Dan Gertler

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Dan Gertler
BornDecember 1973 (age 45)
Years active1996–present
Net worthIncrease US$ 1.22 billion (2017)[1]
TitlePresident, DGI (Dan Gertler International) Group of Companies
Spouse(s)Anat Gertler
RelativesMoshe Schnitzer (grandfather)
Shmuel Schnitzer (uncle)

Dan Gertler (born December 1973) is an Israeli billionaire businessman in natural resources and the founder and President of the DGI (Dan Gertler International) Group of Companies. He has diamond and copper mining interests in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and has invested in iron ore, gold, cobalt, oil, agriculture, and banking.[2] As of 2015 his fortune was estimated at $1.26 billion by Forbes.[3]

Gertler's deals have been under scrutiny by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank since 2012. He has been described as controversial.[4] The Panama papers revealed deals carried out through Mossack Fonseca shell companies, among his many offshore companies.

Effective 21 December 2017, US President Donald Trump issued Executive Order 13818 implementing the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act and listed Gertler in the Annex, resulting in the blocking of his assets under U.S. jurisdiction as a result of these sanctions.[5]

Early life and education[edit]

Dan Gertler was born in December 1973, a grandson of Moshe Schnitzer, first President and co-founder of the Israel Diamond Exchange in 1947,[2] who won the Israel Prize in 2004. His family was traditionally involved in cutting and merchandising diamonds. While growing up, Gertler spent as much time as he could learning about the diamond trade from his father and grandfather. As soon as he had completed his 3-year mandatory service in the Israeli Defense Forces he opened his own diamond business.[6]


In 1996, Gertler founded the Dan Gertler International (DGI) group of companies.[7] He bought his first mine in the DRC in 1997.[8] Gertler purchased many of the Congo's "most profitable mineral rights" and has been a "close friend" of the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Joseph Kabila since their youth.[9] Joseph Kabila introduced Gertler to his father Laurent Kabila in 2000, when he served as DRC President[2]

Dan Gertler International (DGI)[edit]

International Diamond Industries-Congo (IDI-Congo)[edit]

After gaining experience with purchasing and marketing artisanally mined diamonds[clarification needed] from the DRC, Gertler started negotiations to establish a partnership with the Societé Minière de Bakwanga (MIBA), a DRC state-controlled diamond mine operator.[10] Through his friendship with the young Joseph Kabila, Gertler was introduced to his father Laurent Kabila, then President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), in 2000.[2]

From September 2000 through April 2001, Gertler had the sole right to buy "all diamonds produced in territory under the control of the Congolese Government", for which he had paid Kabila $20 million.[7] He ran a quasi "comptoir" in the DRC with International Diamond Industries-Congo (IDI-Congo), the affiliate of his Israeli firm, IDI-Diamonds Industry. IDI-Congo received 70 percent of the profits and the Congolese Government received 30 percent, which included the state diamond producer, La Societé Minière de Bakwanga (MIBA) and all diamonds sold by private businesses. The deal was to "regulate and certify the origins of its diamonds under new UN requirements intended to weed out blood diamonds" and diamond smuggling.[11] Even with the IDI-Congo monopoly offering below-market prices for diamonds, the Congo received a greater percentage of diamond revenues than before the monopoly was in place.[12][page needed]

A report by the mines auditing service at the mines ministry was harshly critical of IDI-Congo's diamond export monopoly.[11] The IDI deal was haunted by allegations that Israelis had arrangements to train Congolese security forces in brutal techniques, as they had under Mobutu Sese Seko and that IDI was buying diamonds from UNITA. Also, by paying below the market price IDI encouraged smuggling into the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville).[12]:10

After Laurent Kabila died in January 2001, Gertler briefly lost influence in the Congo.[7] In April 2001, Laurent's son and successor Joseph Kabila revoked IDI's monopoly. DRC diamond producers shut out of the IDI monopoly had been unhappy with the monopoly and the International Monetary Fund encouraged the country to liberalize the diamond industry.[12]:10 Gertler soon managed to reestablish a relationship with Joseph Kabila.[7] becoming increasingly close, to the point that in 2006 Kabila invited him to his wedding.[13] By 2009, DGI group was one of the largest wholesale distributors of rough and polished diamonds in the world. The group spans mining, manufacturing and sales.[7]

Emaxon Finance International Inc and the Diamond Industry (2001-)[edit]

In 2001, Gertler established Emaxon Finance International Inc in Canada as a subsidiary of the Dan Gertler International (DGI).[14] also reported by the International Development Research Centre according to the 2001 International Peace Information Service (IPIS) publication and according to the Quebec trade register.[15]:5 [16] In April 2002, Emaxon Finance Corp secretly signed a contract through which Gertler gained a four-year right to market 88% of the rough-diamond production of the Societé minière de Bakwanga(MIBA), about a quarter of the DRC's legitimate diamond exports at around 600,000 carats a month. Emaxon enjoyed a 5 percent discount on its purchase of MIBA diamonds which it then usually sold in the free market to the highest bidder. Emaxon lent MIBA $15 million to modernize its mining equipment[when?].[17]

Fleurette Group and Fleurette Properties, 2006[edit]

Fleurette Properties, is a Gibraltar-based company which has at least "60 holding companies in offshore havens such as the Virgin Islands" through which Dan Gertler has controlled concessions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[2] Fleurette Group refers to the group of companies with respect to which Fleurette Properties is either the direct or indirect shareholder.[18] The Fleurette Group has owned the Kansuki concession, a Congolese copper and cobalt development project since 2006.[18] As of April 2016 it employed 30 000 people and was the largest source of private receipts for the Congolese government.[3]

Family trust[edit]

In 2007 Gertler's family trust was the major shareholder of Prairie International Ltd., owner of "Tremalt Limited which owns 80% of Savannah Mining, the holder of the other half of copper and cobalt operation Mukondo as well as concessions C17 and C18 in the mineral-rich Katanga Province", Democratic Republic of the Congo.[19]

Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC) 2004- Katanga Copper Belt[edit]

In March 2004, Dan Gertler International founded Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC) in partnership with Beny Steinmetz Global. In May 2004 GEC signed an agreement with the state-owned Gécamines, finalized in September 2004, to rehabilitate and operate the Kananga and Tilwezembe copper mines. The deal was ratified 13 October 2005 by presidential decree.,[20]

This deal was later found by the World Bank reviewing the Congo's three biggest mining contracts to have been approved with "a complete lack of transparency" (Mahtani 3 January 2007).[21][22] [23]

DEM Mining 2006 - Cobalt and Copper in Katanga Copper Belt[edit]

In April 2006 Gertler's DGI took a major stake in DEM Mining, a cobalt-copper mining and services company based in Katanga.[21]

Tremalt Ltd 2006 Mukondo Mine, Kanaga Copper Belt[edit]

In June 2006 Gertler bought Tremalt, which had a half share in the Mukondo Mine, for about $60 million from the Zimbabwean businessman John Bredenkamp.[21] [24]

In 2007 Tremalt was owned by Prairie International Ltd, of which Dan Gertler's family trust was a major shareholder. Tremalt owned 80% of Savannah Mining, which held concessions C17 and C18 in Katanga Province and 50% of the Mukondo project. The other 50% of Mukonda was held by Boss Mining, which in turn was 80% owned by Central African Mining & Exploration Company (CAMEC).[19] Boss Mining had rented and operated Bredenkamp's half of Mukondo. Gertler terminated this arrangement.[21]

Prairie International Ltd. 2007 Mukondo, Kanaga Copper Belt[edit]

When CAMEC bought Boss Mining in February 2006, its prior owner Billy Rautenbach, a Zimbabwe businessman gained about 17% of CAMEC shares.[24] Gertler and CAMEC made plans to combine the Mukondo assets, and a Katanga Province copper and cobalt project, into a new holding company. Rautenbach would be excluded from ownership in the new company due to the hostile relations that had developed between him and the DRC government.[19]

In November 2007, Prairie International and CAMEC signed a memorandum of understanding to complete the deal.[25] In November 2007 Miningmx reported that Dan Gertler's Prairie International Ltd. and CAMEC had created a joint venture vehicle in the Mukondo with concessions held by the state-owned Gécamines. "Tremalt will be transferred into the joint venture vehicle."[19] In February 2008 the two companies announced that the Mukondo Mountain operations had restarted.[26]

Nikanor plc Copper, 2007[edit]

In February 2007, 22% of the Nikanor Mining company was owned by the Gertner Family Trust and 14% by Dan Gertler.[27] Gertler and Steinmetz placed Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC)'s 75% share in KOV into Nikanor plc, registered in the Isle of Man. In July 2006, Nikanor's stock was listed on the London Stock Exchange's Alternative Investment Market. The IPO raised $400 million, and Nikanor's market capitalization reached $1.5 billion.[21] In January 2008 Katanga Mining acquired Nikanor plc for $452m.[23] hange don

Glencore partnership 2007[edit]

Gertler has been a partner with Glencore International Plc., the largest company in Switzerland and the world's largest commodities trading company.[28][29][30] One of their mines is Mutanda.[2]

In the course of the Congo events, Glencore and Gertler partnered in Nikanor from 2007 until the final merger with Katanga Mining in late 2007 in a transaction valued at US$3.3 billion.[31] A 2011 article by Reuters journalists described Glencore as the biggest company you never heard of:[32] In June 2007, Glencore and partner Dan Gertler, an Israeli mining magnate, paid GB£300 million for a quarter of mining company Nikanor, which planned to revive derelict copper mines next to Katanga Mining's properties. The contract gave Glencore exclusive sales rights to all Nikanor's output, a "offtake" agreement.

Katanga lost 97% of its market value over the final six months of 2008. Running out of cash in the financial crisis, Katanga accepted [Glencore] control, issuing more than a billion new shares for about US$500 million in a convertible loan and rights issue. A share that grew to 74% went to Glencore. In 2011 copper prices regularly set records above US$10,000 a ton, and the value of Katanga's stock market value was nearly US$3.2 billion.[32] Katanga lost US$108 million in 2009, but posted an annual profit of US$265 million in 2010.[32]

Catela Global, 2008[edit]

In July 2008 Catela Global, a company owned by Gertler's family trust, offered about C$296 million to buy Anvil Mining shares, around 25% of Anvil, in a private placement.[33] An RBC Capital Markets analyst, Cailey Barker, speculated that Anvil would use the cash infusion for acquisitions, but the company said it would remain focused on completing its Kinsevere Stage II project.[34] In August 2008, Anvil lowered the amount to be paid to about C$237 million due to "the significant deterioration in market conditions for resource companies".[35]

Camrose Resources Ltd > Africo > Kalukundi Mine, 2007[edit]

"In 2007 Africa Management Limited was created as a joint venture between South African housing minister Tokyo Sexwale's investment vehicle Mvelaphanda Holdings, its associate company Palladino Holdings, and Och-Ziff Capital Management, a $30-billion New York hedge fund (Wood et al. 2012)."[36]

In June 2010 the Financial Post of Canada reported that Highwind Properties, a company registered in the British Virgin Islands, now owned the Kolwezi project. The newspaper, citing unnamed sources, linked the company to Dan Gertler.[37] In August 2010 ENRC, a company listed in London with most of its operations in Kazakhstan, said it was buying indirect control of the Kolwezi licence from Dan Gertler.[38] ENRC was buying 50.5% of Camrose from Gertler. Camrose's key asset was a 70% interest in the Kolwezi project.[39] The Kolwezi property was sold to Gertler for $20 million. He in turn sold 50.5% of Camrose to ENRC for $175 million. In April 2011 a British MP called for an investigation of the transaction under the Bribery Act.[40]

Camrose's other assets included a "64% stake in Canada listed Africo Resources which held a 75% interest in Kalukundi exploitation licence as well as 56% indirect interest in Comide Sprl, which held the exploitation licence for Mashitu, Pangalume and Kii tenements."[41]

According to a 2012 article in the Mail and Guardian,[36] Camrose acquired a controlling stake in Africo through a simultaneous, complex and clever set of transactions from 2007-2008. Located in the south-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo's copper belt, the lucrative Kalukundi concession owned by Congolese company Swanmines, which was part-owned by Canadian miner Africo Resources, had potential for high copper and cobalt yields. In April 2007 Africo was preparing to purchase enough shares to become the majority shareholder of Kalukundi when a third party entered into litigation claiming prior ownership. Dan Getler offered to help through his connections with Democratic Republic of Congo's President, President Joseph Kabila. Gertler purchased the third party company and resold it to Africo. In July 2008, the Getler company, Camrose Resources, purchased Africo shares worth about $100 million. Camrose then held 63% controlling stake in Africo. Camrose paid for Africo through a loan from an offshore British Virgin Islands-registered company called Vipar, "an affiliate of Africa Management Limited (Wood et al. 2012)."[36]

Camrose and Highwind Group 2008-10[edit]

In 2008, Camrose Resources Ltd, a Gertler family trust company, purchased s 62.5% share of Africo Resources. In February 2009, Africo confirmed that it had the go ahead from the DRC government for 75%-owned Kalukundi project.[42]

In 2009 Vancouver, Canada-based through Dan Gertler's newly formed British Virgin Island-based company, Highwinds old ENRC 50.5% of Kolwezi Mine Tailings (KWT) a "multi-billion dollar copper and cobalt tailings reprocessing facility" [41] which had been expropriated in 2009 by the DRC from Vancouver, Canada-based through Dan Gertler's newly formed British Virgin Island-based company, Highwinds.[43] In September 2009 the DRC government revoked the license of Canadian mining First Quantum Minerals to operate the Kolwezi copper tailings project. First Quantum appealed the decision. The CEO Philip Pascal said "the activities on the legal side come from a small and very influential group of individuals in the Congo and don't necessarily mirror the sentiments of a number of other authorities".[37] Later the government also expropriated the Frontier and Lonshi mines from First Quantum.[citation needed]

In August 2010, Camrose acquired British Virgin Island-based Highwind Group.[44] In March 2011 the state-owned Sodimico sold its 30% stake in these two mines for $30 million to two companies registered in the British Virgin Islands. The total estimated value of the mines was over $1.6 billion.[45]

Emerald Star Enterprises Limited BVI 2009 SMKK[edit]

Emerald Star Enterprises Limited, a company controlled by Gertler's family trust, was incorporated 29 October 2009 in the British Virgin Islands. 21 December 2009 Emerald Star sold an option to buy the remaining 50% stake of Société Minière de Kabolela et de Kipese SPRL, (a company formed by Melkior Resources Inc and Gécamines that holds the rights to develop the Kabolela cobalt-copper deposit) to Katash-founded mining company Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) who already owned 50%. The other 50% belonged to state-owned Gécamines. In February 2010 Emerald Star Enterprises Limited purchased Gécamines' 50% for $15 million and sold these shares to Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) for $50 million. Emerald Star Enterprises Limited paid $15 million, and sold for $75 million making a 500 percent return.[2]

Rowny Assets Limited BVI- 2011 Mutanda Mine, Katanga Copper Belt[edit]

Rowny Assets Limited is one of the offshore firms owned by Gertler's family and is described in the initial Glencore public offering (IPO) prospectus.[46] Gécamines sold its 20% share of the Mutanda project to Rowny Assets. This company, registered in the British Virgin Islands, was said to be "associated" with Gertler. The share was worth an estimated $600 million, but was sold for $137 million.[45]

Rowny Assets Limited was also in Glencore's 4 May 2011 listing prospectus, and recently acquired a 20% interest in Mutanda from Gécamines.[47]

Biko Invest Corporation BVI, 2011[edit]

Biko Invest Corporation BVI linked to Dan Gertler and incorporated 23 February 2011 in the British Virgin Islands, bought a quarter of Kansuki Sprl from Gécamines in 2011.[47]

Mining assets and IMF, 2011-present[edit]

In September 2011 the International Monetary Fund asked for explanations from Sodimico and Gécamines, both owned by the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), concerning sales of assets below market value and without publicity. Gécamines sold its 20% share of the Mutanda project to Rowny Assets, a British Virgin Islands company, said to be associated with Gertler. The share was worth an estimated $600 million, but was sold for $137 million and the IMF was providing loans to the DRC worth $561 million at the time.[45] Analysts criticized lack of transparency in the disposal of key assets by Gécamines, which the government was preparing for sale to private investors.[48]

In December 2012 the International Monetary Fund stopped a US$500m (£310m) loan to the Congo because of irregularities in the way a company reputed to be controlled by Dan Gertler[which?] acquired minerals from Joseph Kabila's government. In the same week Katash-founded mining company Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC), Gertler's biggest copper mining partner in the Congo, severed its relationship with him,[49] spending $550m to buying itself out of the partnership. Gertler has been accused of making the majority of his $2.5 billion fortune from "looting Congo at the expense of its people".[4]

Nessergy oil company, 2013[edit]

In April 2013, Gertler sold one of his Congo-based oil companies, Nessergy Ltd, for $150 million.[50] Advocacy group Global Witness criticized the deal for lack of transparency on the part of Gertler and the Congolese government.[51]

Panama Papers, Mossack Fonseca, 2016[edit]

Gertler's name appears more than 200 times in the Panama Papers. Mossack Fonseca registered at least two companies for him: Burford Commercial S.A. and Norseville Estates S.A. Gertler's attorney said, Gertler had "no knowledge of the claims raised regarding the [Panamanian firm's decision] to terminate representation in 2011."[52] Le Monde reported another two Mossack-Fonseca- incorporated shell companies, Foxwhelp Ltd and Caprikat Ltd, in the DR Congo oil industry.[3]

Paradise Papers, 2017[edit]

In 5 November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Glencore loaned $45 million to Gertler in exchange for his help with officials of the Democratic Republic of Congo in negotiations over a joint venture with state-owned Gécamines at the Katanga copper mine in 2009. Gertler appears in 120 documents regarding his relationship with Glencore.[53][54][55] Glencore, which had effectively taken over Katanga, agreed to vote for the joint venture. The loan document specifically provided that repayment would be owed if agreement was not reached within three months. Gertler and Glencore have denied wrongdoing.[53][54]

Magnitsky Act[edit]

The United States Department of the Treasury specifically named Dan Gertler in the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) financial sanctions list for serious human rights abuse and corruption, under the Magnitsky Act and blocked his US-based assets.[56] According to a February 2018 article in The Economist, the sanctions statement said that Gertler had "amassed his fortune through hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of opaque and corrupt mining and oil deals" in the DRC.[9]

Personal life[edit]

Gertler is married to Anat Gertler and they live with their children in Bnei Brak, a suburb of Tel Aviv.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Forbes Billionaires". Forbes. United States. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
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  3. ^ a b c d Joan Tilouine (7 April 2016). "Panama papers : Dan Gertler, roi du Congo et de l'offshore". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  4. ^ a b Neate, Rupert (9 December 2012). "ENRC ends Congo mining deal with controversial billionaire Dan Gertler". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  5. ^ Trump, Donald (21 December 2017). "Executive Order Blocking the Property of Persons Involved in Serious Human Rights Abuse or Corruption". Whitehouse.gov.
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  7. ^ a b c d e "Gertler, Dan (DGI Group)". Rough and Polished: Information and Analytics on Diamond and Jewellery Markets. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  8. ^ "#1476 Dan Gertler". Forbes. 9 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
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  14. ^ "Emaxon to finance expansion of MIBA's diamond mines". PR Newswire. 27 October 2003.
  15. ^ Diamond Industry Annual Review (PDF) (Report). International Development Research Centre (IDRC). 2004. p. 13. ISBN 1-894888-38-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
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  28. ^ "Glencore: Taking over the world?". Aljazeera - Counting the Cost. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
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  31. ^ Pagnamenta, Robin (7 November 2007). "Nikanor and Katanga Mining merge to create $3.3bn African giant". The London Times. Retrieved 14 April 2011.(subscription required)
  32. ^ a b c Onstad, Eric; Laura MacInnis; Quentin Webb (25 February 2011). "The biggest company you never heard of". Reuters. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  33. ^ Liezel Hill (10 July 2008). "Anvil to raise C$296m in private placement". Mining weekly. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  34. ^ Liezel Hill (18 August 2008). "Cash-flush Anvil may consider acquisitions". Mining weekly. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  35. ^ Liezel Hill (25 August 2008). "Anvil lowers private placement pricing on weak market". Mining weekly. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  36. ^ a b c James Wood; Craig McKune; Steffaans, Brummer (17 August 2012). "Tokyo Sexwale and the DRC's Mr Grab". Mail and Guardian: Africa's Best Read.
  37. ^ a b Matthew Hill (30 June 2010). "Pressure mounts on DRC over mine-rights controversy". Mining weekly. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  38. ^ Matthew Hill (25 August 2010). "Compliance with ICC order 'in DRC's best interest' – FQM CEO". Mining weekly. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
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  40. ^ Russell Lynch; Jim Armitage (8 April 2011). "MP calls for Fraud Office probe of ENRC under Bribery Act". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  41. ^ a b "Fasken Martineau advises First Quantum Minerals on US$1.25B deal". Law Expert Blog. 2 March 2012. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
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  43. ^ DRC Report (Report). Congo Leaks. November 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  44. ^ Frik Els (22 August 2012). "Meet the Israeli middleman said to have 'stripped and flipped' First Quantum's DRC mine". Mining: Your Source of Global Mining News. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  45. ^ a b c Michael J. Kavanagh; Franz Wild (28 September 2011). "IMF Asks Congo for Explanation on State Mining Assets Sale". Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  46. ^ Hanna C. Trudo (23 April 2012). "Glencore: What the Documents Tell Us". Foreign Policy.
  47. ^ a b Michael J. Kavanagh and Franz Wild (12 July 2011). "Gecamines sale of Congo copper assets may undermine share offer". Bloomberg News.
  48. ^ "Sale of top DRC mine may stymie share offer". Bloomberg. 17 July 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  49. ^ Jim Armitage (11 December 2012). "Dan Gertler: Is this the end for Congo's diamond geezer? He is an Israeli billionaire who made his fortune in Congo's vast mineral industry. He says he deserves a Nobel prize – but is he in fact making one of the world's poorest countries even poorer?". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  50. ^ "Israeli billionaire sells Congo oil rights for 300 times purchase price". Reuters. 22 January 2014.
  51. ^ Michael J. Kavanagh (23 January 2014). "Congo's Failure to Publish Gertler Deal Breaches Law, Group Says". Bloomberg.
  52. ^ Uri Blau, Daniel Dolev (7 April 2016). "Israeli Diamond Tycoons Listed in Leaked Panama Papers". Haaretz. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  53. ^ a b Ben Doherty; Oliver Zihlmann (5 November 2017). "Revealed: Glencore's secret loan to secure DRC mining rights". The Guardian.
  54. ^ a b Bastian Obermayer; Edouard Perrin; Frederik Obermaier; Oliver Zihlmann; Petra Blum; Will Fitzgibbon (5 November 2017). "Room Of Secrets Reveals Glencore's Mysteries: Law firm's internal files reveal oil, mineral and grain trader Glencore signed secret deals and loaned millions to a high-risk business partner". ICIJ. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  55. ^ Blau, Uri (5 November 2017). "The Paradise Papers: Haaretz Reveals Some of the Israeli Businessmen and Firms Registered in Offshore Tax Havens". Haaretz. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  56. ^ "Issuance of Global Magnitsky Executive Order; Global Magnitsky Designations". Treasury.gov. United States Department of the Treasury and Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFCA). 21 December 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2018.

External links[edit]