.39 kilometres (19.50 mi) is at grade. Six stations are elevated, and the remainder are at grade. Transfers to trams and suburban trains are possible at the Railway Station stop.
Lines under construction and future expansions
Lines under construction
|Dalianbei Station||Haizhiyun Park||~2014||42.56||29|
- Line 1
Line 1 (Red Line): This line will run from Phoenix Peak to the Development Zone. Proposed stations are Phoenix Peak (interchange with the Line 3 branch), Sidalindajie, Wuyilu, Sujia, Maoyingzi, Houguan, Yaojia, Nanguanling Rail Station (interchange with Line 2), Zhonghuaguangzhang, Dongweilu (interchange with Line 4), Shahekou, Xianlu (interchange with Line 2), Convention and Exhibition Center, Heishijiao, Xueyuanguangchang, Xinghai Park, Maritime University, Gaoxinyuanqu, Hekou[disambiguation needed], Huangnichuan, Longwangtan, College Town, Shuishiying (interchange with Line 4), Shibanqiao, Tieshanzhen and the Development Zone. A branch will be constructed from Wuyilu to Jinbohaian. There will be one station in between (Jinzhou West). The line will be constructed in three phases. Phase one will run from Yaojia to the Convention and Exhibition Centre, phase two to Hekou and the remainder in phase three. After the completion of this line, there will be tram and metro service from Shahekou to Hekou.
- Line 2
Line 2 (Blue Line): This line will run from Houyan to Donghaigongyuan. Proposed stations are Houyan, Nanguanling Rail Station (interchange with Line 1), Sports Centre, Gezhenbu, Qiange, Airport, Zhangqianlu, Xinggongjie, Malanguangchang, Xianlu (interchange with Line 1), Dalian Railway Station (interchange with Line 3), Shengliguangchang, Gangwanguangchang and Donghaigongyuan. The line will be constructed in two phases: phase one from Airport to Gangwanguangchang, and the remainder in phase two.
In 2009 the Dalian government announced plans for nine metro lines spanning a total of 262.9 kilometres (163.4 mi), which would include the existing Line 3 and Line 7 (are the only lines to be completed, as of 2012). The completion date for the other two lines has been scheduled for 2012, but no date has been announced yet for the remainder. Four lines have been finalized, as of 2012. The expansion project (in accordance with Chinese standards for the design and construction of metros) will use around 70 percent local labor and materials. Trains will be equipped with ATO, and stations will use an automatic fare-collection system. When lines open, they will initially operate at 38,000 p/h/d; over time, with the addition of more trains and deceasing headway, a capacity of 43,200 p/h/d is planned. The expansion program will ease traffic in Dalian (improving travel around the city for the 12th National Games of the People's Republic of China, which will be held in Liaoning in 2013).
According to a National Development and Reform Foundation (2009) document, the urban rail transit construction plan (2009–2016) in Dalian was approved. According to the plan, the Dalian transit project is expected to invest ¥22 billion from 2009 to 2016 to build lines one through five.
On July 25, 2009, the Dalian Metro groundbreaking ceremony was held at Harbor Square for metro lines one and two. The project's total investment is more than ¥220 billion; it includes the east port, the airport, South Guanling and the estuaries, and is planned to open by the end of 2012. As of November 2009 the Academy Square to the Maritime University, China Spring Station Square to test section two, and portions of lines one and two are in operation.
- Line 4 (Green Line): This line will run from Houyan to Lvshun. Proposed stations are Houyan, Zhonghualu, Dashihua, Ganjingzi, Jinjiajie (interchange with Line 3), Dongweilu (interchange with Line 1), Airport (interchange with Line 3), Dongjia, Youjia, Muchengyi, Yingchengzi, Shanjianbu, Shuishiying (interchange with Line 4), Sanliqiao, Bus Station and Lvshun. The line will also be constructed in two phases: phase one from Jinjiajie to Yingchengzi, and the remainder in phase two.
- Line 5 (Magenta Line): This line will run from Dalian Railway Station to Hutanxinqu. Proposed stations are Dalian Railway Station (interchange with Line 3), Changchunlu, Qingyunjie, Bayilu, Medical University and Hutanxinqu. The line will be constructed in the second phase.
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