Dan II of Wallachia

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Dan II
Dan al II-lea.jpg
Voivode of Wallachia
Reign 1420-1421
1421-1423
1423-1424
1426-1427
1427-1431
Predecessor Michael I
Radu II
Successor Radu II
Alexander I
Died 1 June 1432
Issue Vladislav II of Wallachia
Dan III of Wallachia
Basarab II of Wallachia
Father Dan I
Mother Maria of Serbia

Dan II (? – June 1, 1432) was a voivode (prince) of the principality of Wallachia in the 15th Century, ruling an extraordinary five times, and succeeded four times by Radu II Chelul, his rival for the throne. Of those five periods on the throne of Wallachia (1420–1421, 1421–1423, 1423–1424, 1426–1427, and 1427–1431), four were within a period of only seven years.

Early life[edit]

Dan was the son of Dan I of Wallachia.[1] His father was the eldest son and successor of Radu I of Wallachia.[1] After Dan I was murdered in 1387, his brother, Mircea, mounted the throne.[1] Dan was loyal to his uncle during Mircea's reign.[1] Mircea was the first ruler of Wallachia to be forced to pay an annual tribute to the Ottoman Empire.[2] He made his only legitimate son, Michael I, his co-ruler.[3]

After Michael succeeded Mircea (who died on 4 February 1418), Dan laid claim to Wallachia.[4] The Ottomans defeated Michael in 1419, forcing him to pay tribute and to cede Giurgiu and other fortresses along the Danue to them.[5] The Wallachian boyars started to defect to Dan.[5] After Michael did not respect his treaty with the Ottomans, Dan broke into Wallachia in early 1420.[5] Initially, Michael could resist.[5] However, Ottoman troops joined Dan, enabling him to defeat Michael and his Hungarian allies in the summer of 1420.[6]

Reign[edit]

Dan II first took the throne in 1420, losing it in 1421, but regaining it that same year. He was primarily able to regain the throne many times because he was an able military commander in the field. In 1423, Dan II led an army against the invading Ottoman Turks, defeating them in battle.[citation needed] The Ottomans were invading in an effort to place Radu II back on the throne. In 1425, he again defeated the Ottomans,[citation needed] winning an important victory in a battle that was the first recorded mention of Wallachia using mercenaries in their army. In that battle Dan II had employed a large number of Bulgarian soldiers. In the spring of 1427, Dan II removes Radu II from the throne for the last time, again defeating the Ottomans in battle,[citation needed] taking back the fortress at Giurgiu. In all likelihood, Dan II killed Radu II either during or after that battle, as the latter disappears from historical records afterward. However, written accounts of the time are sparse at best, and it is not known for certain. On June 3, 1428, Dan II led an army against the Ottomans at Golubac Fortress, which ended with a treaty that would allow Dan II a semi-peaceful rule until 1432.

In 1432 his country was invaded by a large Ottoman army. Dan was defeated and killed in battle. He was succeeded by Alexandru I Aldea, a son of Mircea cel Batran, who would reign until his death from illness in 1436, and with him being replaced by Vlad II Dracul, father to Vlad Tepes. Dan II's son, Basarab II, would replace Vlad Dracul's son Mircea II in 1443. However, his son lacked the military ability of his father, and would lose the throne within a year to Vlad Dracul.

Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, an indefatigable traveler, possibly the most well-traveled prince of his time, and brother of Henry the Navigator, met with Dan II of Wallachia during Pedro's service to Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor.[7]

Family[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Treptow 2000, p. 31.
  2. ^ Pop 2005, p. 255.
  3. ^ Treptow 2000, p. 32.
  4. ^ Treptow 2000, pp. 36-37.
  5. ^ a b c d Treptow 2000, p. 37.
  6. ^ Treptow 2000, pp. 37-38.
  7. ^ de Campos, Antonio Antas. "Portuguese-Romanian ties excellent, with wide potential for improvement". wwww.nineoclock.ro: Romanian News in English. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 

Sources[edit]

  • Florescu, Radu R.; McNally, Raymond T. (1989). Dracula, Prince of Many Faces: His Life and his Times. Back Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-316-28656-5. 
  • Mureşanu, Camil (2001). John Hunyadi: Defender of Christendom. The Center for Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-9432-18-2. 
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2005). "Romanians in the 14th-16th centuries: from the "Christian Republic" to the "Restoration of Dacia"". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan. History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 209–314. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4. 
  • Treptow, Kurt W. (2000). Vlad III Dracula: The Life and Times of the Historical Dracula. The Center of Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-98392-2-3. 
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mihail I
Prince of Wallachia
1420–1421
Succeeded by
Radu II Chelul
Preceded by
Radu II Chelul
Prince of Wallachia
1421–1423
Succeeded by
Radu II Chelul
Preceded by
Radu II Chelul
Prince of Wallachia
1423–1424
Succeeded by
Radu II Chelul
Preceded by
Radu II Chelul
Prince of Wallachia
1426–1427
Succeeded by
Radu II Chelul
Preceded by
Radu II Chelul
Prince of Wallachia
1427–1431
Succeeded by
Alexandru I Aldea

External links[edit]