Dam safety system
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Dam safety systems are systems monitoring the state of dams used for hydropower or other purposes, as well as external physical threats to them, and issuing emergency warnings at various degrees of automation. This includes the use of differential GPS and SAR remote sensing to monitor the risks imposed by landslides and subsidence. For large dams seismographs are used to detect reservoir-induced seismicity that could threaten the stability of the dam. The output of these systems can provide warning to the local population ahead of a potential collapse.
The dam monitoring system of Enel green Power  in Riolunato Dam, controls all important parameters of the dam. Optical and physical alignment systems are installed for control any movement of the land under and around the dam. The dam monitoring system checks the level of the water because this creates different pressures on the dam also in relation at temperature of the water and the temperature of the air. All these parameters are controlled and compared with the deformation and stress applied on the structure of the dam, measured with extensimeter, pendulum, reverse pendulum, piezometer, etc. The dam monitoring system continuously store and analyze all the dam parameters, creating 5 typologies if alarms. For each level of alarm the dam monitoring system set different levels of risk that involve specific reaction, like reduction of the level of the water in the lake and communication at the network of all dam control system. When the level of risk increase, the monitoring system activate alarms for close some road or bridge, and eventually alerted people living in some village. All data are continuously sent from the dam monitoring system at the network dam control system were specialist engineers take decision about eventually emergency situations. The Riolunato dam monitoring local system software is developed from AuCo Solutions.
In the 80s and 90s, Enel fostered also the development of a family of expert systems for dam safety management, based on the application of artificial intelligence techniques to the real-time interpretation of monitoring data gathered by automatic acquisition systems. From the project DAMSAFE, several instances of a decision support system named MISTRAL were derived, which were installed on the Pieve di Cadore Dam owned by Enel (1996), but also on other dams managed by other companies, such as Ridracoli Dam (1992), Cancano (1997), Fusino (1998), Valgrosina (1998), and San Giacomo (2001). Some of these systems are still operating after more than twenty years.
Dam safety systems became a focus of multi-agency regulations during the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers construction of large flood control and hydro-electric power generation projects. To help benchmark proven practices, the Association of State Dam Safety Officials (ASDSO) formed a national non-profit organization of state and federal dam safety regulators, dam owners and operators, engineering consultants, manufacturers and suppliers, academia, contractors and others interested in dams safety. More recently public safety concerns were addressed by the Indian Dams Safety Act of 1992 during hearings before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, 102nd Congress, second session, on S. 2617. The purpose was to provide for the maintenance of dams located on Indian lands in New Mexico by the Bureau of Indian Affairs through contracts with the Indian tribes. (August 4, 1992 in Washington, D.C.)
The ASDSO Conference Proceedings paper by Gary R. Holtzhausen (1991) describes the effective use of tiltmeters with remote sensing to provide reliable low-cost early warning of impending structural failures.
The ASDSO Conference Proceedings paper by Barry K. Meyers (2002) describes two case studies using failure modes analysis together with a variety of automated instrumentation to provide early warnings at White River Project owned by Puget Sound Energy as well as a case study of the Silver Creek Dam near Silverton OR.
- TALWANI, PRADEEP (1997). "On the Nature of Reservoir-induced Seismicity" (PDF). Pure Appl. Geophys. 150 (3–4): 473–492. Bibcode:1997PApGe.150..473T. doi:10.1007/s000240050089.
- Salvaneschi, P.; Cedei, M.; Lazzari, M. (1996-08-01). "Applying AI to Structural Safety Monitoring and Evaluation". IEEE Expert. Doi.ieeecomputersociety.org. 11 (4): 24–34. doi:10.1109/64.511774.
-  Archived February 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Enel Green Power 'Enel Green Power locations'
- AuCo Solutions 'Dams monitoring'
- Comerford, Joseph B.; Salvaneschi, Paolo; Lazzari, Marco; Bonaldi, Paolo; Ruggeri, Giovanni; Fanelli, Michele; Giuseppetti, Gabriella; Mazzà, Guido (1992). "The role of AI technology in the management of dam safety: the DAMSAFE system". Dam Engineering. 3 (4): 265–275. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.208.5916. doi:10.1109/64.511774.
- Salvaneschi, Paolo; Cadei, Mauro; Lazzari, Marco (1996). "Applying AI to structural safety monitoring and evaluation". IEEE Expert. 11 (4): 24–34. doi:10.1109/64.511774. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- Meyers, Barry K. "DESIGNING DAM SAFETY MONITORING AND EARLY WARNING". ASDSO. Archived from the original on 2016-01-14.
- Association of State Dam Safety Officials (ASDSO) 1991 Annual Conference Proceedings: 29 September - 2 October 1991 at San Diego, California. Holzhausen, Gary R. - Applied Geomechanics, Inc. Low-Cost, Automated Detection of Precursors to Dam Failure: Coolidge Dam, Arizona (pp. 281–284)
- Dam Safety: Know the Potenatial Hazards (Federal Emergency Management Agency Booklet L152 / Sept 1989)
- Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety - June 25,] 1979 (GPO: 041-001-00187-5)
- Guidelines for Instrumentation and Measurements for Monitoring Dam Performance, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000, 712 pages, ISBN 0-7844-0531-X.
- ASDSO; Association of Dam Safety Officials
- DamSafety: Commercial comprehensive approach to Dam Safety
- Dam Smart: Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solutions
- Earth Won[permanent dead link] International Commission on Large Dams
- MCEER: Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research
- MoDNR: Natural Disaster Resources (14 December 2005 Dam Failure)
- Comprehensive Survey of Missouri's Dam Safety Law
- Dam Anchor Cable Fault Detection[permanent dead link]
- Geomation, Inc.; Automated Systems and Telemetry for Dam Safety Monitoring