Dalian dialect

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Dalian dialect
大连话
Native to China
Region Liaodong Peninsula
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None

Dalian dialect (Chinese: 大连话, Pinyin: dalian hua, Romaji: Dairen-ben) is a dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken on the Liaodong Peninsula, including the city of Dalian and parts of Dandong and Yingkou. Dalian dialect shares many similarities with the Qingdao dialect spoken on Shandong Peninsula (Jiaodong Peninsula) across Bohai Strait; hence the name Jiao Liao Mandarin (胶辽官话). Dalian dialect is notable among Chinese dialects for loanwords from Japanese and Russian, reflecting its history of foreign occupation.[1]

Notable words in the Dalian dialect include 飆 ("foolish") and 熊 ("to cheat or deceive").

Voice[edit]

Comparing with Mandarin on pronunciation[edit]

Contrast of Dalianese and Mandarin on pronunciation
Mandarin → Dalianese Example
zh,ch,sh,r → z,c,s,y 中國人 zhōng guó rén → zōng guó yín
d,t,n,l,z,c,s+uei,uan,uen → d,t,n,l,z,c,s+ei,an,en 對 dù(e)i → dèi
o and individual uo → e 胳膊 gē bo → gĕ be
脫 tuō → tĕ
suffix "子" → e 孩子 hái zi → hái e
w+a,ai,ei,an,en,ang,eng → v+a,ai,ei,an,en,ang,eng
wu and wo don't change
晚飯 wǎn fàn → vǎn fàn
numeral "二" → àr 王二小 wáng èr xiǎo → váng àr xiǎo
瑞 → suèi
崖 → ái
瑞士 rùi shì → suèi si
泡崖 pào yá → pào ái
n+i,iang,ie,ian,iao,iu,in,ing,ü,üe → gn+i,iang,ie,ian,iao,iu,in,ing,ü,üe
nu doesn't change
你 nǐ → gnǐ
虐 nüè → gnüè
z,c,s+en[ən],eng[əŋ] → z,c,s+en[ɿn],eng[ɿŋ]
other consonants+en,eng don't change
森 sēn[sən] → sēn[sɿn]

The syllables that Mandarin hasn't[edit]

  • biǎng (This Chinese character is not made out yet.) -【Prefix】often used in a derogatory term, to emphasize the role of mood
  • piǎ (This Chinese character is not made out yet.) -【Verb】to ridicule sb

Erizational vowels[edit]

Basic vowels ai an (i)an (ü)an i ei en ü a (i)e (ü)e o
Erizational vowels ar
[ aʅ ]
(ü)anr
[ œ̜ʯ ]
er
[ əʅ ]
ür
[ yʯ ]
a'r
[ äʅ ]
(i)e'r
[ ɛʅ ]
(ü)e'r
[ øʯ ]
or
[ ǫʯ ]
Basic vowels e u ao ou ang (u)ang ong eng
Erizational vowels e'r
[ ɤʅ ]
ur
[ uʯ ]
ao'r
[ ɑʊʯ ]
ou'r
[ ǫʊʯ ]
angr
[ ɑŋʅ̃ ]
(u)angr
[ ɔŋʯ̃ ]
ongr
[ ʊŋʯ̃ ]
engr
[ əŋʅ̃ ]
  • "瓦" and "碗" are different; "歌" and "根" are different, vowel of "根" is a kind of retroflex mid-central vowel.
  • i of "zi, ci, si" is an apical vowel. After erizing, i turns into er, such as "事"ser4.
  • The rule of i, u, ü combining with the erizational vowels is the same as the rule of those combining with the basic vowels, so the tabulation of this part is omitted.

Tones[edit]

Tones of Dalianese
Tone No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not marked
Eastern Yan Chinese
  • Dalian dialect
Yinping (LowMid falling) Yangping (Middle rising) Shangsheng (Middle concave) Yinqu (HighMid falling) Zhongqu (Middle level/Low rising) Yangqu (Low falling) Qingsheng
31 24 213 52 33/13 21 --
Western Yan Chinese Yinping (High level) Yangping (High rising) Shangsheng (High concave) Qusheng (High falling) Qingsheng
55 35 214 51 --

In Dalianese,

  • When Tone No.1 meets another Tone No.1 or Tone No.4 meets Tone No.1, usually the previous tone turns to Tone No.5 and the next tone doesn't change, like “家家戶戶”jia'r5-jia'r1-hur6-hur4, “駕崩”jia5-beng1.[2]
  • When Tone No.1 meets Tone No.4, usually the previous tone doesn't change and the next tone turns to Tone No.6, like “蟋蟀”xi1-suai6 or xi3-suar, “稀碎”xi1-sei6.
  • When Tone No.4 meets another Tone No.4, usually the previous tone turns to Tone No.5 and the next tone turns to Tone No.6, like “畢恭畢敬”bi5-gongr1-bi5-jingr6, “客客氣氣”ke'r4-ke'r-qi5-qi6.[3]
  • Tone No.5 and Tone No.6 are not basic tones, but modulations.

Writing system[edit]

Logograms[edit]

Main article: Chinese characters

Syllabaries[edit]

There are 15 vowels (3 nasal vowels), 15 consonants (1 zero consonant "h"), no affricates ("gh", "kx", "dz", "ts", "bv", "pf") and no entering tone in Dalian dialect. From the first open vowels "a" to the last close vowels "m", there are 366 syllabaries (183 uppercase and 183 lowercase).

Mandarin: ji, qi, xi = Dalianese: d-ii, t-ii, s-ii

Mandarin: zhi,chi,shi,ri,zi,ci,si = Dalianese: d-i,t-i,s-i,z-i

There are no differences between voiced and voiceless consonants in Mandarin and Dalianese, but there is distinction between aspirated and unaspirated consonants in them.

Mandarin and Dalianese: g[g] = g[k], d[d] = d[t], b[b] = b[p]

Mandarin and Dalianese: k[gh] = k[kh], t[dh] = t[th], p[bh] = p[ph]

New tablation of syllabaries[edit]

183 syllabaries Vowels
Back Front
Open Mid Close Open Mid Close
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Consonants Dorsal Fricative Tenuis a[ɑ] / ha[ɣɑ] ao[ɒ] e[ɤ̞] ou[o̞] -i[ɯ] u[u] ai[a] uai[ɶ] ei[e̞] uei[ø̞] i[i] ü[y]
Aspirated xa[xɑ] xao[xɒ] xe[xɤ̞] xou[xo̞] x-i[xɯ] xu[xu] xai[xa] xuai[xɶ] xei[xe̞] xuei[xø̞] xi[xi] xü[xy]
Stop Tenuis ga[ɡɑ] gao[ɡɒ] ge[ɡɤ̞] gou[ɡo̞] g-i[ɡɯ] gu[ɡu] gai[ɡa] guai[ɡɶ] gei[ɡe̞] guei[ɡø̞] gi[ɡi] gü[ɡy]
Aspirated ka[kɑ] kao[kɒ] ke[kɤ̞] kou[ko̞] k-i[kɯ] ku[ku] kai[ka] kuai[kɶ] kei[ke̞] kuei[kø̞] ki[ki] kü[ky]
Nasal Prefix nga[ŋɑ] ngao[ŋɒ] nge[ŋɤ̞] ngou[ŋo̞] ng-i[ŋɯ] ngu[ŋu] ngai[ŋa] nguai[ŋɶ] ngei[ŋe̞] nguei[ŋø̞] ngi[ŋi] ngü[ŋy]
Suffix ng[ŋ]
Coronal Fricative Tenuis za[zɑ] / la[lɑ] zao[zɒ] ze[zɤ̞] zou[zo̞] z-i[zɯ] zu[zu] zai[za] zuai[zɶ] zei[ze̞] zuei[zø̞] zi[zi] zü[zy]
Aspirated sa[sɑ] sao[sɒ] se[sɤ̞] sou[so̞] s-i[sɯ] su[su] sai[sa] suai[sɶ] sei[se̞] suei[sø̞] si[si] sü[sy]
Stop Tenuis da[dɑ] dao[dɒ] de[dɤ̞] dou[do̞] d-i[dɯ] du[du] dai[da] duai[dɶ] dei[de̞] duei[dø̞] di[di] dü[dy]
Aspirated ta[tɑ] tao[tɒ] te[tɤ̞] tou[to̞] t-i[tɯ] tu[tu] tai[ta] tuai[tɶ] tei[te̞] tuei[tø̞] ti[ti] tü[ty]
Nasal Prefix na[nɑ] nao[nɒ] ne[nɤ̞] nou[no̞] n-i[nɯ] nu[nu] nai[na] nuai[nɶ] nei[ne̞] nuei[nø̞] ni[ni] nü[ny]
Suffix n[n]
Labial Fricative Tenuis va[vɑ] vao[vɒ] ve[vɤ̞] vou[vo̞] v-i[vɯ] vu[vu] vai[va] vuai[vɶ] vei[ve̞] vuei[vø̞] vi[vi] vü[vy]
Aspirated fa[fɑ] fao[fɒ] fe[fɤ̞] fou[fo̞] f-i[fɯ] fu[fu] fai[fa] fuai[fɶ] fei[fe̞] fuei[fø̞] fi[fi] fü[fy]
Stop Tenuis ba[bɑ] bao[bɒ] be[bɤ̞] bou[bo̞] b-i[bɯ] bu[bu] bai[ba] buai[bɶ] bei[be̞] buei[bø̞] bi[bi] bü[by]
Aspirated pa[pɑ] pao[pɒ] pe[pɤ̞] pou[po̞] p-i[pɯ] pu[pu] pai[pa] puai[pɶ] pei[pe̞] puei[pø̞] pi[pi] pü[py]
Nasal Prefix ma[mɑ] mao[mɒ] me[mɤ̞] mou[mo̞] m-i[mɯ] mu[mu] mai[ma] muai[mɶ] mei[me̞] muei[mø̞] mi[mi] mü[my]
Suffix m[m]

Old tablation of syllabaries[edit]

  • ai = a + i (吖), ei = e + i (厄), uai = u + ai (五吖乙), ui = u + ei (五厄乙), ie = i + ê (乙),
    ao = a + u (吖), ou = e + u (厄), iao = i + au (乙吖五), iu = i + eu (乙厄五), üe = ü + oe (于),
    an = a + n (吖), en = e + n (厄), in = i + n (乙), un = u + n (五), ün = ü + n (于),
    ang = a + ng (吖), eng = e + ng (厄), ing = i + ng (乙), ong = u + ng (五), iong = ü + ng (于).

Vocabulary[edit]

Dalianese of full oyster flavor
Dalianese Meaning Dalianese Meaning Dalianese Meaning Dalianese Meaning Dalianese Meaning
xiĕ extremely cháo'r stupid / outdated huǐ le Oh, no! bái hu extemporaneous / to blatter zuǒ suo to waste
làng coxcombry biāo foolish kē'r le can't help it guán duō'r always dè se flighty
shòu'r piquant / Cool! bài don't zī shi natty gniàn yang show dissatisfaction tactfully xián hu not very gratified / to disdain
gān jing Great! vā'r low level zhāngr chengr capable hǎ hu dress sb down bú lǎi xuán understated
kāi le expressing dissatisfaction xuán le too many sá me peep gè yang disgusting cī máo'r juē dìng rude

Grammar[edit]

According to the predicate structure analysis method of the British linguists Ricci, the Dalian dialect is the same as English and Mandarin - the sentence is generally composed of S+V+O, that is subject + predicate + object of the order, but there are special circumstances, such as the older generation of Dalian people will say "Jiǎ zóu ba! Jiǎ zóu ba! (家走吧!家走吧!)" instead of "Húi jiā ba! Húi jiā ba! (回家吧!回家吧!)". At this time, the sentence is not S+V+O, but S+O+V, that is, subject + object + predicate.

  • jiā means "home".
  • zǒu means "go".
  • húi means "go back to".
  • ba means a kind of mood which means "to persuade" or "to urge".

Others[edit]

Classification[edit]

Dalianese belongs to Da-Xiu Area of Yan Chinese, and there are 2 Subareas in Da-Xiu Area.

Distribution[edit]

Bopomofo[edit]

  • Consonants: ㄅㄆㄇㄈㄪ, ㄉㄊㄋㄌ, ㄍㄎㄫㄏ, ㄐㄑㄬㄒ, ㄓㄔㄕㄖ, ㄗㄘㄙㄭ.
  • Vowels: ㄚㄛㄜㄝ, ㄞㄟㄠㄡ, ㄢㄣㄤㄥㆲ, ㄦㄧㄨㄩ.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 大連方言について (Japanese)
  2. ^ Please note that the Tone No.1 in Dalianese is a kind of falling tone, not a high level tone in Mandarin.
  3. ^ Please note that the extraordinary nature of some reiteratives and some onomatopoeias.