|Trade names||Danatrol, Danocrine, Danol, Danoval, others|
|Synonyms||WIN-17757; 2,3-Isoxazolethisterone; 2,3-Isoxazol-17α-ethynyltestosterone; 17α-Ethynyl-17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-[2,3-d]isoxazole|
|Drug class||Androgen; Anabolic steroid; Progestin; Progestogen; Antigonadotropin; Steroidogenesis inhibitor; Antiestrogen|
|Bioavailability||Saturable with dosage, higher with food intake|
|Protein binding||To albumin, SHBG, CBG|
|Elimination half-life||Acute: 3–10 hours|
Chronic: 24–26 hours
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||337.463 g/mol g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Danazol, sold under the brand name Danocrine among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, hereditary angioedema, and other conditions. It is taken by mouth.
The use of danazol is limited by masculinizing side effects such as acne, excessive hair growth, and voice deepening. Danazol has a complex mechanism of action, and is characterized as a weak androgen and anabolic steroid, a weak progestogen, a weak antigonadotropin, a weak steroidogenesis inhibitor, and a functional antiestrogen.
Danazol was discovered in 1963 and was introduced for medical use in 1971. Due to their improved side-effect profiles, particularly their lack of masculinizing side effects, danazol has largely been replaced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRH analogues) in the treatment of endometriosis.
- 1 Medical uses
- 2 Contraindications
- 3 Side effects
- 4 Pharmacology
- 5 Chemistry
- 6 History
- 7 Society and culture
- 8 Research
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
Danazol is used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis. It has also been used – mostly off-label – for other indications, namely in the management of menorrhagia, fibrocystic breast disease, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, premenstrual syndrome, breast pain, and hereditary angioedema. Although not currently a standard treatment for menorrhagia, danazol demonstrated significant relief in young women with menorrhagia in a study, and, because of a lack of a significant adverse effects, it was proposed as an alternative treatment. Danazol appears to be useful in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Danazol comes in the form of 50, 100, and 200 mg oral capsules. It is taken at a dose of 50 to 400 mg two or three times per day, for a total of 100 to 800 mg per day depending on the indication.
Danazol is contraindicated during pregnancy because it has the potential to virilize female fetuses. Women taking danazol should practice effective contraception to prevent pregnancy if sexually active.
Androgenic side effects are of concern, as some women taking danazol may experience unwanted hair growth (hirsutism), acne, irreversible deepening of the voice, or adverse blood lipid profiles. In addition, breast atrophy and decreased breast size may occur. The drug may also cause hot flashes, elevation of liver enzymes, and mood changes. Some patients who use danazol experience weight gain and fluid retention. Due to its side effects, danazol is seldom prescribed continuously beyond six months.
The use of danazol for endometriosis has been linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Patients with endometriosis have specific risk factors for ovarian cancer, so this may not apply for other uses. Danazol, like most other anabolic steroids, has been linked with an increased risk of liver tumors. These are generally benign.
Danazol possesses a complex pharmacology, with multiple mechanisms of action. These include direct binding to and activation of sex hormone receptors, direct inhibition of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, and direct binding to and occupation of steroid hormone carrier proteins and consequent displacement of steroid hormones from these proteins. The drug is characterized as a weak androgen and anabolic, a weak progestogen, a weak antigonadotropin, a weak steroidogenesis inhibitor, and a functional antiestrogen.
Modulation of steroid hormone receptors
Danazol is described as a possessing high affinity for the androgen receptor (AR), moderate affinity for the progesterone receptor (PR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and poor affinity for the estrogen receptor (ER). As an androgen, danazol is described as weak, being about 200-fold less potent than testosterone in bioassays. The drug can act as both an agonist and antagonist of the PR depending on the bioassay, indicating that it could be regarded as a selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM). Although the affinity and efficacy of danazol itself at the PR are relatively low, ethisterone, one of the major metabolites of danazol, is described as a weak progestogen (and has been employed clinically as a progestogen), and this presumably serves to increase the in vivo progestogenic activity of danazol. The activity of danazol at the ER is considered to be minimal, although at very high concentrations the drug can act significantly as an ER agonist. Danazol is considered to act significantly as an agonist of the GR, and, thus, as a glucocorticoid. In accordance, it can suppress the immune system at sufficient dosages.
|Values are percentages (%). Reference ligands (100%) were progesterone for the PR, testosterone (c = DHT) for the AR, cortisol for the GR (b = dexamethasone), aldosterone for the MR, DHT for SHBG, and cortisol for CBG. a = 1-hour incubation time (4 hours is standard for this assay; may affect affinity value). Sources: |
Inhibition of steroidogenesis enzymes
Danazol has been found to act as an inhibitor, to varying extents, of a variety of steroidogenic enzymes, including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 21-hydroxylase, and 11β-hydroxylase. It has also been found to be a weak inhibitor of steroid sulfatase (Ki = 2.3–8.2 μM), the enzyme that converts DHEA-S into DHEA and estrone sulfate into estrone (which can then respectively be transformed into estrone (with androstenedione as an intermediate) and estradiol), though another study reported its inhibition to be potent and potentially clinically relevant. Although in contradiction with the above data, another study found that danazol weakly inhibited aromatase as well, with 44% inhibition at a concentration of 10 μM.
In accordance with its steroidogenesis inhibition, clinical studies have demonstrated that danazol directly and markedly inhibits adrenal, ovarian, and testicular steroidogenesis in vivo. The enzymatic production of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone have all specifically been found to be inhibited.
|Enzyme||Affinity (Ki)||Inhibition type||Estimated inhibition at 2 μM|
|Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme||20 μM||Competitive||?|
|3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase||5.8 μM||Competitive||4.3%|
|17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase||4.4 μM||Competitive||15%|
For reference, circulating concentrations of danazol are in the range of 2 μM at a dosage of 600 mg/day in women.
Occupation and downregulation of carrier proteins
|Normal (no danazol)||1%||39%||60%|
Danazol is known to bind to two steroid hormone carrier proteins: sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds androgens and estrogens; and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which binds progesterone and cortisol. Binding of danazol to SHBG is considered to be more important clinically. By occupying SHBG and CBG, danazol increases the ratio of free to plasma protein-bound testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol. The table to the right shows the difference in testosterone levels in premenopausal women treated with danazol.
As can be seen, the percentage of free testosterone is tripled in women being treated with danazol. The ability of danazol to increase free testosterone levels suggests that a portion of its weak androgenic effects are mediated indirectly by facilitating the activity of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone through the displacement of them from SHBG. In addition to binding to and occupying SHBG however, danazol also decreases the hepatic production of SHBG and therefore SHBG levels, and so downregulation of SHBG may be involved as well. Danazol likely decreases hepatic production of SHBG by reducing estrogenic and increasing androgenic activity in the liver (as androgens and estrogens decrease and increase, respectively, hepatic SHBG synthesis). In accordance with the notion that suppression of SHBG is involved in the androgenic effects of danazol, the drug has synergistic rather than additive androgenic effects in combination with testosterone in bioassays (which is most likely secondary to the increased free testosterone levels).
It is noteworthy that 2-hydroxymethylethisterone, a major metabolite of danazol, circulates at concentrations 5–10 times greater than those of danazol and is twice as potent as danazol in displacing testosterone from SHBG. As such, most of the occupation of SHBG by danazol may actually be due to this metabolite.
Via its weak progestogenic and androgenic activity, through activation of the PR and AR in the pituitary gland, danazol produces antigonadotropic effects. Although its does not significantly affect basal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in premenopausal women (and hence does not profoundly suppress gonadotropin or sex hormone levels like other, stronger antigonadotropins do), the drug prevents the mid-cycle surge in the levels of these hormones during the menstrual cycle. By doing this, it suppresses increases in estrogen and progesterone levels at this time and prevents ovulation.
Mechanism of action in endometriosis
Because danazol reduces estrogen production and levels, it has functional antiestrogenic properties. The combination of its antiestrogenic, androgenic, and progestogenic or antiprogestogenic actions cause atrophy of the endometrium, which alleviates the symptoms of endometriosis.
Effects in men
In men, danazol has been found to inhibit gonadotropin secretion and markedly decrease testosterone levels, likely due to its actions as a steroidogenesis inhibitor and antigonadotropin. However, even at the highest dosage assessed (800 mg/day), spermatogenesis remained unaffected.
The bioavailability of danazol is low. In addition, circulating levels of danazol do not increase proportionally with increasing doses, indicating that there is a saturation of bioavailability. With single-dose administration, it has been found that a 4-fold increase in dosage of danazol increased peak levels only by 1.3- and 2.2-fold and area-under-the-curve levels by 1.6- and 2.5-fold in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Similar findings were observed for chronic administration. Intake of danazol with food (>30 grams of fat) has been found to increase the bioavailability and peak levels of danazol by 3- to 4-fold with a single dose and by 2- to 2.5-fold with chronic administration. Following administration of danazol, peak concentrations occur after 2 to 8 hours, with a median of 4 hours. Steady-state levels of danazol are achieved after 6 days of twice-daily administration. Danazol is lipophilic and can partition into cell membranes, which indicates that it is likely to distribute deeply into tissue compartments. The volume of distribution of danazol is 3.4 L. Danazol is known to be plasma protein bound to albumin, SHBG, and CBG.
Danazol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as CYP3A4. Its elimination half-life has varied across studies, but has been found to be 3 to 10 hours after a single dose and 24 to 26 hours with repeated administration. The major metabolites of danazol are 2-hydroxymethylethisterone (also known as 2-hydroxymethyldanazol; formed by CYP3A4 and described as inactive) and ethisterone (a progestogen and androgen), and other, minor metabolites include δ2-hydroxymethylethisterone, 6β-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylethisterone, and δ1-6β-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylethisterone. At least 10 different metabolites have been identified. Danazol is eliminated in urine and feces, with the two primary metabolites in urine being 2-hydroxymethylethisterone and ethisterone.
Danazol, also known as 2,3-isoxazol-17α-ethynyltestosterone or as 17α-ethynyl-17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-[2,3-d]isoxazole, is a synthetic androstane steroid and a derivative of testosterone and ethisterone (17α-ethynyltestosterone). It is specifically the derivative of ethisterone where the C3 ketone is replaced with a 2,3-isoxazole moiety (i.e., an isoxazole ring is fused to the A ring at the C2 and C3 positions). Ethisterone is a weak progestin with weak androgenic activity.
Danazol was synthesized in 1963 by a team of scientists at Sterling Winthrop in Rensselaer, New York by a team that included Helmutt Neumann, Gordon Potts, W.T. Ryan, and Frederik W. Stonner. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1971 as the first drug in the country to specifically treat endometriosis.
Society and culture
Danazol is or has been marketed under many brand names throughout the world including Anargil, Azol, Benzol, Bonzol, Cyclolady, Cyclomen, Danal, Danalol, Danamet, Danamin, Danasin, Danatrol, Danazant, Danazol, Danocrine, Danodiol, Danogen, Danokrin, Danol, Danonice, Danoval, Danzol, Dogalact (veterinary), Dorink, Dzol, Ectopal, Elle, Gonablok, Gong Fu Yi Kang, Gynadom, Kodazol, Kupdina, Ladogal, Lozana, Mastodanatrol, Nazol, Norciden, Vabon, and Winobanin.
A 2016 phase I/II prospective study orally administered 800 mg per day to 27 patients with telomere diseases. The primary efficacy endpoint was a 20% reduction in the annual rate of telomere attrition measured. Toxic effects formed the primary safety endpoint. The study was halted early, after telomere attrition was reduced in all 12 patients who could be evaluated. 12 of 27 patients achieved the primary efficacy end point, 11 of whom increased telomere length at 24 months. Hematologic responses (secondary efficacy endpoint) occurred in 10 of 12 patients who could be evaluated at 24 months. Elevated liver-enzyme levels and muscle cramps (known adverse effects) of grade 2 or less occurred in 41% and 33% of the patients, respectively.
- Brayfield, A, ed. (30 October 2013). "Danazol". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- Thomas L. Lemke; David A. Williams (24 January 2012). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1361–. ISBN 978-1-60913-345-0.
- J.P. Griffin; P.F. D'Arcy (17 November 1997). A Manual of Adverse Drug Interactions. Elsevier. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-0-08-052583-9.
- Eberhard Nieschlag; Hermann M. Behre; Susan Nieschlag (13 January 2010). Andrology: Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 426–428. ISBN 978-3-540-78355-8.
- Eric J. Thomas; John Rock (6 December 2012). Modern Approaches to Endometriosis. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 239–256. ISBN 978-94-011-3864-2.
- Florencio Zaragoza Dörwald (4 February 2013). Lead Optimization for Medicinal Chemists: Pharmacokinetic Properties of Functional Groups and Organic Compounds. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 485–. ISBN 978-3-527-64565-7.
- Robert J. Kurman (17 April 2013). Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 390–. ISBN 978-1-4757-3889-6.
- J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. 345–. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.
- Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. January 2000. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.
- I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1.
- Selak V, Farquhar C, Prentice A, Singla A (2007). Farquhar, Cindy, ed. "Danazol for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD000068. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000068.pub2. PMID 17943735.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Howard W. Jones; John A. Rock (10 July 2015). Te Linde's Operative Gynecology. Wolters Kluwer Health. pp. 1327–1330. ISBN 978-1-4963-1521-2.
- Aurel Lupulescu (24 October 1990). Hormones and Vitamins in Cancer Treatment. CRC Press. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-0-8493-5973-6.
- Albert Altchek; Liane Deligdisch; Nathan Kase (4 September 2003). Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Disorders. Academic Press. pp. 376–. ISBN 978-0-08-049451-7.
- G.P. Ellis and G.B. Ellis, doi:10.1016/S0079-6468(08)70187-5 (1979), pp. 126, note 158, 130, notes 1513, 2369, citing doi:10.1021/jm00299a034
- Alan N. Elias; Grant Gwinup (1 January 1983). Hirsutism. Praeger. p. 70.
- Dmowski WP, Scholer HF, Mahesh VB, Greenblatt RB (1971). "Danazol--a synthetic steroid derivative with interesting physiologic properties". Fertil. Steril. 22 (1): 9–18. PMID 5538758.
- Rod Flower; Humphrey P. Rang; Maureen M. Dale; Ritter, James M. (2007). Rang & Dale's pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-06911-5.
- Luisi, S; Razzi, S; Lazzeri, L; Bocchi, C; Severi, FM; Petraglia, F (October 2009). "Efficacy of vaginal danazol treatment in women with menorrhagia during fertile age". Fertil. Steril. 92 (4): 1351–4. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.08.017. PMID 18930222.
- Letchumanan P, Thumboo J (February 2011). "Danazol in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: a qualitative systematic review". Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 40 (4): 298–306. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2010.03.005. PMID 20541792.
- Hoffman, Barbara L; Schorge JO; Schaffer JI; Halvorson LM; Bradshaw KD; Cunningham FG; Calver LE. Williams Gynecology: Chapter 10, Endometriosis (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071716727.
- "Danazol: MedlinePlus Drug Information". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
- Cottreau CM, Ness RB, Modugno F, Allen GO, Goodman MT (2003). "Endometriosis and Its Treatment with Danazol or Lupron in Relation to Ovarian Cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 9 (14): 5142–4. PMID 14613992.
- Velazquez I, Alter BP (2004). "Androgens and liver tumors: Fanconi's anemia and non-Fanconi's conditions". Am. J. Hematol. 77 (3): 257–67. doi:10.1002/ajh.20183. PMID 15495253.
- Ojasoo T, Raynaud JP, Doé JC (January 1994). "Affiliations among steroid receptors as revealed by multivariate analysis of steroid binding data". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 48 (1): 31–46. doi:10.1016/0960-0760(94)90248-8. PMID 8136304.
- Ojasoo T, Raynaud JP (November 1978). "Unique steroid congeners for receptor studies". Cancer Res. 38 (11 Pt 2): 4186–98. PMID 359134.
- Delettré J, Mornon JP, Lepicard G, Ojasoo T, Raynaud JP (January 1980). "Steroid flexibility and receptor specificity". J. Steroid Biochem. 13 (1): 45–59. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(80)90112-0. PMID 7382482.
- Pugeat MM, Dunn JF, Nisula BC (July 1981). "Transport of steroid hormones: interaction of 70 drugs with testosterone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in human plasma". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 53 (1): 69–75. doi:10.1210/jcem-53-1-69. PMID 7195405.
- Cunningham GR, Tindall DJ, Lobl TJ, Campbell JA, Means AR (September 1981). "Steroid structural requirements for high affinity binding to human sex steroid binding protein (SBP)". Steroids. 38 (3): 243–62. doi:10.1016/0039-128X(81)90061-1. PMID 7197818.
- Ahlem C, Kennedy M, Page T, Bell D, Delorme E, Villegas S, Reading C, White S, Stickney D, Frincke J (February 2012). "17α-alkynyl 3α, 17β-androstanediol non-clinical and clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and metabolism". Invest New Drugs. 30 (1): 59–78. doi:10.1007/s10637-010-9517-0. PMID 20814732.
- Shields-Botella, J.; Chetrite, G.; Meschi, S.; Pasqualini, J.R. (2005). "Effect of nomegestrol acetate on estrogen biosynthesis and transformation in MCF-7 and T47-D breast cancer cells". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 93 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.11.004. ISSN 0960-0760. PMID 15748827.
- Carlström K, Döberl A, Pousette A, Rannevik G, Wilking N (1984). "Inhibition of steroid sulfatase activity by danazol". Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl. 123: 107–11. PMID 6238495.
- Richard A. Helms; David J. Quan (2006). Textbook of Therapeutics: Drug and Disease Management. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 383–. ISBN 978-0-7817-5734-8.
- Sarah H. Wakelin; Howard I. Maibach; Clive B. Archer (21 May 2015). Handbook of Systemic Drug Treatment in Dermatology, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-1-4822-2286-9.
- Ulrich Westphal (6 December 2012). Steroid-Protein Interactions II. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-3-642-82486-9.
- C. David Tollison; John R. Satterthwaite; Joseph W. Tollison (January 2002). Practical Pain Management. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 479–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3160-7.
- Floyd, WS (1980). "Danazol: endocrine and endometrial effects". Int J Fertil. 25 (1): 75–80. PMID 6104649.
- Katzung, Bertram (2012). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (12 ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 732. ISBN 978-0-07-176401-8.
- Robert B. Taylor (25 September 1998). Taylor’s Family Medicine Review. Springer New York. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-387-98569-5.
- Fedele, L; Marchini, M; Bianchi, S; Baglioni, A; Bocciolone, L; Nava, S (July 1990). "Endometrial patterns during danazol and buserelin therapy for endometriosis: comparative structural and ultrastructural study". Obstetrics and gynecology. 76 (1): 79–84. PMID 2113661.
- Bruneteau DW, Bernard I, Greenblatt RB (1974). "[Clinical studies with a new antigonadotropin: Danazol]". Gynecologie (in French). 25 (1): 41–5. PMID 4422449.
- Ashraf Mozayani; Lionel Raymon (18 September 2011). Handbook of Drug Interactions: A Clinical and Forensic Guide. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 646–. ISBN 978-1-61779-222-9.
- Dr. S. S. Kadam (July 2007). PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY Vol. - II. Pragati Books Pvt. Ltd. pp. 364–. ISBN 978-81-85790-03-9.
- "A Safety and Efficacy Study of Oral Danazol (a Previously Approved Drug)in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema". Clinicaltrials.gov. Ampio Pharmaceuticals. Inc. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- "Ampio Pharmaceuticals Announces Additional Statistically Significant Study Results for Optina™ in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)". Ampio Pharmaceuticals. Inc. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Townsley DM, Dumitriu B, Liu D, Biancotto A, Weinstein B, Chen C, Hardy N, Mihalek AD, Lingala S, Kim YJ, Yao J, Jones E, Gochuico BR, Heller T, Wu CO, Calado RT, Scheinberg P, Young NS (May 2016). "Danazol Treatment for Telomere Diseases". N. Engl. J. Med. 374 (20): 1922–31. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1515319. PMC 4968696. PMID 27192671.
- Dmowski WP (March 1979). "Endocrine properties and clinical application of danazol". Fertil. Steril. 31 (3): 237–51. PMID 374128.
- Fraser IS (April 1979). "Danazol--a steroid with a unique combination of actions". Scott Med J. 24 (2): 147–50. doi:10.1177/003693307902400209. PMID 386503.
- Potts GO, Schane HP, Edelson J (May 1980). "Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of danazol". Drugs. 19 (5): 321–30. doi:10.2165/00003495-198019050-00001. PMID 6993179.
- Jenkin G (May 1980). "Review: The mechanism of action of danazol, a novel steroid derivative". Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 20 (2): 113–8. doi:10.1111/j.1479-828X.1980.tb00107.x. PMID 6998453.
- Barbieri RL, Ryan KJ (October 1981). "Danazol: endocrine pharmacology and therapeutic applications". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 141 (4): 453–63. doi:10.1016/0002-9378(81)90611-6. PMID 7025640.
- Dmowski WP (January 1990). "Danazol. A synthetic steroid with diverse biologic effects". J Reprod Med. 35 (1 Suppl): 69–74, discussion 74–5. PMID 2404115.
- Barbieri RL (1990). "Danazol: molecular, endocrine, and clinical pharmacology". Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 323: 241–52. PMID 2406750.
- Hughes E, Brown J, Tiffin G, Vandekerckhove P (January 2007). "Danazol for unexplained subfertility". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD000069. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000069.pub2. PMID 17253444.
- Beaumont H, Augood C, Duckitt K, Lethaby A (July 2007). "Danazol for heavy menstrual bleeding". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD001017. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001017.pub2. PMID 17636649.
- Selak V, Farquhar C, Prentice A, Singla A (October 2007). "Danazol for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD000068. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000068.pub2. PMID 17943735.
- Craig TJ (2008). "Appraisal of danazol prophylaxis for hereditary angioedema". Allergy Asthma Proc. 29 (3): 225–31. doi:10.2500/aap.2008.29.3107. PMID 18387221.
- Ke LQ, Yang K, Li J, Li CM (July 2009). "Danazol for uterine fibroids". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD007692. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007692.pub2. PMID 19588442.
- Letchumanan P, Thumboo J (February 2011). "Danazol in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: a qualitative systematic review". Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 40 (4): 298–306. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2010.03.005. PMID 20541792.