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The Investiture of Dame Lourett Russell Grant into the "Order of The Holy Sepulchre"

Dame is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of damehood in many Christian chivalric orders, as well as the British honours system and those of several other Commonwealth realms, such as Australia and New Zealand, with the masculine form of address being Sir. It is the female equivalent of a knighthood, which is traditionally granted to males.[1] Dame is also a style used by baronetesses in their own right.

A woman appointed to the grades of the Dame Commander or Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saint John,[2] Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre,[3] Most Honourable Order of the Bath, the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, the Royal Victorian Order, or the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire becomes a dame.[4] A Central European order in which female members receive the rank of Dame is the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George.[5] Since there is no female equivalent to a Knight Bachelor, women are always appointed to an order of chivalry.[6] Women who are appointed to the Most Noble Order of the Garter or the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle are given the title of Lady rather than Dame.[7]

Women receive all their honours in the same fashion as men receiving decorations or medals, even if they are receiving a damehood, so there is no female word equivalent of being "knighted".


The Order of the Ermine, founded in France by John V, Duke of Brittany, in 1381, was the first order of chivalry to accept women; however, female knights existed for centuries in many places in the world prior to this.[8] Like their male counterparts, they were distinguished by the flying of coloured banners and generally bore a coat of arms.

One woman who participated in tournaments was Joane Agnes Hotot (born 1378), but she was not the only one.[9][10] Additionally, women adopted certain forms of regalia which became closely associated with the status of knighthood.[11]

Unlike the male knights, it was virtually unimaginable to see women taking part in medieval battles or commanding battalions of soldiers, but there were exceptions. Joan of Arc is the most famous; another case was the Welsh princess Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd. Some wore armour, others commanded troops, and some were members of an official order of chivalry. One woman to wear full armour into battle was the Duchess Gaita of Lombardy (also called Sikelgaita), who rode beside her Norman mercenary husband, Robert Guiscard.[11] She was a knight in her own right.[11][12] Another was Petronilla de Grandmesnil, Countess of Leicester; wearing a mail hauberk with a sword and a shield, she defended her lands from Henry II of England. She and her husband participated in the rebellion in 1173 against King Henry II.[12] However this does not mean that they were officially knighted the way men were.

Formerly, a knight's wife was given the title of Dame before her name, but this usage was replaced by Lady during the 17th century.

The title of Dame as the official equivalent of a knight was introduced in 1917 with the introduction of the Order of the British Empire, and was subsequently extended to the Royal Victorian Order in 1936, the Order of St Michael and St George, and finally the Order of the Bath in 1971.[citation needed]

The youngest person to be appointed a Dame was sailor Ellen MacArthur[13] at the age of 28. The oldest had been actress Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies at the age of 100,[14] until Olivia de Havilland was appointed two weeks before her 101st birthday.[15]

Several high-profile figures have declined the honour, including Vanessa Redgrave, who eventually accepted the honour.[16]

The prefix is used with the holder's given name or full name but never with the surname alone; this follows the same usage customs as "Sir".[17]

Nuns of the English Benedictine order are given the title Dame in preference to Sister.[18]

In French Louisiana from the 17th through to the 19th centuries, Dame was the title accorded to a woman "of substance or position in the locality".[19] Similarly, in 1889 in France, it was reportedly "a title of honour which long distinguished high-born ladies from the wives of citizens and the commonalty in general" and a title of respect for a widow.[20][21]


  1. ^ "How to get a Knighthood or Damehood". Awards Intelligence. 2016. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018. A knighthood, and the female equivalent, a damehood, is an award given by The Queen to an individual for a major, long-term, contribution in any activity, usually at a national or international level.
  2. ^ Karmon, Yehuda (1987). Die Johanniter und Malteser: Ritter und Samariter : die Wandlungen des Ordens vom Heiligen Johannes. Callwey. p. 193. ISBN 9783766708625.
  3. ^ Napier, Gordon (24 October 2011). A to Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. History Press. p. 193. ISBN 9780752473628.
  4. ^ "Dame". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  5. ^ "Homepage of the St. Georgsorden". Archived from the original on 7 March 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  6. ^ "Knights Bachelor". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  7. ^ "Ladies of the Garter and Ladies of the Thistle". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  8. ^ Ackermann, G. A. (1855). Ordensbuch sämmtlicher in Europa blühender und erloschener Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Rudolph & Dieterici.
  9. ^ F.S.W. (1886) Dame Heraldry. Boston, MA: D. Lothrop and Company.
  10. ^ Starling, E. (1856). Noble Deeds of Woman. Phillips, Sampson.
  11. ^ a b c De Marly, D. (1986). Working dress: a history of occupational clothing. Holmes & Meier.
  12. ^ a b Kasparek, R. (2014). Knight of the Grail Code. WestBow Press.
  13. ^ "No. 57557". The London Gazette. 11 February 2005. p. 1713.
  14. ^ "Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
  15. ^ Mikelbank, Peter (17 June 2017). "Olivia de Havilland on Becoming the Oldest Person to Be Named a Dame: I'm 'Extremely Proud'". people.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  16. ^ Roxborough, S. (29 August 2018). "Venice Festival Honoree Vanessa Redgrave Explains Why She Turned Down Damehood". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  17. ^ "Baronetess". Debretts. n.d. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  18. ^ Stanford, P. (2003). "Dame Felicitas Corrigan". UK Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2023. Dame Felicitas - the title Dame is given to English Benedictine nuns in preference to Sister ...
  19. ^ McDermott, J. (1941). A Glossary of Mississippi Valley French 1673-1850. Washington University - St Louis. p. 63. ISBN 9785873562893. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  20. ^ Chamber's Encyclopaedia. William and Robert Chambers, London. 1889. p. 665. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  21. ^ Hanks, P. (2003). Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University. p. 406. Dame..from Old French, Dame, 'Lady'...title of respect for a widow...

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