Dallas County, Texas
|Dallas County, Texas|
The former Dallas County Courthouse in March 2009
Location in the U.S. state of Texas
Texas's location in the U.S.
|Founded||March 30, 1846|
|Named for||George M. Dallas|
|• Total||909 sq mi (2,354 km2)|
|• Land||873 sq mi (2,261 km2)|
|• Water||36 sq mi (93 km2), 4.0%|
|• Density||2,950/sq mi (1,139/km²)|
|Congressional districts||5th, 24th, 30th, 32nd, 33rd|
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
Dallas County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,368,139. It is Texas' second-most populous county and the ninth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is Dallas, which is also Texas' third-largest city and the ninth-largest city in the United States. The county was founded in 1846 and was possibly named for George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th Vice President of the United States under U.S. President James K. Polk.
- Collin County (north)
- Rockwall County (East)
- Kaufman County (southeast)
- Ellis County (south)
- Tarrant County (west)
- Denton County (northwest)
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,368,139 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile (974/km²). There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi (375/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 53.54 White (33.12% Non-Hispanic White), 22.30% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 5.15% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.04% from other races, and 2.70% from two or more races. 38.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 807,621 households out of which 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.90% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.90% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.34. As of the 2010 census, there were about 8.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county.
In the wider county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 34.40% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, and 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males.
The median income for a household in the county was US$43,324, and the median income for a family was $49,062. Males had a median income of $34,988 versus $29,539 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,603. About 10.60% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.00% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over.
Dallas County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court. This court consists of the county judge (the chairperson of the Court) who is elected County-wide and four Commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four districts.
The Commissioners Court is the policy-making body for the County; in addition, the County Judge is the senior executive and administrative position in the County. While the cities in the County handle many tasks in local government, the County holds responsibility for the following:
The Commissioners Court sets the County tax rate, adopts the budget, appoints boards and commissions, approves grants and personnel actions, and oversees the administration of county government. Each commissioner also supervises a Road and Bridge District. The Commissioners Court also approves the budget and sets the tax rate for the hospital district, which is charged with the responsibility for providing acute medical care for citizens who otherwise would not receive adequate medical services.
The total 2010 fiscal year budget is approximately $871 million USD.
Currently (November 2014), the major elected officials are
|County Judge||Clay Jenkins||Democratic|
|Commissioner, Precinct 1||Theresa Daniel||Democratic|
|Commissioner, Precinct 2||Mike Cantrell||Republican|
|Commissioner, Precinct 3||John Wiley Price||Democratic|
|Commissioner, Precinct 4||Elba Garcia||Democratic|
|District Attorney||Susan Hawk||Republican|
|District Clerk||Felicia Pitre||Democratic|
|County Clerk||John Warren||Democratic|
|Tax Assessor-Collector||John Ames||Democratic|
There are 7 congressional districts either entirely or partly within Dallas County. There are 5 Republicans and 2 Democratic.
|Michael C. Burgess||R||Lewisville||26|
|Eddie Bernice Johnson||D||Dallas||30|
|Marc Veasey||D||Fort Worth||33|
There are 5 Texas Senate districts either entirely or partly within Dallas County. There are 4 Republicans and 1 Democratic.
There are 15 members of the Texas House of Representatives who are based in Dallas County. There are 9 Republicans and 6 Democrats.
|Representative||Party||Home Town/City||District ↑|
|Roberto R. Alonzo||D||Dallas||104|
|Rodney Anderson||R||Grand Prairie||105|
|Morgan Meyer||R||University Park||108|
|Helen Giddings||D||De Soto||109|
|Angie Chen Button||R||Richardson||112|
|Jason Villalba||R||Preston Hollow||114|
There are ten Judges of the Justice of the Peace Courts in Dallas County, four Republican and six Democrat.
|Justice of the Peace||Party||Home Town/City||Precinct ↑|
|Judge Thomas G. Jones||D||Dallas County JP||1-1|
|Judge Valencia Nash||D||Dallas County JP||1-2|
|Judge Brian Hutcheson||R||Dallas County JP||2-1|
|Judge Bill Metzger||R||Dallas County JP||2-2|
|Judge Al Cerone||R||Dallas County JP||3-1|
|Judge Steve Seider||R||Dallas County JP||3-2|
|Judge Norris “Stretch” Rideaux||D||Dallas County JP||4-1|
|Judge Katy Hubener||D||Dallas County JP||4-2|
|Judge Sara Martinez||D||Dallas County JP||5-1|
|Judge Juan Jasso||D||Dallas County JP||5-2|
There are five constables of Dallas County, two Republicans and three Democrats.
|Constable||Party||Home Town/City||Precinct ↑|
|Constable J.L. Garrett||D||Dallas County||1|
|Constable Ray Nichols||R||Dallas County||2|
|Constable Ben Adamcik||R||Dallas County||3|
|Constable Roy Williams||D||Dallas County||4|
|Constable Beth Villarreal||D||Dallas County||5|
The Commissioners Court meets every Tuesday morning at the Commissioners Courtroom located in the Dallas County Administration Building at 411 Elm St., corner of Elm and Houston streets. The building was the headquarters of the Texas School Book Depository Company until 1970. Assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot President John F. Kennedy from a window located on the sixth floor which today houses the Sixth Floor Museum dedicated to the late president's memory.
Acts of the commissioners court are known as 'court orders'. These orders include setting county policies and procedures, issuing contracts, authorizing expenditures, and managing county resources and departments. Most importantly, the commissioners court sets the annual tax rate and the budget for Dallas County government and the courts. The commissioners also set the tax rate and budget for the Dallas County Hospital District which operates Parkland Hospital.
The commissioners court has direct control over all county offices and departments not otherwise administered by a county elected official. Those departments include Dallas County Elections, Health and Human Services, Facilities Management, Parks and Open Space Program, I.T. Services, Homeland Security and Emergency Services, among others. Through their budget making powers, the commissioners exercise indirect control over the District Attorney's office, Sheriff, District Clerk, County Clerk and County Treasurer. The commissioners also set the budget for each of the District, County, and Justice courts.
Dallas County employs a commissioners court administrator who is responsible for the day-to-day management of the commissioners court and implementing the Dallas County Master Plan and the directives of the commissioners court. The current commissioners court administrator is Darryl Martin who was hired by the commissioners in 2008.
Dallas County operates several jail facilities. They include:
- 111 Riverfront Blvd (Dallas)
- North Tower Jail
- South Tower Jail - also known as the "Suzanne Kays Tower"
- West Tower Jail
- Government Center Jail - 600 Commerce Street (Dallas)
- Decker Detention Center - 899 North Stemmons Freeway (Dallas)
- (formerly) Suzanne Kays Jail - 521 North Industrial Boulevard (Dallas) - population integrated into the South Tower; demolished to clear way for the Trinity River Project
Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Hutchins State Jail for men in an unincorporated area adjacent to Hutchins. Corrections Corporation of America operates the Dawson Unit, a co-gender state jail in Downtown Dallas, under contract.
|2016||34.6% 262,945||60.8% 461,080||4.1% 30,831|
|2012||41.6% 295,813||57.0% 405,571||1.4% 10,228|
|2008||41.9% 310,000||57.2% 422,989||1.0% 7,085|
|2004||50.3% 346,246||49.0% 336,641||0.7% 4,822|
|2000||52.6% 322,345||44.9% 275,308||2.5% 15,386|
|1996||46.8% 260,058||46.0% 255,766||7.2% 40,129|
|1992||38.7% 256,007||35.0% 231,412||26.3% 173,833|
|1988||58.4% 347,094||40.9% 243,198||0.7% 4,246|
|1984||66.4% 405,444||33.3% 203,592||0.2% 1,460|
|1980||59.2% 306,682||36.8% 190,459||4.1% 21,072|
|1976||56.7% 263,081||42.3% 196,303||1.1% 5,001|
|1972||69.5% 305,112||29.5% 129,662||0.9% 4,021|
|1968||50.7% 184,193||34.1% 123,809||15.3% 55,552|
|1964||45.1% 137,065||54.7% 166,472||0.2% 621|
|1960||62.2% 149,369||37.0% 88,876||0.9% 2,054|
Dallas County was once one of the Republican strongholds in Texas, having voted for the Republican presidential candidate in every election from 1952 to 2004, except when Texas native Lyndon B. Johnson successfully ran for a full term as President on the Democratic ticket in 1964. In the 2004 election, Democrats won their first countywide administrative office since 1986 by electing Lupe Valdez to the office of Dallas County Sheriff. The last Democratic countywide administrator was D. Connally elected County Surveyor prior to the office's abolition. Democrats also won three district court benches in 2004. Two years later in 2006, Democrats swept every contested countywide race including County Judge, District Clerk, County Clerk, District Attorney and County Treasurer as well as every contested judicial seat.
Starting in 1992, Dallas County began voting more Democratic than the state of Texas as a whole, with relatively narrow wins from 1992 to 2004 even as the Republican nominee won Texas easily. This trend culminated in 2008 when Barack Obama won Dallas County with a substantial margin. Obama's coattails allowed Democrats to win the remaining Republican held judicial seats. In 2012, Obama won Dallas County by virtually the same margin as he had done in 2008. in 2016, Hillary Clinton increased the Democratic margin of victory even further.
The Democratic gains in the county are primarily due to the exurban migration of disproportionately conservative, Republican-voting residents to the neighboring counties of Collin, Denton and Rockwall As a result, those counties have become more solidly Republican. The tremendous growth in these neighboring counties was part of a larger explosion in exurban growth throughout the nation over the last decade which coincided with the real estate bust in 2007. In North Texas, exurban growth was accelerated by transportation infrastructure expansion including the extensions of U.S. 75 north and the Dallas North Tollway in the mid 1990s, and the completion of the George Bush Turnpike after 2001. These and other enhancements opened up vast tracts of farmland to new housing developments.
Dallas County has three openly-LGBT elected county officials. Lupe Valdez elected Sheriff in 2004 and a candidate for reelection in 2012; Jim Foster, elected county judge in 2006 serving one term then defeated in the Democratic primary in 2010; and Gary Fitzsimmons elected District Clerk in 2006.
Although Dallas County has become much friendlier to Democrats in presidential and Senate elections since 1992, it remains a mostly Republican county in the U.S. House of Representatives and the Texas Legislature. This is in large part due to the pattern of using "racial gerrymandering" by the Republican dominated Texas Legislature to draw congressional and legislative districts. Critics of Republican redistricting point out that although 90% of the Texas' 4 million new residents in 2010 were Hispanic, and the Anglo share of Texas' population declined from 52 percent to 45 percent, Anglos retain a majority in 70 percent of Texas' Congressional Districts. By "packing" minority Democratic voters into Congressional District 30 and State Senate District 23 in excess of 70% of the total population, it prevents these voters from impacting neighboring districts. Thus Dallas County has only two Democratic congressman, one representing only a small part of the county; and only one State Senator. Although racial gerrymandering affects the composition of legislative House districts, the failure of the local Democratic party organization to recruit and support legislative candidates relative to judicial candidates has been cited for the lack of Democratic representation.
The following school districts serve Dallas County:
Dallas Area Rapid Transit provides bus and rail service to many cities in Dallas County, with Dallas being the largest.
- US 67
- US 75
- U.S. Highway 77
- U.S. Highway 80
- U.S. Highway 175
- Dallas North Tollway
- Pres. George Bush Tpk.
- Loop 12
- SH 66
- State Highway 78
- State Highway 114
- State Highway 121
- State Highway 161
- State Highway 183
- State Highway 190
- State Highway 289
- State Highway 342
- State Highway 352
- State Highway 356
- Spur 408
- FM 1382
NOTE: US 67 and US 77 are not signed fully along their routes in Dallas County.
Love Field, located in Dallas and in Dallas County, serves many domestic passengers.
Cities (multiple counties)
- Carrollton (partly in Denton County and a small part in Collin County)
- Cedar Hill (small part in Ellis County)
- Combine (partly in Kaufman County)
- Coppell (small part in Denton County)
- Dallas (county seat) (small parts in Collin, Denton, Kaufman and Rockwall counties)
- Ferris (mostly in Ellis County)
- Garland (small parts in Collin and Rockwall counties)
- Glenn Heights (partly in Ellis County)
- Grand Prairie (partly in Tarrant County and a small part in Ellis County)
- Grapevine (mostly in Tarrant County and a small part in Denton County)
- Lewisville (mostly in Denton County)
- Mesquite (small part in Kaufman County)
- Ovilla (mostly in Ellis County)
- Richardson (small part in Collin County)
- Rowlett (small part in Rockwall County)
- Sachse (small part in Collin County)
- Seagoville (small part in Kaufman County)
- Wylie (mostly in Collin County and a small part in Rockwall County)
- Alpha (not incorporated)
- Buckingham (Annexed by Richardson in 1996)
- Cedar Springs (Annexed by Dallas First Settled in February 1841. In 1929 the community was annexed by the city of Dallas. )
- Duck Creek (merged into Garland in 1887)
- East Dallas (annexed by the city of Dallas in 1890 but was once a city of its own)
- Embree (merged into Garland in 1887)
- Fruitdale (annexed by Dallas in 1964)
- Hatterville (Merged into Sunnyvale in 1953)
- Hord's Ridge (Merged by Oak Cliff in 1887 per The Handbook of Texas )
- Kleberg (Absorbed by City of Dallas in 1978)
- La Reunion (Absorbed by City of Dallas in 1860)
- Letot (Northwest Dallas County, annexed by Dallas)
- Liberty Grove
- Little Egypt
- Long Creek (Merged into Sunnyvale in 1953)
- New Hope (Merged into Sunnyvale in 1953 - not to be confused with the Collin County town of the same name)
- Noel Junction not incorporated, Addison/Dallas
- Oak Cliff (Annexed by Dallas in 1903)
- Penn Springs (Annexed by Duncanville in 1947)
- Pleasant Grove (Annexed by Dallas by 1962)
- Preston Hollow (Annexed by Dallas in 1945)
- Renner (annexed by Dallas in 1977)
- Rylie (annexed by Dallas in 1978)
- Trinity Mills (Annexed by Carrollton)
- Tripp (Merged into Sunnyvale in 1953)
- Dallas County District Attorney
- List of museums in North Texas
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Dallas County, Texas
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "County Totals Dataset: Population, Population Change and Estimated Components of Population Change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Where Same-Sex Couples Live, June 26, 2015, retrieved July 6, 2015
- Elected Officials
- "Jail Information." Dallas County Sheriff's Office. Accessed September 14, 2008.
- Krause, Kevin. Suzanne Kays jail to close in Dallas this week." The Dallas Morning News. April 14, 2009. Retrieved on June 3, 2013.
- "HUTCHINS (HJ)." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Accessed September 14, 2008.
- "DAWSON (JD)." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on June 3, 2013.
- "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved November 15, 2016.
- Wallsten, Peter (2004-06-28). "Bush Sees 'Fertile Soil' in Exurbia". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- Tavernise, Sabrina (April 4, 2012). "Census Data Offers Look at Effects of Recession". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- Kim, Theodore (February 4, 2012). "North Texas Growth Sprang from Pro-Growth Policies". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- Cloud, John (2007-05-17). "The Lavender Heart of Texas". Time magazine. Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- Weissert, Will (2014-07-14). "Texas accused of purposely excluding minorities in redistricting". The Dallas Morning News. Associated Press.
- Berman, Ari (2013-06-05). "Texas Redistricting Fight Shows Why Voting Rights Act Still Needed". The Nation.
- Rose-Mary Rumbley, "LETOT, CLEMENT" Handbook of Texas Online, accessed December 26, 2010.
- "Little Egypt,TX" in the Handbook of Texas Online, by Lisa C. Maxwell; accessed 05 December 2015.
- "Trinity Mills, TX" from the Handbook of Texas Online. By Matthew Hayes Nall. Retrieved on 31 March 2007.
- Dallas County Government official site
- Dallas County from the Handbook of Texas Online
- History of Dallas County, Texas: from 1837 to 1887 by John Henry Brown, published 1887, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- Memorial and biographical history of Dallas County, Texas published 1892, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- Official directory, taxpayers of Dallas County, Texas published 1896, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- Dallas County Code (ordinances / regulations) from Municode
||Denton County||Collin County||Rockwall County|
|Tarrant County||Kaufman County|
|Johnson County||Ellis County|