Landscape around the hot springs in Dallol; parts of the abandoned settlement are visible at horizon
|Zone||Administrative Zone 2|
|Elevation||–130 m (–430 ft)|
Dallol (Amharic: ዳሎል) is a locality in the Dallol woreda of northern Ethiopia. Located in Administrative Zone 2 of the Afar Region in the Afar Depression, it has a latitude and longitude of with an elevation of about 130 metres (430 ft) below sea level. The Central Statistical Agency has not published an estimate for this settlement's 2005 population; it has been described as a ghost town.
Dallol currently holds the official record for record high average temperature for an inhabited location on Earth, where an average annual temperature of 35°C (95°F) was recorded between the years 1960 and 1966. Dallol is also one of the most remote places on Earth, although paved roads to the village of Hamedela, which is close, are being built. Still, the most important mode of transport besides jeeps are the camel caravans which travel to the area to collect salt.
Nearby is the Dallol volcano, which last erupted in 2011.
A railway from the port of Mersa Fatma in Eritrea to a point 28 km from Dallol was completed in April 1918. Built from 1917-1918, using the 600 mm gauge Decauville system ("Decauville" describes ready-made sections of small-gauge track which can be rapidly assembled) it transported salt from the "Iron Point" rail terminal near Dallol, via Kululli to the port.
Potash production is said to have reached about 51,000 metric tons after the railway was constructed. Production was stopped after World War I owing to large-scale supplies from Germany, USA, and USSR. Unsuccessful attempts to reopen production were made in the period 1920-1941. Between the years 1925-29 an Italian company mined 25,000 tons of sylvite, averaging 70% KCl, which was transported by rail to Mersa Fatma. After the Second World War, the British administration dismantled the railway and removed all traces of it.
The Dallol Co. of Asmara sold a few tons of salt from this site to India in 1951-1953. In the 1960s, the Parsons Company of the USA, a mining company, conducted a series of geological surveys at Dallol. By 1965, about 10,000 holes had been drilled at 65 locations.
Dallol became more known in the West in 2004 when it was featured in the Channel 4/National Geographic documentary Going to Extremes. As of 2004[update], some buildings still stand in Dallol, all built with salt blocks.
Dallol features an extreme version of a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) typical of the Danakil Desert. Dallol is the hottest place year-round on the planet and currently holds the record high average temperature for an inhabited location on Earth, where an average annual temperature of 34.6 °C (94.3 °F) was recorded between the years 1960 and 1966. The annual average high temperature is 41 °C (105 °F) and the hottest month has an average high of 46.7 °C (116.1 °F). In addition to being extremely hot year-round, the climate of the lowlands of the Danakil Depression is also extremely dry and hyperarid in terms of annual average rainy days as only a few days record measurable precipitation. The hot desert climate of Dallol is particularly due to the extremely low elevation, it being inside the tropics and near the hot Red Sea during winters, the very low seasonality impact, the constants of the extreme heat and the lack of nighttime cooling.
|Climate data for Dallol (1960-1966)|
|Average high °C (°F)||36.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||30.3
|Average low °C (°F)||24.6
|Source:  |
- "Local History in Ethiopia" (PDF). The Nordic Africa Institute website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Wrong, Michela (2005). I Didn't Do It for You: How the World Betrayed a Small African Nation. New York: HarperCollins. p. 149f. ISBN 978-0060780920.
- D.E. Pedgley, "Air Temperature at Dallol, Ethiopia," Meteorological Magazine v.96 (1967): 265-271
- "Allana Potash Corp, Ethiopia Project" (PDF). Environmental Resources Management. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2014.