|Regions with significant populations|
|India||~ 201 million|
|Nepal||~ 4.5 million (2005)|
|Sri Lanka||Unknown (2008)|
|United Kingdom||50,000-200,000 estimated (2011)|
|United States||Unknown (2013)|
|Languages of South Asia|
|Hinduism · Islam · Christianity · Sikhism · Buddhism|
Dalit, meaning "oppressed" in South Asia, is the self-chosen political name of castes in the SAARC region which the varna system considers "untouchable". Though the name Dalit has been in existence since the nineteenth century, the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956) popularised the term. Dalits were excluded from the four-fold Varna system and formed the unmentioned fifth varna; they were also called Panchama. While "scheduled castes" (SC) is the legal name for those who were formerly considered "untouchable," the term Dalit also encompasses scheduled tribes (ST) and other historically disadvantaged communities who were traditionally excluded from society.
Dalits are a mixed population, consisting of groups across South Asia. They speak a variety of languages and practice various religions. With the Scheduled Castes at 16.6% and Scheduled Tribes at 8.6%, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes together make up 25% of India's population according to the 2011 census.
To prevent harassment, assault, discrimination and other criminal acts on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, the Indian government enacted the Prevention of Atrocity (POA) act on March 31, 1995.
In 1932, the British Raj recommended separate electorates to select leaders for Dalits in the Communal Award. When Mohandas Gandhi opposed this, negotiations produced the Poona Pact with B. R. Ambedkar.
From its independence in 1947 and expanded in 1974, India provided jobs and educational opportunities for Dalits. By 1995, 17.2% of Government sector IVth class jobs were held by Dalits. In 1997, India elected Dalit K. R. Narayanan as the nation's President. Many social organizations have promoted better conditions for Dalits through education, health and employment. While caste-based discrimination was prohibited and untouchability abolished by the Constitution of India, such practices continued.
Dalits and similar groups are found throughout South Asia, in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Dalits immigrated to the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore, Malaysia, South Africa, Canada and the Caribbean.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Hindu Caste system
- 3 Social status
- 4 Economic status
- 5 Discrimination
- 6 Crime and Oppression against Dalits
- 7 Religion
- 8 Political involvement
- 9 Beyond South Asia
- 10 Literature
- 11 Dalits in Film Industry
- 12 Demography in India
- 13 Internal conflicts
- 14 Notable Dalits
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 Sources
- 18 Further reading
- 19 External links
The word "dalit" is derived from the Sanskrit past participle adjective दलित (dalita), and means divided, split, broken, scattered, derived from the meaning of the verbal root दल भेदे - to divide. It was perhaps first used by Jyotirao Phule in the nineteenth century, in the context of the oppression faced by the erstwhile "untouchable" castes of the twice-born Hindus. According to Victor Premasagar, the term expresses the Dalits' "weakness, poverty and humiliation at the hands of the upper castes in the Indian society." The term Dalit has become a political identity, similar to the way African Americans in the United States moved away from the use of the term "Negro", to the use of "Black" or "African-American." Dalits today use the term "Dalit" as they believe the term is more than being broken and is in fact an identity born of struggle and assertion.
Official Term (Scheduled castes)
"Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes" are the official terms used in Government of India documents to identify former "untouchable" individuals and groups. In 2008, the National Commission for Scheduled Castes, noticing that "Dalit" was used interchangeably with the official term "scheduled castes", called the term "unconstitutional" and asked state governments to end its use. After the order, the Chhattisgarh government ended the official use of the word "Dalit".
"Adi Dravida", "Adi Karnataka", "Adi Andhra" and "Ad-Dharmi" are words used in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab, respectively, to identify people of former "untouchable" castes in official documents. These words, particularly the prefix of "Adi", denote aboriginal or indigenous identity, and the word "Adivasi" is a conjunction of two words, "Adi" meaning original and "vasi" meaning inhabitants.
Hindu Caste system
Dalits were considered by upper castes to be outside the Varna or caste system. They were considered as Panchama or the fifth group, beyond the upper caste proposed fourfold division of Indian people.
In the Hindu caste system, Dalit status is associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure, such as leatherwork or butchering, or removal of rubbish, animal carcasses and human waste. Dalits work as manual labourers cleaning streets, latrines and sewers.[when?] These activities were considered to be polluting to the individual and this pollution was considered contagious.
Dalits were commonly banned from full participation in Indian social life. They were physically segregated from the surrounding community. For example, they could not enter a temple or a school and were required to stay outside villages. Other castes took elaborate precautions to prevent incidental contact with Dalits.
Namantar Andolan was part of a 16-year Dalit campaign to rename Marathwada University as Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University. In 1977, the Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Vasantdada Patil, promised a new name to the Dalit Panthers; the Maharashtra Legislature[disambiguation needed] passed a resolution to this effect in July 1978. Thereafter, non-Dalits attacked Dalits and upper-caste Hindus for a fortnight. A new Chief Minister, Sharad Pawar, postponed implementation that led to a Long March by Dalit leaders and sympathisers in December 1979. Thousands of participants and leaders were arrested. The renaming, involving some compromise, finally took place on 14 January 1994.
In order to aid Bihar Dalits, Dr Birbal Jha, Managing Director of British Lingua, collaborated with the Government of Bihar to start Spoken English Skills training in the state.
From 1950, India enacted and implemented laws and social initiatives to improve Dalits' socioeconomic conditions. By 1995, of all jobs in India, 17.2% were held by Dalits, greater than their proportion in the Indian population. Of the senior-most jobs in government agencies and government-controlled enterprises, over 10% were held by Dalits, a tenfold increase in 40 years. In the 21st century, Dalits were elected to India's highest judicial and political offices. In 1997, India democratically elected Dalit K. R. Narayanan as the nation's President.
In 2001, the quality of life of the Dalit population in India was statistically similar to that of the overall Indian population, on metrics such as access to health care, life expectancy, education attainability, access to drinking water and housing In 2010, Dalits received international attention due to a portrait exhibition by Marcus Perkins that depicted Dalits.
In India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, Dalits have revolutionised politics The Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party runs the government. Party leader Mayawati repeatedly served as chief minister.
According to a 2014 report to the Ministry of Minority Affairs by Amitabh Kundu, over 44.8% of Scheduled Tribe (ST) and 33.8% of Scheduled Caste (SC) populations in rural India were living below the poverty line in 2011-12, compared to 30.8% of Muslims. In urban areas, 27.3% of ST and 21.8% of SC populations were poor, versus 26.5% of Muslims.
Some Hindu Dalits achieved affluence, although most remain poor. In particular, some Dalit intellectuals such as Chandrabhan Prasad have argued that the living standards of many Dalits have improved since the economic liberalisation in 1991 and have supported their claims through large surveys. According to Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011, nearly 79 percent of rural Adivasi households and 73 percent for Dalit households were most deprived among rural households in India. While 45 percent of scheduled caste households are landless and earn by manual casual labour for their living and same is for 30 percent for adivasis.
According to a 2014 report by The. IndiaGoverns Research Institute, Dalits constitute nearly half of primary school dropouts. In Karnataka State, 48% of school dropouts are Dalits. In Nepal, Dalit and Janajati students have the highest dropout rates at the primary school level.
Dalit students are given scholarships only after they produce photographs of family members working in traditional occupations.
Among state schools, 88% discriminated against Dalit children, while 79% required Dalit students to sit in the back of the classroom. In 79% of schools, Dalit children are forbidden from touching mid-day meals. They are required to sit separately at lunch in 35% of schools, and are required to eat with specially marked plates in 28%. In high schools, higher caste students are often advised not to mingle with Dalits.
There have been incidents of Dalit teachers and professors being discriminated against and harassed by authorities, upper castes colleagues as well as upper caste students in different education institutes of India.
Healthcare and nutrition
Discrimination also exists in access to healthcare and nutrition. Medical field workers do not visit 65% of Dalit settlements. 47% of Dalits are not allowed entry into ration depots; 64% are given less grains than non-Dalits; and 52% are given grains from a distance. In Haryana state, 49% dalit children under five years are underweight and malnourished while 80% of dalit children in the 6–59 months age group are anaemic in 2015.
Dalits comprise a disproportionate number of India's prison inmates. While Dalits (including both SCs and STs) constitute 25% of the Indian population, they account for 33.2% of prisoners. In the state of Gujarat, where Dalits constitute roughly 6.7% of the population, 32.9% of all convicts. About 94% of total Death row convicts in India are Dalits or from religious minorities.
Caste-related violence between Dalit and non-Dalits allegedly stems from Dalit's economic success amidst ongoing prejudice. A crime against Dalits happens every 18 minutes — 3 women raped every day, 13 murdered every week, 27 atrocities every day, 6 kidnapped every week. The Bhagana Rape case is an example of atrocities against Dalit girls and women. In August 2015, due to discrimination from upper castes of the village about 100 dalit families of the district’s Bhagana village converted to Islam in a ceremony at Jantar Mantar, New Delhi. Bangalore records the most offences against Dalits. Inter-caste marriage has been proposed as a remedy, but only 5% of Indian marriages cross caste boundaries.
A 2006 article reported incidents of violence, disputes and discrimination against Dalits in Maharashtra. The article noted that non-Dalit families claimed they do not treat Dalits differently. A carpenter caste person said, "We tell them anything and they tell us you are pointing fingers at us because of our caste; we all live together, and there are bound to be fights, but they think we target them."
There have been reports of Dalits being forced to eat human feces and drink urine by Christian Thevars (declared a 'Backward class'). In one such instance, a 17-year old girl was set on fire by Yadav (declared an OBC) youth, allegedly because she was allowed school-education. In September 2015, a 45-year-old dalit woman was stripped naked and was forced to drink urine by perpetrators belonging from the Yadav community (a declared OBC) in Madhya Pradesh.
Prevention of Atrocities Act
The 1989 Prevention of Atrocities Act (POA) is an acknowledgement by the Indian government that caste relations are defined by violence. The Act denoted specific crimes against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as "atrocities" and created corresponding punishments. Its purpose was to curb and punish violence against Dalits. The list of atrocities included humiliations such as the forced consumption of noxious substances. Other atrocities included forced labour, denial of access to water and other public amenities and sexual abuse. The Act permitted Special Courts to try POA cases. The Act called on states with high levels of caste violence (said to be "atrocity-prone") to appoint qualified officers to monitor and maintain law and order.
In practice the Act suffered from a near-complete implementation failure. Only two states created separate such courts. Policemen displayed a consistent unwillingness to register offences under the act. This reluctance stems partially from ignorance and also from peer protection. According to a 1999 study, nearly a quarter of those government officials charged with enforcing the Act were unaware of its existence.
Fa Xian, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who recorded his visit to India in the early 4th century, noted that Chandalas were segregated from the mainstream society as Untouchables. Dalits were forbidden to worship in temples or draw water from the same wells as caste Hindus, and they usually lived in segregated areas outside the main village. In the Indian countryside, Dalit villages are usually a separate enclave a kilometre or so outside the main village where the other castes reside.
While discrimination has declined in urban areas and in the public sphere, discrimination against Dalits still exists in rural areas and in the private sphere, in everyday matters such as access to eating places, schools, temples and water sources. Some Dalits successfully integrated into urban Indian society, where caste origins are less obvious. In rural India, however, caste origins are more readily apparent and Dalits often remain excluded from local religious life, though some qualitative evidence suggests that exclusion is diminishing.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that discrimination against Hindu Dalits is on a slow but steady decline. For instance, an informal study stated, "In rural Azamgarh District in the state of Uttar Pradesh, for instance, nearly all Dalit households said their bridegrooms now rode in cars to their weddings, compared with 27 percent in 1990. In the past, Dalits would not have been allowed to ride even horses to meet their brides; that was considered an upper-caste privilege."
According to a 2014 survey, 27% of the Indian population still practices Untouchability. Across India, Untouchability was practised among 52% of Brahmins , 33% of communities traditionally called Other Backward Classes and 24% of non-Brahmin forward castes. Untouchability was also practiced by people of minority religions - 23% of Sikhs, 18% of Muslims and 5% of Christians. According to statewide data, Untouchability is most commonly practiced in Madhya Pradesh (53%), followed by Himachal Pradesh (50%), Chhattisgarh (48%), Rajasthan and Bihar (47%), Uttar Pradesh (43%), and Uttarakhand (40%).
In Madhya Pradesh, Dalits are not allowed to touch food and water at common gatherings. Dalits are prohibited from entering temples in 80% of villages and are not allowed to use public borewell of village for fetching water and are forced to drink dirty water.
Discrimination in following traditions, rituals and customs
In several incidents if dalits found burning holika for Holika Dahan ceremony, they are tonsured and paraded naked in the villages. Also in some parts of India, Dalit grooms riding horses for wedding ceremonies are often beaten up and ostracised by upper caste people. In August 2015, upper caste people burned houses of Dalits alongside vehicles belonging to Dalit families and slaughtered their livestock because dalits dared to carry temple car procession at the village in Tamil Nadu. In August 2015, Jat Khap Panchayat ordered rape of two dalit sisters because of love affair of their brother with a Jat girl of village.
Crime and Oppression against Dalits
Most Dalits in India practice Hinduism. According to the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Orders (Amendment) Act, 1990, Scheduled Castes can only belong to Hindu or Sikh or Buddhist religions. There is no religion bar in case of Scheduled Tribes. However, according to the 61st round Survey of the National Sample Survey Organisation, 90% of Buddhists, one-third of Sikhs, and one-third of Christians in India belonged to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes.
|Religion||Scheduled Caste||Scheduled Tribe|
Most Scheduled Tribal societies have their own indigenous religions, which are infused with elements of the local dominant religions. For example, Mundas have a Munda religion, which includes elements of Hinduism, Christianity and Jainism, among other elements.
The term Chandala is used in the Manu Smriti (lit. "The recollection of Manu" or, with more latitude, "The laws according to Manu") in the Mahabharata. Later it became synonymous with "Domba", originally representing a specific ethnic or tribal group and then a general pejorative. In the early Vedic literature, several caste names that are referred to in the Smritis as Antyajas occur. Carmanna (a tanner of hides) appears in the Rig Veda (VIII. 8, 38), Chandala and Paulkasa occur in Vajasaneyi Samhita, while Vidalakara or Bidalakar are present in the Vajasaneyi Samhita. Vasahpalpuli (washer woman) corresponds to the Rajakas of the Smritis in Vajasaneyi Samhita.
According to a RSS leader, Babasaheb B. R. Ambedkar may thought untouchability was born about 400 AD, due to the struggle for supremacy between Buddhism and Brahmanism (an ancient term for Brahmanical Hinduism). Some Hindu priests befriended Dalits and were demoted to low-caste ranks. One example was Dnyaneshwar, who was transferred into Dalit status in the 13th century, but continued to compose the Dnyaneshwari, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. Eknath, another excommunicated Brahmin, fought for Untouchable rights during the Bhakti period. Historical examples of Dalit priests include Chokhamela in the 14th century, who was India's first recorded Dalit poet and Raidas, born into a family of cobblers. The 15th-century saint Sri Ramananda Raya accepted all castes, including Untouchables, into his fold. Most of these saints subscribed to the Bhakti movements in Hinduism during the medieval period that rejected casteism. The story of Nandanar describes a low-caste Hindu devotee who was rejected by the priests but accepted by God.
Due to isolation from the rest of Hindu society, many Dalits continue to debate whether they are "Hindu" or "non-Hindu". Traditionally, Hindu Dalits were barred from many activities that central to Vedic religion and Hindu practices of orthodox sects. Among Hindus each community followed its own variant of Hinduism. The wide variety of practices and beliefs observed in Hinduism makes any clear assessment difficult.
The earliest known historical people to have rejected the caste system were Gautama Buddha and Mahavira. Their teachings formed independent religions called Buddhism and Jainism. The earliest known reformation within Hinduism happened during the medieval period when the Bhakti movements & Ramanuja actively encouraged the participation and inclusion of Dalits. Ramanuja took Dalit disciples publicly into his fold and into temple. He put forth the Dalit Nammalvar as the sect's philosophical head and propagated Nammalvar's works as Dravida Veda.
In the 19th century, the Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj and the Ramakrishna Mission actively participated in Dalit emancipation. While Dalits had places to worship, the first "upper-caste" temple to openly welcome Dalits was the Laxminarayan Temple in Wardha in 1928. It was followed by the Temple Entry Proclamation issued by the last King of Travancore in the Indian state of Kerala in 1936.
The Punjabi reformist Satnami movement was founded by Dalit Guru Ghasidas. Guru Ravidas was also a Dalit. Giani Ditt Singh, a Dalit Sikh reformer, started Singh Sabha movement to convert Dalits. Other reformers, such as Jyotirao Phule, Ayyankali of Kerala and Iyothee Thass of Tamil Nadu worked for Dalit emancipation.
In the 1930s Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar disagreed over whether Dalits should become a separate electorate. Although he failed to get Ambedkar's support for a joint electorate, Gandhi nevertheless began the "Harijan Yatra" to help the Dalits. Palwankar Baloo, a Dalit politician and a cricketer, joined the Hindu Mahasabha in the independence fight.
The declaration by princely states of Kerala between 1936 and 1947 that temples were open to all Hindus went a long way towards ending Untouchability there. According to Kerala tradition, Dalits were forced to maintain a distance of 96 feet from Nambudiris, 64 feet from Nairs and 48 feet from other upper castes (like Maarans and Arya Vysyas). However, educational opportunities to Dalits in Kerala remain limited.
Other Hindu groups attempted to reconcile with the Dalit community. On August 2006, Dalit activist Namdeo Dhasal engaged in dialogue with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in an attempt to "bury the hatchet". Hindu temples are increasingly receptive to Dalit priests, a function formerly reserved for Brahmins. Suryavanshi Das, for example, is the Dalit priest of a notable temple in Bihar.
The fight for temple entry rights for Dalits continues to cause controversy. Brahmins such as Subramania Bharati passed Brahminhood onto a Dalit, while in Shivaji's Maratha Empire Dalit warriors (the Mahar Regiment) joined his forces. In an 2015 incident in Meerut, when Valmiki dalit was denied entry to a Hindu temple he converted to Islam.
Dalits in Nepal became accepted into the priesthood (traditionally reserved for Brahmins) and the Dalit priestly order is called "Pandaram" but as of 2014 many Dalits are still not allowed to enter Hindu Temples in Nepal and usually beaten up by Brahmins if they enter Hindu temples.
In Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and a few other regions, Dalits came under the influence of the neo-Buddhist movement initiated by B. R. Ambedkar. In the 1950s, Ambedkar turned his attention to Buddhism and travelled to Sri Lanka to attend a convention of Buddhist scholars and monks. While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune, he announced that he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that he planned a formal conversion. Ambedkar twice visited Myanmar in 1954; the second time to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist Society of India. He completed The Buddha and His Dhamma, in 1956.
After meetings with Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa, Ambedkar organised a public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on 14 October 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts in the traditional manner, Ambedkar completed his conversion. He then proceeded to convert an estimated 500,000 of his supporters. Taking the 22 Vows, they explicitly condemned and rejected Hinduism and Hindu philosophy. He then travelled to Kathmandu in Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference. He completed his final manuscript, The Buddha or Karl Marx on 2 December 1956.
Sikhism rejects the idea of a caste system, adopting standard surnames to disguise caste identities. Nevertheless, families generally do not marry across caste boundaries. Dalits form a class among the Sikhs and are categorized as in other groups. The Founder President of the Bahujan Samaj Party Kanshi Ram was of Sikh background, but practiced Buddhism without converting formally into it.
The Dera Sach Khand was established 70 years ago by Sant Sarwan Das and Sant Niranjan Das is the current head. The Dera is credited with running social organisations and hospitals. Most followers do not wear turbans. Dera Sachkhand has several lakh followers among Dalit Sikhs in and around Jalandhar and the Doaba area in Punjab. It also has followers in UK, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain and Greece.
Talhan Gurdwara conflict
In 2003 the Talhan village Gurudwara endured a bitter dispute between Jatt Sikh and Chamars. The Chamars came out in force and confronted the Randhawa and Bains Jatt Sikh Landlords, who refused to give the Chamars a share on the governing committee of a shrine dedicated to Shaheed Baba Nihal Singh. The shrine earned 3–7 Crore Indian Rupees, and the Jatt Sikh Landlords allegedly "gobbled up a substantial portion of the offerings". Though Dalits form more than 60 percent of Talhan’s 5,000-strong population, local ‘traditions’ ensured that they were denied a spot on the committee. The landlords, in league with radical Sikh organisations and the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, attempted to keep out the Dalits by razing the Shrine overnight and constructing a gurdwara on it, but the Dalit quest for a say in the governing committee did not end. Chanan Ram Pal President of the Talhan Dalit Action Committee stated,
"We fought a war for swabhimaan (self-respect). The teachings of Guru Ravidas and the access to modern education inculcated in us this desire. We are an economically independent community, many of our people are nris who send money from Dubai, the West, etc. Here, we do not work for landlords, we are self-employed. Like any other caste, we too are the offspring of Punjab. We drink its water, we live on its food. We are as good as anybody"
The Village Sirpanch and active member of the Shrine committee Bhupinder Singh Bains admitted to the landlord corruption and stated,
"Every Sunday, the gulak was opened. Of the Rs 5–7 lakh in offerings, Rs 1–2 lakh was pilfered. The committee was against having Chamars as members as it was an old tradition. It is wrong to think like that. The dalits got very upset when they asked for some money to celebrate their festivals and the committee dominated by us doled out just Rs 10,000-Rs 15,000. The dalits wanted to become part of the committee; they fought a four-year battle in court. Today, with the dalits around, everyone keeps a watch and corruption in the shrine has been curbed,..."
Bhupinder Singh Bains continued,
Those earlier notions of untouchability, which was a Brahmanical concept, no longer prevail. Earlier, poor Chamar families were dependent on us, for example, for taking the molasses' waste. Now they stand equal to us, with many of their children becoming Class I officers earning fat salaries. While the sons of landlords refuse to work on the land, the children of the Chamars study and get good jobs. In contrast, our sons are getting hooked to drugs as they idle their time away,...
Chamars fought a four-year court battle with the Jatt Sikh Landlords and their allies including the Punjab Police. In that time Dalits conducted several boycotts against the Chamars. The Jatt Sikhs and their allies cut off the power supply to their homes. In addition, various scuffles and fights set Chamar youths armed with Lathhis, rocks, bricks, soda bottles and anything they could find fought Jatt Sikh landlords youths and the Punjab Police. Dalit youngsters painted their homes and motorcycles with the slogan, Putt Chamar De (proud sons of Chamars) in retaliation to the Jat slogan, Putt Jattan De.
Attack on Ramanand
Ramanand Dass was a leader of the Dera Sach Khand, a follower of Guru Ravidass and preacher of Ravidassia religion. His name came to international attention when he was murdered at age 57 in a 24 May 2009 attack in the Guru Ravidass Temple in Rudolfsheim, Vienna. The attack triggered rioting across much of Northern India.
The identities of the six alleged Sikh attackers were established. All were males from Punjab and other regions in northern India. Two had entered the country illegally, and four had applied for asylum.
Attack on Bant Singh
Bant Singh is a lower caste Mazhabi, Dalit Sikh farmer and singer from Jhabhar village in Mansa district, Punjab, India, who has emerged as an agricultural labour activist, fighting landowners. Described by Amit Sengupta as "an icon of Dalit resistance he has been active in organizing poor, agricultural workers, activism that continues despite a 2006 attack that cost him both of his lower arms and his left leg."
After his minor daughter was raped in 2000, Bant took the rapists to court, braving threats of violence and attempted bribes. Rapes of Dalits by non-Dalits are not commonly reported. The 2004 trial culminated in life sentences for three of the culprits, "the first time that a Dalit from the region who had complained against upper-caste violence had managed to secure a conviction."
On the evening of 7 January 2006 Bant Singh was returning home from campaigning for a national agricultural labour rally. He was assaulted by seven men, allegedly sent by Jaswant and Niranjan Singh, the headman of his village, who have links with the Indian National Congress party. One of them brandished a revolver to prevent any resistance while the other six beat him with iron rods and axes. He was left for dead, but barely survived.
He was first taken to civil hospital in Mansa but was not properly treated there. Then he moved to the PGI at Chandigarh, where both lower arms and one leg had to be amputated since gangrene had set in and his kidneys had collapsed due to blood loss. The original doctor was eventually suspended for misconduct.
In 1958, a Sthanakvasi Jain Muni Sameer Muni came into contact with members of the Khatik community in Udaipur region, who decided to adapt Jainism. Their center Ahimsa Nagar, located about 4 miles from Chittorgarh, was inaugurated by Mohanlal Sukhadia in 1966. Sameer Muni termed them Veerwaal, i.e. belonging to Lord Mahavira. A 22-year-old youth, Chandaram Meghwal, was initiated as a Jain monk at Ahore town in Jalore district in 2005. In 2010 a Mahar engineer Vishal Damodar was initiated as a Jain monk by Acharya Navaratna Sagar Suriji at Samet Shikhar. Acharya Nanesh, the eighth Achayra of Sadhumargi Jain Shravak Sangha had preached among the Balai community in 1963 near Ratlam. His followers are termed Dharmapal. In 1984, some of the Bhangis of Jodhpur came under the influence of Acharya Shri Tulsi and adapted Jainism.
Many Christian communities in South India follow the caste system. Sometimes the social stratification remains unchanged and in cases such as among Goan and Mangalorean Catholics, the stratification varies from the Hindu system.
A 1992 study of Catholics in Tamil Nadu found some Dalit Christians faced segregated churches, cemeteries, services and even processions. A Christian Dalit activist with the pen name Bama Faustina has provided a firsthand account of discrimination by upper-caste nuns and priests in South India.
Dalit political parties include:
- Bahujan Samaj Party
- Republican Party of India, active in Maharashtra
- Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi, a Dravidian party in Tamil Nadu
- Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh, led by Prakash Yashwant Ambedkar, Ambedkar's grandson
- Lok Janshakti Party, Bihar
- Bahujan Shakti Party, Nepal
- Dalit Janajati Party, Nepal
Anti-Dalit prejudices exist in groups such as the extremist militia Ranvir Sena, largely run by upper-caste landlords in Bihar. They oppose equal treatment of Dalits and have resorted to violence. The Ranvir Sena is considered a terrorist organisation by the government of India. In 2015, Cobrapost exposed many BJP leaders especially like Murli Manohar Joshi and C. P. Thakur alongside former PM Chandra Shekhar associated with Ranvir Sena in Bihar Dalit massacres while governments of Nitish Kumar (under pressure from BJP), Lalu Prasad Yadav and Rabri Devi did nothing to get justice for Dalits.
The rise of Hindutva's (Hindu nationalism) role in Indian politics has accompanied allegations that religious conversions of Dalits are due to allurements like education and jobs rather than faith. In 2015, 40-50 RSS men with lathis and rods attacked and injured nearly a dozen persons of dalit Valmiki caste including children and women. Critics[who?] argue that laws banning conversion and limiting social relief for converts mean that conversion impedes economic success. However, Bangaru Laxman, a Dalit politician, was a prominent member of the Hindutva movement.
Another political issue is Dalit affirmative-action quotas in government jobs and university admissions. About 8% of the seats in the National and State Parliaments are reserved for Scheduled Caste and Tribe candidates.
In 2007, Mayawati, a Dalit, was elected Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. Some reports claimed her 2007 election victory was due to her ability to win support from both 17% of Muslims and nearly 17% Brahmins alongside 80% of Dalits. However, surveys of voters on the eve of elections, indicated that caste loyalties were not the voters' principal concern. Instead, inflation and other issues of social and economic development dictated the outcome. Mayawati's success in reaching across castes has led to speculation about her as a potential future Prime Minister of India.
Damodaram Sanjivayya was chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (from 11 January 1960 – 12 March 1962), Mayawati was four times chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, while Jitan Ram Manjhi was chief minister of Bihar for just less than a year.
Dalits as well as tribal people have benefited from broad and mandatory job reservations, school admission quotas and affirmative action programmes since 1947. Dalits also have reserved seats in India's parliament and state assemblies and are enjoying greater political power.
Dalits are often used as a Votebank by political parties especially Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party, without otherwise including them in decision making of party affairs. A survey about 2014 elections found that BJP got 24% national Dalit vote share (doubled from 12 percent in 2009), Congress got 19 percent and Bahujan Samaj Party got 14%. But BJP was left behind by Aam Aadmi Party that gained votes among Dalits in Punjab (21 percent Dalit votes) and in Delhi (more than 40%).
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Sub-Plan
The SC, ST Sub-Plan (Indiramma Kalalu) is a budget allocation by the Government of Andhra Pradesh for the welfare of Dalits. The law was enacted in May, 2013. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have separate panels for spending. The plan was meant to prevent the government from diverting funds meant for SCs and STs to other programs, which was historically the case. No national SC, ST Sub-Plan exists. Scheduled Castes Sub Plan and Tribal Sub-Plan funds are often diverted by state governments to other purposes.
While the Indian Constitution has provisions for the social and economic uplift of Dalits to support their upward social mobility, these concessions are limited to Hindus. Dalits who have converted to other religions have asked that benefits be extended to them.
Beyond South Asia
William Darity and Jessica Nembhard compared the economic disparities faced by Dalits, to those among groups in nations such as Australia, Belize, Brazil, Canada, Malaysia and South Africa. They claimed that India has a lower level of intergroup inequality than many other nations. However, given India's general poverty, the quality of life for Dalits and non-Dalits is lower than similarly situated groups in other countries.
After the second world war, immigration from the former British Empire, predominantly Pakistan, India and Bangladesh was substantial, largely driven by labour shortages. Like the rest of the Subcontinent diaspora, Dalits immigrated and established their own communities.
A 2009 report alleged that caste discrimination is "rife" in the United Kingdom. The report alleged that casteism persists in the workplace and within the National Health Service and at doctor's offices.
Indians are divided on the subject and such claims are disputed by the UK Hindu Council who assert that the issue was being "manipulated" by Christians and other anti-Indian activists eager to convert Hindus.
Hindu groups asserted that caste issues will be resolved as generations pass and that a trend towards inter-caste marriages should help. Some claim that caste discrimination is non-existent. Some have rejected the government's right to interfere in the community. The Hindu Forum of Britain conducted their own research, concluding that caste discrimination was "not endemic in British society", that reports to the contrary aimed to increase discrimination by legislating expression and behaviour and that barriers should instead be removed through education.
A 2010 study found that caste discrimination occurs in Britain at work and in service provision. While not ruling out the possibility of discrimination in education, no such incidents were uncovered. The report found favourable results from educational activities. However, non-legislative approaches were claimed to be less effective in the workplace and would not help when the authorities were discriminating. One criticism of discrimination law was the difficulty in obtaining proof of violations. Perceived benefits of legislation were that it provides redress, leads to greater understanding and reduces the social acceptance of such discrimination.
More recent studies in Britain were inconclusive and found that discrimination was "not religion specific and is subscribed to by members of any or no religion". Equalities Minister Helen Grant found insufficient evidence to justify specific legislation, while Shadow Equalities minister Kate Green said that the impact is on a relatively small number of people. Religious studies professor Gavin Flood of the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies concluded that the Hindu community in Britain is particularly well integrated, loosening caste ties. Casteist beliefs were prevalent mainly among first generation immigrants, with such prejudices declining with each successive generation due to greater assimilation.
Although caste or jati is presented as a Brahminical Hindu concept, caste or jati has and continues to influence Sikhs even though it is contrary to Sikh ideology and beliefs. Caste divisions exist among Sikhs whose families came from the sub-continent. Sikh's in the United Kingdom are affected by caste. Gurdwaras such as Ramgarhia Sikh are organized along caste lines. Most gurdwaras are controlled by a single caste Sikhs of different caste are not able to share one gurdwara. In most British towns and cities with a significant Sikh population, rival gurdwaras can be found with caste-specific management committees.
Caste remains an important factor in Sikh religious organisations The caste system and caste identity is entrenched and reinforced among British Sikhs. The main divisions among Sikhs in the United Kingdom are the Jatt Sikhs, Ramgarhia Sikhs. The Dalit Sikh diaspora consists of Mazhabi and Ramdassi Sikhs and is limited to Valmiki and ravidassia temples.
Dalit Sikhs have formed a network of lower caste temples throughout the UK. Caste tensions erupt between higher caste Jatt Sikhs and lower caste Sikhs. Violence has erupted between the two communities over inter-caste marriages. In the city of Wolverhampton incidents of Jatt Sikhs refused to share water taps and avoided physical contact with lower castes. At a sports competition in Birmingham in 1999, Jatt Sikhs refused to eat food that had been cooked and prepared by the Chamar community.
Many Jatt Sikhs refer to lower-caste temples as the 'Ramghariya Gurdwara'or 'Ghumaran Da Gurdwara'or "Chamar Gurdwara" etc. The majority of higher caste Sikhs would not eat in a Ravidassi house or in Ravidassi temples. Many Chamars stated that they are made to feel unwelcome in Sikh gurdwaras and Hindu temples. Many Sikhs do not wish to give Chamars equal status in their gurdwaras and communities. Sikh Chamars (Ramdassi Sikhs) united with fellow Chamars across religious boundaries to form Ravidassi temples.
Sikh gurdwaras, which often are controlled by the older first generation immigrants, in Britain generally frown upon inter-caste marriages even though they are on the rise. More and more families are affected by inter-caste marriages. An uproar greeted a Ramgarhia groom and a Jatt Sikh bride's attempt to marry. The bride's kin threatened to kill the groom. Although both castes were generally considered "upper caste", Jatt Sikhs viewed themselves to be superior.
The few gurdwaras that accept inter-caste marriages do so reluctantly. Gurdwaras may insist on the presence of Singh and Kaur in the names of the bridegroom and bride, or deny them access to gurdwara-based religious services and community centres.
Dalits in the Caribbean
It is estimated that in 1883, about one-third of the immigrants who arrived in the Caribbean were Dalits who were discriminated against as outcastes of Hindu society
Dalit literature forms a distinct part of Indian literature. One of the first Dalit writers was Madara Chennaiah, an 11th-century cobbler-saint who lived in the reign of Western Chalukyas and who is regarded by some scholars as the "father of Vachana poetry". Another early Dalit poet is Dohara Kakkaiah, a Dalit by birth, six of whose confessional poems survive. The Bharatiya Dalit Sahitya Akademi (Indian Dalit Literature Academy) was founded in 1984 by Babu Jagjivan Ram.
Notable modern authors include Mahatma Phule and Dr. Ambedkar in Maharashtra, who focused on the issues of Dalits through their works and writings. This started a new trend in Dalit writing and inspired many Dalits to offer work in Marathi, Hindi, Tamil and Punjabi.
Baburao Bagul, Bandhu Madhav and Shankar Rao Kharat, worked in the 1960s. Later the Little magazine movement became popular. In Sri Lanka, writers such as K.Daniel and Dominic Jeeva gained mainstream popularity.
Dalits in Film Industry
Dalits are not given fair representation in Bollywood and other film industries of India. There is not even a single Dalit Mainstream actor or actress in India. Chirag Paswan (son of dalit leader Ram Vilas Paswan) was launched in Bollywood with his debut film Miley Naa Miley Hum in 2011. Despite political connections and financial ability to struggle, Chirag was not able bag any other project in the next few years. Chirag in his initial days described Bollywood as his childhood dream but eventually entered politics. When media tried to talk to him about Caste in Bollywood, he refused to talk as his silence itself speaks a lot. In modern-day Bollywood just 4 mainstream films had dalit being portrayed as a hero Chachi 420 (1997), Eklavya: The Royal Guard (2007), Aarakshan (2011) and Manjhi - The Mountain Man (2015). Caste based references on Dalit sub-castes in South Indian films angers many dalit fans.
Demography in India
As of the[update] 2011 Census of India, four states accounted for nearly half of India's Dalit population - Uttar Pradesh (20.5%), West Bengal (10.7%), Bihar (8.2%) and Tamil Nadu (7.2%). Among Indian states, Dalits were most prevalent in Punjab, at about 31.9 percent of Punjab's population, while Mizoram had the lowest at approximately zero. According to the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Orders (Amendment) Act, 1990, Scheduled Castes can only belong to Hindu, Sikh or Buddhist religions.
Several Dalit groups are rivals and sometimes communal tensions are evident. A study found more than 900 Dalit sub-castes throughout India, with internal divisions. Emphasising any one caste threatens what is claimed to be an emerging Dalit identity and fostering rivalry among SCs.
A DLM party leader said in the early 2000s that it is easier to organize Dalits on a caste basis than to fight caste prejudice itself.
Many converted Dalit Sikhs claim a superior status over the Hindu Raigars, Joatia Chamars and Ravidasis and sometimes refuse to intermarry with them. They are divided into gotras that regulate their marriage alliances. In Andhra Pradesh, Mala and Madiga were constantly in conflict with each other but as of 2015 Mala and Madiga students work for common dalit cause at University level.
Although the Khateek (butchers) are generally viewed as a higher caste than Bhangis, the latter refuse to offer cleaning services to Khateeks, believing that their profession renders them unclean. They also consider the Balai, Dhobi, Dholi and Mogya as unclean and do not associate with them.
- 2006 Dalit protests in Maharashtra
- Health care access among Dalits in India
- Sikh Light Infantry, a dalit Sikh regiment of Indian Army
- Dalit Panther
- Dalit nationalism
- Mangu Ram Mugowalia
- Pasmanda Muslim Mahaz
- Annabhau Sathe
- Bant Singh
- Bhopal Conference
- Dalit Freedom Network
- Gadge Maharaj
- Rajesh Saraiya
- Damal, Swarnakumar (2005). "Dalits of Nepal: Who are Dalits in Nepal" (PDF). International Nepal Solidarity Network.
- Cambridge Journal of Education vol. 42 no. 4, December 2012, review of British Untouchables: a study of Dalit identity and education, Paul Ghuman (2011)
- "Dalits in canada".
- Kaminsky; Long, Roger D. (2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-313-37463-0.
- Kanmony, Jebagnanam Cyril (2010). Dalits and Tribes of India. Mittal Publications. p. 198. ISBN 978-81-8324-348-3.
- Mohanty, Panchanan; Malik, Ramesh C.; Kasi, Eswarappa (2009). Ethnographic Discourse of the Other: Conceptual and Methodological Issues. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-4438-0856-9.
- "Untouchables". Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Schleimann, Maria. International Dalit Solidarity Network http://idsn.org/countries/. Missing or empty
- 2011 Census Primary Census Abstract
- "SCs, STs form 25% of population, says Census 2011 data".
- "List of Schedule Castes". Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India. 2011.
- "Dalit word un-constitutional says SC". Express India. 18 January 2008. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- Ghosh, Partha S. (July 1997). "Positive Discrimination in India: A Political Analysis" (PDF). Ethnic Studies Report XV (2). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2004.
- "Status of caste system in modern India" (PDF). Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and His People. 2004.
- Art. 15 and 17, Constitution of India,
- Center for Human Rights and Global Justice/Human Rights Watch (February 2007). "Case Discrimination Against Dalits or So-Called Untouchables in India: Information for the Consideration of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in Reviewing India's Fifteenth to Nineteenth Periodic Reports" (PDF). Retrieved 31 May 2012.. Presented at the Seventieth Session of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
- Hillary Mayell, India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination (2 June 2003). National Geographic News.
- P. V. Srividya, Discrimination against Dalits prevalent: study (7 March 2011). The Hindu.
- "Dalits of Sri Lanka: Caste-blind does not mean casteless" (PDF).
- Rath, Kayte (2013-03-05). "Outlaw caste discrimination in UK, peers tell government". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- Soundararajan, Thenmozhi. "Black Indians". Outlook India.
- Lepoer, Barbara Leitch. "GPO for the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. Retrieved 1989. Check date values in:
- Mendelsohn, Oliver; Vicziany, Marika (30 April 1998). The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-55671-2.
- Victor Premasagar in Interpretive Diary of a Bishop: Indian Experience in Translation and Interpretation of Some Biblical Passages (Chennai: Christian Literature Society, 2002), p. 108.
- Zelliot, Eleanor. "India's Dalits: Racism and Contemporary Change".
- "Towards a Dalit Liberative Hermeneutics: Re-reading The Psalms of Lament". Religion-online.org. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- Karunakaran, Vee. "Dalit History Matters". Round Table India. Round Table India. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
Through our knowledge, we assert that to be Dalit is not just to be broken, but to essentially be defined by struggle. We boldly claim our legacy of power, resistance, and resilience inherent in our histories.
- "As such, there is widespread use of the word 'Harijan' across the country, depreciating the status of the under-privileged sections of the society".
- Suhas Chakma; Marianne Jensen; International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (2001). Racism Against Indigenous Peoples. IWGIA. ISBN 978-87-90730-46-8.
- "Usually there are separate burial grounds, roads and means of communication to Dalit bastis. If it is a mixed village with different communities then Dalit settlement would be at the end of the village. Except in those villages where Dalits are the only community, the situation remains the same. In many villages there are separate drinking water sources and separate bathing ghats. This is also one of the factors leading to lots of conflicts and disputes in the village.".
- Jan Nijman, A Study of Space in Mumbai's Slums, Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, Volume 101, Issue 1, pages 4–17, February 2010
- Dharavi: Mumbai's Shadow City National Geographic (2007)
- A flourishing slum The Economist (December 19, 2007) Above are two images of Dharavi.
- "Manual scavenging – the most indecent form of work". Anti-Slavery.org. 27 May 2002. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
- "India: "Hidden Apartheid" of Discrimination Against Dalits". Human Rights Watch. 27 May 2002. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- De, R. K., Shastree U., (1996), Religious Converts in India: Socio-political Study of Neo-Buddhists, Mittal Publications, PP 100
- Verinder Grover (1989). Sociological Aspects Of Indian Political System. Deep & Deep. p. 300. ISBN 978-81-7100-122-4.
- "Free English courses for Mahadalits in Bihar".
- "Constitution of India". Ministry of Law, Government of India. Retrieved 2012.
- "Profile: Mayawati Kumari". BBC News. 16 July 2009.
- "Meira Kumar, a Dalit leader is the new Lok Sabha Speaker". NCHRO. 2009.
- Deepa Shankar (2007). "What is the progress in elementary education participation in India during the last two decades?" (PDF). The World Bank.
- Darshan Singh (2009). "Development of Scheduled Castes in India – A Review" (PDF). Journal of Rural Development 28 (4): 529–542.
- Desai and Kulkarni (May 2008). "Changing Educational Inequalities in India in the Context of Affirmative Action" (PDF). Demography 45 (2): 245–270. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0001. PMC 2474466. PMID 18613480.
- Pai, Sudha (1994). "Caste and Communal Mobilisation in the Electoral Politics of Uttar Pradesh". Indian Journal of Political Science (Indian Political Science Association). LV, No3 (July September 1994): 307–320.
- Harry Underwood (25 February 2009). "‘Untouchable’ Kumari Mayawati set to be PM". The Week.
- Swaminathan S Anklesaria Aiyar (10 August 2008). "The world will love Mayawati as PM".
- "Dalits in India are poorer than Muslims: Government report".
- "India also has the largest number of people trapped in slavery – 14.2 million people.".
- Sengupta, Somini (29 August 2008). "Crusader Sees Wealth as Cure for Caste Bias". The New York Times (India). Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Wax, Emily (31 August 2008). "In an Indian Village, Signs of the Loosening Grip of Caste". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Landlessness is higher among Dalits but more adivasis are ‘deprived’". The Indian Express. 6 July 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "The_Indian_Express_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "The_Indian_Express_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- TNN (28 October 2012). "93% dalit families still live below poverty line, says survey". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Nearly half of the school dropouts in the primary section happen to be dalits".
- "According to Department of Education, six out of ten students enrolled at the primary level drop out by the time they reach lower secondary level. Dalit and Janajati students have the highest dropout rates".
- India, HuffPost (22 June 2015). "Dalit Brothers Who Cracked IIT Face Stone-Pelting Back In Their Village". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Headmistress of corporation school suspended for bias against dalits".
- "Children bear the brunt of caste abuses in rural areas".
- "Caste discrimination exists in school: students".
- "Dalit professor 'harassed' for SC quota reforms thesis".
- "VHP, Bajrang Dal activists beat up a Dalit professor".
- "Professor attempts suicide near Rajkot".
- "discrimination against candidates from reserved category".
- "Headmaster booked for abusing dalit teacher".
- "Dalit professor alleges harassment".
- Manvir SainiManvir Saini, TNN (29 July 2015). "49% of Haryana's dalit kids are malnourished: Report". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 September 2015. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Manvir_SainiManvir_Saini_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Prejudice Blamed For Dalit Prisoners".
- "Data show that Rajasthan jails house the largest number of Dalit inmates followed by Gujarat. While 45.8% of the prisoners are SC/STs in Rajasthan, in Gujarat they constitute 43.6%. Other major states that have reported considerably high difference between percentage of SC/ST population and prisoners are Assam, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.".
- "A clear case of discrimination? One third of Gujarat's convicts are Dalits, which is highest in India".
- Shaikh, Mohammed Uzair (1 August 2015). "Varun Gandhi demands abolition of death penalty; says 94% among the executed are Dalits and minorities". India.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- Awaaz, Indian (2 August 2015). "94% of death row convicts are Dalits or minorities: Varun Gandhi". The Indian Awaaz. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "BJP's Varun Gandhi in favour of abolishing death penalty". timesofindia-economictimes. 1 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- Wax, Emily (21 June 2007). "A 'Broken People' in Booming India". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Krich, John (26 February 2010). "Words That Touch India's Dalit writers come into their own". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "The new and improved Bill to prevent atrocities against Dalits runs the risk of being put in the cold storage, says Nidheesh J Villatt".
- "Dalit girl from Bhagana, Haryana bring to a nation that thinks it has now become sensitive to sexual assault".
- Service, Tribune News (6 September 2015). "Bhagana Dalits convert to Islam for ‘dignified life’". http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/haryana/bhagana-dalits-convert-to-islam-for-dignified-life/117311.html. Retrieved 6 September 2015. External link in
- "100 Dalit families of Hisar village convert to Islam at Jantar Mantar". http://www.hindustantimes.com/. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015. External link in
|website=(help) Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "http:.2F.2Fwww.hindustantimes.com.2F_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "http:.2F.2Fwww.hindustantimes.com.2F_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "http:.2F.2Fwww.hindustantimes.com.2F_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Bengaluru records most caste discrimination cases".
- "Finally, he insisted that the only marriage he would solemnise in his ashram was one between a Dalit and a Suvarna, thus calling into question the very basis of the caste system itself".
- "They were rivals, but with the same mission". Hindustan.
- "5% of Indian marriages are inter-caste: survey".
- "Just 5% of Indian marriages are inter-caste: survey".
- Chadha, Monica (5 December 2006). "Despair of the discriminated Dalits". BBC News. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Dalit tortured, forced to eat human excreta".
- "Upper caste youths force Dalit to eat excreta in Tamil Nadu".
- "forced to eat human excreta in the Raksa police station".
- "Dalit youth forced to eat human faeces".
- "Set on fire by four men 'for getting an education'".
- Nair, Nithya (2 September 2015). "Dalit woman allegedly stripped in Madhya Pradesh, forced to consumed urine". India.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- ANI (2 September 2015). "Dalit woman stripped, forced to consume urine in MP". english. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "The Prevention of Atrocities Act: Unused Ammunition". Hrdc.net. 31 August 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "International Dalit Solidarity Network: Non-implemenation of Legislation". Idsn.org. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
-  Archived 21 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Dasgupta, Manas (28 January 2010). "Untouchability still prevalent in rural Gujarat: survey". The Hindu (India). Retrieved 2010-04-01.
- "Hindus Support Dalit Candidates in Tamil Nadu". Indianchristians.in. 15 October 2006. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Somini Sengupta (29 August 2008). "Crusader Sees Wealth as Cute for Caste Bias". The New York Times (India). Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "'Kalyanamastu' breaks barriers". The Hindu (India). 7 January 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Tirupati temple reaches out to Dalits". Rediff.com. 31 December 2004. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "DISCRIMINATION IN INDIA".
- Hindustan Times. "Casteism exists in India, let’s not remain in denial - Hindustan Times".
- "Untouchability Thrives In India".
- "Why Caste Won't Disappear From India".
- "Biggest caste survey: One in four Indians admit to practising untouchability".
- "Biggest caste survey: One in four Indians admit to practising untouchability". The Indian Express.
- "Dalits in MP Village Not Allowed to Use Public Borewell - May 23, 2015". outlookindia.com. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Dalits in MP allegedly not allowed to use public borewell forced to drink dirty water, World , Aninews". AniNews.in, World's fastest updating breaking text & video news site. 24 May 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Study shows Delhi and NCR homeowners deny renting house to Dalits and Muslims". Deccan Chronicle. 6 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "No Dalits, Muslims please: Study shows rampant discrimination against tenants in NCR". Firstpost. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Firstpost_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Firstpost_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Dalit tonsured, paraded in Sonbhadra".
- "Dalit tonsured, paraded for burning holika pyre".
- "dalit grooms ostracized for riding horse".
- "Dalit groom beaten up".
- "Dalit groom pulled down from horse, thrashed".
- "Dalit wedding fetes face feudal rage".
- "Attack on Dalits".
- Sivaraman, R. (17 August 2015). "70 held for burning Dalit houses in Villupuram". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- Basu, Indrani (8 September 2015). "9 Things You Need To Know About The Khap 'Rape Order' In India". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Bahuguna, Ankush (28 August 2015). "A Khap Panchayat In UP Wants Two Dalit Sisters Raped Because Their Brother Eloped With A Married Woman". www.mensxp.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "SC issues notice to UP police after Khap Panchayat orders Dalit women to be raped". dna. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "dna_2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- livelaw (29 August 2015). "Dalit Woman petitions SC against Khap Panchayat’s orders to rape her and sister for brother’s actions". Live Law. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "From Dadri to Haryana to Manipur, how stories about crimes against Dalits and Minorities have panned out". Opindia.com. 2015-11-18. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
- Bharti Jain. "Over 47k crimes against Dalits in 2014, 21 killed in Haryana: NCRB". Epaperbeta.timesofindia.com. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - Scheduled Caste Welfare: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India". Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Definition". Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Introduction
- Sachar Committee Questions and Answer
- Sachar, Rajindar (2006). "Sachar Committee Report (2004-2005)" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- Sachar, Rajindar (2006). "Minority Report" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- "Top RSS leader misquotes Ambedkar on untouchability".
- "In Jamalpur Goma village of Baghpat in Meerut district, dozens of members of ten Dalit families had demanded that they should be allowed to worship at a famous Valmiki temple at Balaini, otherwise they would embrace Islam.".
- "Sign In" (PDF).
- Aaliya Rushdi. "In Kerala, Dalit students facing difficulties to get educated". Retrieved 25 March 2010.
- "Low-Caste Hindu Hired as Priest". Hinduismtoday.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Dalits: Kanchi leads the way". Hvk.org. 19 November 2002. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Ahmed, Farzand (28 September 2007). "The new holy order". India Today. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Patna's Mahavira Temple Accepts Dalit Priest". Hindunet.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Temple relents, bar on Dalit entry ends". Htnext.in. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Temples of Unmodern India". The Times of India. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Dalit converts to Islam on being denied access to temple". India TV News. 19 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Ali, Mohammad (14 March 2015). "Denied temple access, Dalit converts to Islam". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
-  Archived 13 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Dalits 'barred' from entering temple". The Kathmandu Post. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Yadav, Sabita (10 November 2014). "Dalit people not allowed to enter in temple due to caste discrimination". The Rising Nepal (TRN). Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Nepal: Dalits beaten up for entering temple". Rediff.com. 18 September 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- T., Sathish G. (7 September 2015). "Dalits fume over fine on their women for entering temple in Karnataka". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "The People's Paper". Tehelka. 2006-02-18. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Singh, I P (5 June 2009). "Lakhs attend state funeral for Sant Ramanand". The Times of India. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- "Dalit Bant Singh vs Rich Landlords".
- "Bant Singh Can Still Singh".
- "Bant Singh real hero".
- Sangave 1980, p. f63-124.
- Chapple, Christopher Key (2006). Jainism and Ecology: Nonviolence in the Web of Life. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 79. ISBN 978-81-208-2045-6.
- Nathuram Chandalia, Mewad men Veerwal Pravriti, p. 220-221
- वीरवाल जैन समाज के गुरु की पुण्यतिथि मार्च में, Bhaskar News Network|Dec 31, 2013
- "Latest Udaipur News 31/12/2013: वीरवाल जैन समाज के गुरु की पुण्यतिथि मार्च में - www.bhaskar.com". www.bhaskar.com.
- "धर्म के नाम पर देश तक बंट गए : पहाड़िया". 18 October 2013.
- "Dalit youth turns Jain monk". Jaipur. Abha Sharma DH News Service. February 1, 2005.
- "Dalit Engineer Becomes a Jain Monk". Ahimsa Times. June 2010.
- ‘दिव्य महापुरुष थे आचार्य नानेश’ Vinay N. Joshi on June 14th, 2010,
- 'दाता' के दातार बन गए तारणहार, नवभारत टाइम्स, Sep 20, 2010
- Shyamlal (1997). From Higher Caste to Lower Caste: The Processes of Asprashyeekaran and the Myth of Sanskritization. Rawat Publications. pp. 129, 135.
- Shyamlal. "Jain Movement and Socio-Religious Transformation of the 'Bhangis' of Jodhpur, Rajasthan", Indian journal of social work, 53, 59-68, I01743, 1992.
- "India". Indianhope.free.fr. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- "RPI famous dalit party".
- Varghese, Anil (17 September 2015). "Nepal Dalit leader says Modi's stress on consensus has meant dilution in draft constitution". Scroll.in. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "10 parties register amendment proposals". The Kathmandu Post. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "Ranvir Sena banned and declared as a Terrorist Group". Dnaindia.com. 2012-06-03. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Venkat, Vidya (18 August 2015). "Cobrapost film on Bihar Dalit massacres ‘exposes’ BJP links". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Nitish, Lalu and BJP in the dock again over Dalit massacres in Bihar work=Tehelka". 27 August 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Jha, Dhirendra K (6 April 2015). "After RSS men attacked us, police forced us to forego legal action, say Sonepat Dalits". Scroll.in. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "deputy PM Jagjivan Ram".
- Stancati, Margherita; Agarwal, Vibhuti (16 February 2012). "17% of BSP votes came from Brahmins, according to a survey by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies". WSJ. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- Vij, Shivam (21 May 2009). "UP’s Dalits Remind Mayawati: Democracy is a Beautiful". Kafila. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- "Mayawati bets on Brahmin-Dalit card for U.P. polls". The Hindu (India). 14 March 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Sengupta, Somini (12 May 2007). "Brahmin Vote Helps Party of Low Caste Win in India". The New York Times (India). Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "The victory of caste arithmetic". Rediff.co.in. 11 May 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Why Mayawati is wooing the Brahmins". Rediff News. 28 March 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Beckett, Paul (11 August 2008). "Mayawati Plans to Seek India's Premier Post". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Reilly, Kevin F.; Kaufman, Stephen; Bodino, Angela (January 2003). Racism: A Global Reader. M.E. Sharpe. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7656-1059-1.
- "India country profile - Overview". BBC News. 2012-08-29. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- "Dalits are understood to be vote banks that are likely to support a certain political formation in different states.".
- "All players eye Dalit vote bank SCs deciding factor in 15 seats of Jammu region.".
- "But the Congress has some hope of winning over non-Jatav dalit votes, especially those of Pasis.".
- "The BJP’s Dalit game plan, the BJP has turned to the Dalits".
- "BJP targets 25 lakh Dalit votes in Delhi Assembly elections.".
- "A recent study pointed out that barring exceptions such as the Bahujan Samaj Party, the leadership of major political parties suffered from a clear diversity deficit, with Dalits being severely under-represented in the leadership across parties.".
- "Mr. Chandrashekhar Rao promised to make Dalit as Chief Minister and cheated them after attaining power. Similarly, he promised to waive all the power dues of the Dalits, but on the other hand the government was forcibly fleecing the Dalits to pay the bills".
- "P. Ramabhadran has accused a national Party of India of attempts to eliminate members of the Dalit communities from the party set-up.".
- "Sanjay Kumar , Centre for the Study of Developing Societies and Pranav Gupta researcher at Lokniti, CSDS".
- "national workshop on the ‘Enactment of SCP and TSP at national level’".
- "central SC, ST sub plan soon".
- "Why They Remain On The Margins. Adivasis and Dalits have been deprived of a staggering Rs 5 lakh crore over three decades by successive governments.".
- Sikand, Yoginder. "The 'Dalit Muslims' and the All-India Backward Muslim Morcha". indianet.nl. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Darity, Jr., William; Nembhard, Jessica Gordon (May 2000). "Racial and Ethnic Economic Inequality: The International Record". The American Economic Review 90 (2): 308–311. doi:10.1257/aer.90.2.308. JSTOR 117241.
- "Short history of immigration". BBC. 2005. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- Sam Jones (11 November 2009). "Asian caste discrimination rife in UK, says report". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Hasan Suroor (2010-09-04). "Caste discrimination — U.K. Dalits win the argument, nearly". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Nick Cohen (2009-08-24). "The secret scandal of Britain's caste system". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Dean Nelson (2010-03-31). "India clashes with Britain over Equality Bill racism law". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Puri, Naresh (2007-12-21). "British Hindus divided by caste". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "The Caste System". Hinducounciluk.org. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- "Caste Discrimination and Harassment in Great Britain".
- "Does the caste system still linger in the UK?". BBC News. 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Pratik Datani (August 13, 2013). "Caste Discrimination Reforms in Britain". Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Gavin Flood. Briefing on Caste Legislation (PDF) (Report).
- Sam Jones (30 November 2012). "Campaigners urge government to tackle caste discrimination in UK". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Coward, Harold G.; Hinnells, John R.; Williams, Raymond Brady (1 February 2012). The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States. SUNY Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7914-9302-1.
- Ballard 1994, p. 110.
- Ballard 1994, p. 111.
- Takhar 2005, p. 133.
- Human rights watch (2001) Caste discrimination: A global concern. Human Rights Commission. p. 22
- Takhar 2005, p. 119.
- Bhachu, Parminder (1 January 1985). Twice Migrants: East African Sikh Settlers in Britain. Tavistock Publications. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-422-78910-3.
- Dr Ramindar Singh MBE (2012-01-10). "Multiculturalism: The Rise of Mixed-marriage Britain, Islam and Pluralism". Newageislam.com. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- Naidu, Janet. "Retention and Transculturation of Hinduism in the Caribbean". Guyana Journal. Guyana Journal. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- "Dalit literature". Gowanusbooks.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
-  Archived 7 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "BDSAkademi Bharatiya Dalit Sahitya Academy".
- "Dalit Sahitya Samman Sammelan held at Imphal".
- Dalit’s passage to consciousness The Tribune, 28 September 2003
- Dalit literature is not down and out any more Times of India, 7 July 1989
- A Critical study of Dalit Literature in India Dr. Jugal Kishore Mishra
- Avijit GhoshAvijit Ghosh, TNN (6 April 2008). "Dalits strive to make it in Hindi, Bhojpuri films". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Dalit Representation in Bollywood". Mainstream Weekly. 4 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Dalits in Bollywood: A skewed equation nobody is willing to talk about". Merinews. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Dhaliwal, Nirpal (16 December 2010). "How Bollywood is starting to deal with India's caste system". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Rise of the Dalit hero - Culture". The Crest Edition. 20 August 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Naig, Udhav (27 July 2015). "Caste references polarise Tamil film fans". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Census of India 2011, Primary Census Abstract PPT, Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Government of India (October 28, 2013).
- P. 54 Dalits and Human Rights: Dalits: security and rights implications By Prem K Shinde
- Gorringe 2005, p. 10.
- Jain 2005, p. 322.
- Jain 2005, p. 306.
- Jeremiah, Anderson H M (14 May 2013). Community and Worldview Among Paraiyars of South India: 'Lived' Religion. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4411-7881-7.
- Henry, Nikhila (6 September 2015). "The rising rage against in-campus policing". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Shyamlal (1 January 1992). The Bhangi: A Sweeper Caste, Its Socio-economic Portraits : with Special Reference to Jodhpur City. Popular Prakashan. p. 25. ISBN 978-81-7154-550-6.
- Ballard, Roger (1994). Desh Pardesh: The South Asian Presence in Britain. Hurst. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-85065-091-1.
- Gorringe, Hugo (24 January 2005). Untouchable Citizens: Dalit Movements and Democratization in Tamil Nadu. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-3323-6.
- Jain, L. C. (2005). Decentralisation and Local Governance: Essays for George Mathew. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-2707-2.
- Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2005). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-5202-1.
- Sangave, Vilas Adinath (1980). Jaina Community: A Social Survey. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-317-12346-3.
- Dalit – The Black Untouchables of India, by V.T. Rajshekhar. 2003 – 2nd print, Clarity Press, Inc. ISBN 0-932863-05-1.
- Untouchable!: Voices of the Dalit Liberation Movement, by Barbara R. Joshi, Zed Books, 1986. ISBN 0-86232-460-2, ISBN 978-0-86232-460-5.
- Dalits and the Democratic Revolution – Dr. Ambedkar and the Dalit Movement in Colonial India, by Gail Omvedt. 1994, Sage Publications. ISBN 81-7036-368-3.
- The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India, by Oliver Mendelsohn, Marika Vicziany, Cambridge University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-521-55671-6, ISBN 978-0-521-55671-2.
- Dalit Identity and Politics, by Ranabira Samaddara, Ghanshyam Shah, Sage Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-7619-9508-0, ISBN 978-0-7619-9508-1.
- Journeys to Freedom: Dalit Narratives, by Fernando Franco, Jyotsna Macwan, Suguna Ramanathan. Popular Prakashan, 2004. ISBN 81-85604-65-7, ISBN 978-81-85604-65-7.
- Towards an Aesthetic of Dalit Literature, by Sharankumar Limbale. 2004, Orient Longman. ISBN 81-250-2656-8.
- From Untouchable to Dalit – Essays on the Ambedkar Movement, by Eleanor Zelliot. 2005, Manohar. ISBN 81-7304-143-1.
- Dalit Politics and Literature, by Pradeep K. Sharma. Shipra Publications, 2006. ISBN 81-7541-271-2, ISBN 978-81-7541-271-2.
- Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movement and the Construction of an Indian Identity, by Gail Omvedt. Orient Longman, 2006. ISBN 81-250-2895-1, ISBN 978-81-250-2895-6.
- Dalits in Modern India – Vision and Values, by S M Michael. 2007, Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-3571-1.
- Dalit Literature : A Critical Exploration, by Amar Nath Prasad & M.B. Gaijan. 2007. ISBN 81-7625-817-2.
- Debrahmanising History : Dominance and Resistance in Indian Society, by Braj Ranjan Mani. 2005. ISBN 81-7304-640-9. Manohar Publishers and Distributors.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dalit people.|
- Dalits in India
- Dalits in Nepal
- Dalits in Pakistan
- Dalits in Bangladesh
- Dalits in Sri Lanka
- Dalits in Japan
- Dalits in Yemen
- Dalits in Africa
- Dalits in the UK
- Dalits in diaspora communities