Daliyat al-Karmel

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Daliat al-Karmel

  • דאלית אל-כרמל
  • دَالِيَةُ ٱلْكَرْمِل
Daliyat El-Carmel 3583.JPG
Daliat al-Karmel is located in Haifa region of Israel
Daliat al-Karmel
Daliat al-Karmel
Daliat al-Karmel is located in Israel
Daliat al-Karmel
Daliat al-Karmel
Coordinates: 32°41′35″N 35°02′58″E / 32.69306°N 35.04944°E / 32.69306; 35.04944Coordinates: 32°41′35″N 35°02′58″E / 32.69306°N 35.04944°E / 32.69306; 35.04944
Grid position154/233 PAL
Country Israel
District Haifa
Government
 • Head of MunicipalityRafik Halabi
Area
 • Total15,561 dunams (15.561 km2 or 6.008 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)[1]
 • Total17,653
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Name meaning"The hanging vine of Carmel[2]
Websitewww.Daliat-carmel.org.il

Daliyat el-Karmel (Arabic: دَالِيَةِ ٱلْكَرْمِل‎, Hebrewדַלְיַת אֶל-כַּרְמֶל‎) is a Druze town located on Mount Carmel in the Haifa District of Israel, around 20 km southeast of Haifa. In 2019 its population was 17,653.[1]

History[edit]

In 1283 both Daliyat al-Karmel and Kh. Doubel (just south of Daliyat al-Karmel) were mentioned as part of the domain of the Crusaders, according to the hudna between the Crusaders in Acre and the Mamluk sultan Qalawun.[3]

In 1870 a local guide showed French explorer Victor Guérin extensive ruins located south of Daliyat al-Karmel, called Khirbet Doubel. The ruins were the most extensive on Mount Carmel. Guérin thought it might be the town on Mt. Carmel mentioned by Pliny.[4] Conder and Kitchener of the Palestine Exploration Fund surveyed the area and noted "traces of ruins" at a place SE of the village centre called Dubil.[5] Later excavations have found remains there from Iron Age I, Early Roman and Byzantine periods,[6] together with pottery from first century to the second–third centuries CE.[7] Although inconclusive, Lieutenant Conder thought that Daliyat al-Karmel was to be identified with the biblical Idalah (Joshua 19:15).[8]

Ottoman era[edit]

Mount Carmel was progressively settled by Druze beginning in the early 17th century, most likely when a large part of Palestine came under the jurisdiction of Fakhr al-Din II, the paramount Druze strongman of Mount Lebanon and Ottoman governor of the Sidon-Beirut and Safad districts.[9] Druze from the Yamani tribo-political faction may have also migrated to Mount Carmel from Mount Lebanon in the aftermath of the Battle of Ain Dara in 1711, though most of the migration was directed to the Jabal Hauran.[9] Six out of the eight Druze villages established on Mount Carmel were abandoned or destroyed during Egyptian rule in the Levant (1831–1840).[10] The local accounts recorded by Laurence Oliphant, who built himself a summer house in Daliyat al-Karmil in the 1880s, hold that the villages were abandoned for Jabal Hauran due to the oppressive rule of the governor Ibrahim Pasha, while Conder noted that the villages were destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha. Daliyat al-Karmil and nearby Isfiya were the sole Druze settlements left standing on Mount Carmel.[11] The local tradition trace Daliyat al-Karmel's founding to the 18th century when a Druze family from Jabal al-A'la near Aleppo settled on ancient ruins in the village.[12] Successive waves of Druze families from Jabal al-A'la followed and together they formed the Halaby ("Aleppine") clan.[12] Until today the Halaby clan of the town speak in the Aleppine Arabic dialect rather than the Palestinian dialect.[13]

In 1870 Guérin found four hundred Druze inhabitants in Daliyat al-Karmel. The houses were mostly built of adobe, with only a few stone houses. The locals worshiped inside a cave, where the explorer was not allowed.[14] In 1881 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described the village as a "stone village of moderate size on a knoll of one of the spurs running out of the main watershed of Carmel. On the south there is a well, and fine springs on the west, near Umm esh Shukf. On the north is a little plain or open valley cultivated with corn (Merjat ed Dalieh). The inhabitants are all Druses."[15] A population list from about 1887 showed that Daliyat al-Karmel had about 620 inhabitants, all Druze.[16]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Daliyat al-Karmel had a population of 993; 921 Druse and 21 Christians,[17] increasing in the 1931 census when Daliyat al-Karmel, together Deir el Muhraqa and Khirbat al-Mansura had a total population of 1,173, of whom 1,154 were Druze, 11 were Christians and 8 were Muslims, living in a total of 236 houses.[18] In the 1945 statistics the population of Daliyat al-Karmel consisted of 2,060 Arabs,[19] (20 Christians and 2,040 Druze).[20] The land area was 31,730 dunams, according to an official land and population survey,[19] of which 1,506 dunams were designated for plantations and irrigable land, 18,174 for cereals,[21] and 60 were built-up (urban) areas.[22]

State of Israel[edit]

Main street of Daliyat al-Karmel

An Israeli census conducted in November 1948 found 2,932 residents. At the end of 1951 the figure dropped to 2,769.[23] The town was granted local council status that year. In 2003 Daliyat al-Karmel was merged with Isfiya to form Carmel City.[24] In 2008, the communities became separate once again. The town is famous for its colorful market.[25]

In 2010, El Al, Israel's national airline, named one of its Boeing 767 airplanes Daliyat al-Karmel. Sheikh Muafak Tarif, leader of the Druze community, was presented with a miniature model of the plane at a special ceremony.[26] According to Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2016 Daliyat al-Karmel's population was 17,000. The majority of residents are Druze (97.2%), with Muslims (2.7%) and Christians (0.1%) minorities.[27]

Landmarks[edit]

Abu Ibrahim shrine[edit]

Abu Ibrahim shrine

The shrine of Abu Ibrahim, whom the Druze consider a prophet, is in the oldest part of the town.[28]

Laurence Oliphant House[edit]

Close by the Abu Ibrahim shrine is the home of Sir Laurence Oliphant, who spent his summers there in the 1880s with his wife Alice, and his secretary Naftali Herz Imber.[28] The building functions as a museum, the Druze Memorial Center, commemorating the 505 Druze IDF soldiers who have died in the line of duty since 1948.[29][30]

Muhraqa Carmelite Monastery[edit]

The Muhraqa Monastery is located 2 kilometres southeast of Dalyat al-Karmel and marks the contest between prophet Elijah and the priests of Ba'al. It belongs to the Carmelite Order.[citation needed]

Druze Heritage Center[edit]

The Carmel Center for Druze Heritage is a hands-on museum of the history, religion and culture of the Druze.[31][25]

Garden of the Mothers[edit]

In 2011, the Garden of the Mothers was inaugurated in Daliyat al-Karmel, symbolizing the sisterhood of Christian, Druze, Jewish, and Muslim women who work together in northern Israel. Forty-four trees were planted in memory of the 44 Israel Prison Services personnel who died in the Mount Carmel forest fire in 2010.[32]

Culture and sports[edit]

Shops in Daliyat al-Karmel

In 2012, a tennis school financed by the Freddie Krivine Foundation opened in Daliyat al-Karmel and 12 youngsters take part in a weekly co-existence program with children at the Israel Tennis Center in Yokneam.[33]

Mevo Carmel high-tech park[edit]

Daliyat al-Karmel and Isfiya joined Yokneam Illit and the Megiddo Regional Council to develop the Mevo Carmel Jewish-Arab Industrial Park to benefit from the existing high-tech ecosystem.[34][35]

Twin cities[edit]

In 2007, Daliyat al-Karmel signed a partnership agreement with Ungheni, Moldova. In 2008, the Ambassador of Moldova, Larisa Miculet visited Daliyat al-Karmel at the invitation of the mayor, Akram Hasson.[36]

Notable residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population in the Localities 2019" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  2. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 108
  3. ^ al-Qalqashandi version of the hudna, referred in Barag, 1979, p. 209, Nos. C1 and C2
  4. ^ Guérin, 1865, pp. 296-296
  5. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 303
  6. ^ Shadman, 2006, Horbat Devela, final report
  7. ^ Golan, 2009, Horbat Devela, Final Report
  8. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 308, s.v. Jeida
  9. ^ a b Ben-Zvi 1954, p. 72.
  10. ^ Firro 1999, pp. 17, 19.
  11. ^ Firro 1992, pp. 66–67.
  12. ^ a b Al-Haj & Rosenfeld, pp. 113–114.
  13. ^ Firro 1999, p. 17.
  14. ^ Guérin, 1875, p.248
  15. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 281
  16. ^ Schumacher, 1888, p. 178
  17. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Haifa, p. 33
  18. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 89
  19. ^ a b Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 47
  20. ^ Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 13
  21. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 89
  22. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 139
  23. ^ State of Israel, Government Year-Book 5713 (1952), page V.
  24. ^ "Daliyat el-Karmel". Ministry of Tourism, State of Israel. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
  25. ^ a b "The town at the heart of Druze culture". Israel21c.
  26. ^ "El Al honors Druze community". ynet.
  27. ^ Daliyat al-Karmel (in Hebrew)
  28. ^ a b "Streetwise: Rehov Oliphant, Haifa". The Jerusalem Post - JPost.com.
  29. ^ "Beit Oliphant: Historic Site in Daliyat Al Karmel". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  30. ^ "Oliphant House (contact information, opening times, etc.)". Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  31. ^ Dan Savery Raz. "BBC - Travel - Israel's forgotten tribe".
  32. ^ Inauguration of the Garden of the Mothers Archived 2013-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Freddie Krivine Tennis Schools Archived April 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Mevo Carmel". The Center for Jewish - Arab Economic Development. Archived from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ "Ambasada Republicii Moldova în Statul Israel".
  37. ^ "Daliyat el-Karmel". Ministry of Tourism, State of Israel. Retrieved 2008-08-01.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]