Dance therapy

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Dance/Movement Therapy
MeSH D003614

Dance/movement therapy (DMT) in USA[1]/ Australia[2] or Dance Movement Psychotherapy (DMP) in the UK[3] is the psychotherapeutic use of movement and dance to support intellectual, emotional, and motor functions of the body.[4] As a form of expressive therapy, DMT looks at the correlation between movement and emotion.[5] A typical DMT session has four main stages: preparation, incubation, illumination, and evaluation.[6] Organizations such as the American Dance Therapy Association and the Association for Dance Movement Psychotherapy UK, maintain standards of professional courtesy and high levels of educational standards within the field. DMT is practiced in various clinical settings and is used for psychotherapy purposes and physical therapy.


Dance has been used therapeutically for thousands of years. It has been used as a healing ritual in the influence of fertility, birth, sickness, and death since early human history. Over the period from 1840 to 1930, a new philosophy of dance developed in Europe and the United States, defined by the idea that movement could have an effect on the mover vis-a-vis that dance was not simply an expressive art.[7] The actual establishment of dance as a therapy and as a profession occurred in the 1950s, beginning with future American Dance Therapy Association founder Marian Chance.[8]

Although dance has been a method of expression for centuries, it wasn’t until the past half century that it was characterized as a form of therapy. The development of DMT can be split into two waves throughout history.

First wave[edit]

Marian Chace, spearheaded the movement of dance in the medical community as a form of therapy. She is considered the principal founder of what is now dance therapy in the United States.[9] In 1942, through her work, dance was first introduced to western medicine. Chace was originally a dancer, choreographer, and performer. After opening her own dance school in Washington, D.C., Chace began to realize the effects dance and movement had on her students.[10] The reported feelings of wellbeing from her students began to attract the attention of the medical community, and some local doctors began sending patients to her classes. She was soon asked to work at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, D.C. once psychiatrists too realized the benefits their patients were receiving from attending Chace’s dance classes.[11] In 1966 Chace became the first president of the American Dance Therapy Association, an organization which she and several other DMT pioneers founded.[10] According to the ADTA, dance is "the psychotherapeutic use of movement as a process which furthers the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical integration of the individual."

Second wave[edit]

The second wave of Dance Movement Therapy came around the 1970s to the 1980s and it sparked much interest from American therapists. During this time, therapists began to experiment with the psychotherapeutic applications of dance and movement. As a result of the therapists' experiments, DMT was then categorized as a form of psychotherapy. It was from this second wave that today’s Dance Movement Therapy evolved.[10]


The theory of DMT is based mainly upon the belief that body and mind interact. Both conscious and unconscious movement of the person, based on the dualist mind body premise, affects total functioning, and also reflects the individual’s personality. Therefore, the therapist-client relationship is partly based on non-verbal cues such as body language. Movement is believed to have a symbolic function and as such can aid in understanding the self. Movement improvisation allows the client to experiment with new ways of being and DMT provides a manner or channel in which the client can consciously understand early relationships with negative stimuli through non-verbal mediation by the therapist.[10]

Through the unity of the body, mind, and spirit, DMT provides a sense of wholeness to all individuals. The body refers to the "discharging of energy through muscular-skeletal responses to stimuli received by the brain." The mind refers to "mental activities...such as memory, imagery, perception, attention, evaluation, reasoning and decision making." The spirit refers to the "subjectively experienced state of feeling in engaging in or empathically observing dancing."[12]

Dance therapy works to improve the social skills, as well as relational dynamics among the clients that choose to participate in it to better improve their quality of life. Through this form of therapy clients will gain a deeper sense of self-awareness through a meditative a process that involves movement, motion, and realization of one's body. Dance therapy is different from other forms of rehabilitative treatments because it allows creative expression and is more holistic, meaning it treats the full person: mind, body, and spirit.[13]

The therapy process[edit]

The therapy process has four stages, which occur during DMT and can be a creative time for both the therapist and patient(s). Each stage contains a smaller set of goals which correlate to the larger purpose of DMT. The stages and goals of DMT vary with each individual. Although the stages are progressive, the stages are usually revisited several times throughout the entire DMT process. The four stages are:

Preparation: the warm-up stage, a safe space is established without obstacles nor distractions, a supportive relationship with a witness is formed, comfort for participants to be familiar with moving with their eyes closed.
Incubation: leader verbally prompts participant to go into subconscious, open-ended imagery used to create an internal environment that is catered to the participant, relaxed atmosphere, symbolic movements.
Illumination: process which is integrated through conscious awareness via dialogue with witness, self-reflection in which the participant uncovers and resolves subconscious motivations, increased self awareness, can have positive and negative effects.
Evaluation: discuss insights and significance of the process, prepare to end therapy[13]

Dance styles used[edit]

A variety of dance styles are used in DMT depending on the needs to the client. These include: Modern Dance with its emphasis on the pure elements of movement, Authentic Movement, Turkish dance, ballroom dance, tango, waltz, foxtrot, aerobic dance, line dancing and body psychotherapy[14]


Proposed mechanisms[edit]

Various hypothesis have been proposed for mechanisms by which dance therapy may benefit participants. There is a social component to dance therapy, which can be valuable for psychological functioning through human interaction. Another possible mechanism is the music that is used during the session, which may be able to reduce pain, decrease anxiety, and increase relaxation. Since dance requires learning and involves becoming active and discovering capacities for movement, there is also the physical training that could provide benefits as well. Dancing may be considered more uplifting and enjoyable than other types of exercise. Dance therapy can also involve nonverbal communication, "which enables participants to express their feelings without words. This might be helpful when normal communication is absent or has broken down (eg, for patients with dementia)."[15]


A Cochrance review of Dance therapy for schizophrenia in 2013[16] concluded:
"Overall, because of the small number of participants, the findings are limited. There is little evidence to support or refute the use of dance therapy. Larger studies and trials are needed that focus on important outcomes (such as rates of relapse, quality of life, admission to hospital, leaving the study early, cost of care and satisfaction with treatment). Further research would help clarify whether dance therapy is an effective and holistic treatment for people with schizophrenia, especially in terms of helping people cope with negative symptoms that do not respond so well to antipsychotic drugs."

A review by The Cochrane Collaboration on Dance/movement therapy for cancer patients was updated in January 2015[17] to say:
"The three studies included a a total of 207 participants, which were women with breast cancer. The studies were small in size. We found no evidence of an effect for depression, stress, anxiety, fatigue, and body image. The findings of individual studies suggest that dance/movement therapy may have a beneficial effect on the quality of life, somatization (i.e. distress arising from perceptions of bodily dysfunction) and vigor of women with breast cancer. No adverse effects of dance/movement therapy interventions were reported."

The most recent Cochrane review for DMT was in February 2015 entitled Is dance movement therapy an effective treatment for depression? A review of the evidence.[18] The findings stated:
"Due to the low number of studies and low quality of evidence, it was not possible to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of DMT for depression. It was not possible to compare DMT with medication, talking therapies, physical treatments or to compare types of DMT due to lack of available evidence. Key findings were:
Overall, there is no evidence for or against DMT as a treatment for depression. There is some evidence to suggest DMT is more effective than standard care for adults, but this was not clinically significant. DMT is no more effective than standard care for young people.
Evidence from just one study of low methodological quality suggested that drop-out rates from the DMT group were not significant, and there is no reliable effect in either direction for quality of life or self esteem. A large positive effect was observed for social functioning, but since this was from one study of low methodological quality the result is imprecise."

One review of the effect of DMT on Parkinson's disease noted that there have been few studies in this area. DMT appears to meet most requirements for exercise programs for patient's with Parkinson's. Benefits in gait function, balance, and quality of life were found in short-term studies, though further studies need to be done to see if any of these benefits are seen long-term.[19]

Adverse effects[edit]

Most trials studying dance therapy did not specifically comment on whether or not adverse effects occurred, though one noted a broken finger thought related to dancing.[15]


DMT is practiced in a large variety of locations. Such locations include:[8]


Organizations such as the American Dance Therapy Association were created in order to uphold high standards in the field of DMT. Such organizations help connect individuals to therapists and DMT.[20]

American Dance Therapy Association[edit]

American Dance Therapy Association (ADTA) was founded in 1966 in order to uphold high standards throughout dance therapy. The ADTA was created by Marian Chace, the first president of the ADTA, and other pioneers in dance movement. Along with setting standards for which therapists must attain to become licensed therapists, ADTA keeps an updated registry of all movement/dance therapists who have met ADTA’s standards. In addition, ADTA also publishes the American Journal of Dance Therapy and sponsors annual professional conferences.[20]

Association for Dance Movement Psychotherapy, United Kingdom[edit]

The Association for Dance Movement Psychotherapy, United Kingdom (ADMP UK) was one of the first organizations established to regulate the field of dance therapy. ADMP UK accredits therapists and oversees that all regulations are followed.[21]

Allied professions[edit]

Allied professions are areas that a person could do, special studies, short courses, or eventually become trained in the area of DMT.[22]

Therapist qualifications[edit]

ADTA is the main regulator of the required education and training in order to become a dance/movement therapist in the USA.[20] A master's degree is required to become a dance/movement therapist. "Registered Dance/Movement Therapist" (R-DMT) is the title given to entry-level dance/movement therapists who have completed requisite education and a minimum 700-hour supervised clinical internship. Those who have completed over 3,640 hours of supervised professional clinical work may hold the advanced credential "Board Certified Dance/Movement Therapist (BC-DMT).[11]


Because becoming a dance therapist requires a graduate degree of at least a Master's level, the undergraduate track that a student chooses to take is very important, as well. There is no specific undergraduate degree that a student is required to obtain. However, it is highly recommended that they choose a degree in a behavioral science, like Psychology, or in something related to dance, such as Performing Arts.[23]

There are only 6 ADTA approved master's programs from which to earn Registered Dance/Movement Therapist (R-DMT) credentials: Antioch University New England in New Hampshire, Columbia College Chicago in Illinois, Drexel University in Pennsylvania, Lesley University in Massachusetts, Naropa University in Colorado, and Pratt Institute in New York [1]. Each of these programs require two to three years of study. Students are expected to complete sixty to sixty-two credit hours, along with an internship/practicum of two to four semesters.[24]

Those with a master's or doctoral degree in a human services-related field may have the option to become an R-DMT via alternate route[25]

In addition to the R-DMT, which stands for Registered Dance Movement Therapist, there is the BC-DMT, which stands for Board Certified Dance Movement Therapist. The R-DMT requires a master’s degree with 700 hours of supervised clinical work, while the BC-DMT is the "advanced" qualification requiring a master's degree of 3,640 hours of supervised clinical work and passing a grueling exam.[26]

There are five universities in the United Kingdom that offer graduate programs in Dance Movement Psychotherapy and have been approved by the ADMP UK: Dance Voice Therapy and Education Centre, Bristol, Edge Hill University, Goldsmiths University of London, University of Derby and University of Roehampton.

All five universities offer an MA degree in Dance Movement Psychotherapy, typically 2 years full-time or 3 years part-time. University of Roehampton also offers a PhD course, either 3 years full-time or up to 6 years part-time.[27] Along with clinical placements, experiential groups and movement analysis, students are required to undergo personal psychotherapy while in training.[28]

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Ekman, S.-L.; Palo Bengtsson, L. and Winblad, B.; Ekman, S.-L. (1998). "Social Dancing: A Way to Support Intellectual, Emotional and Motor Functions in Persons with Dementia". Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 6 5 (6): 545–554. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2850.1998.560545.x. PMID 10076285. 
  5. ^ Schore, A. (1994). "affect regulation and the origin of the self: the neurobiology of emotional development". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 35 (11): 1561. doi:10.1097/00004583-199611000-00028. 
  6. ^ Hadamard, J. (1954). "The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field". Journal of Chemical Education. 2 32 (2): 110. Bibcode:1955JChEd..32..110. doi:10.1021/ed032p110.3. 
  7. ^ Schwartz, H. (1992) "Torque: The new kinaesthetic of the twentieth century". In Crary, J. and S. Kwinter (Ed.) Zone 6: Incorporations. New York: Urzone ISBN 9780942299298
  8. ^ a b Strassel, Juliane; Daniel Cherkin; Lotte Steuten; Karen Sherman; Hubertus Vrijhoef (May–June 2011). "A Systematic Review of the Evidence for the Effectiveness of Dance Therapy". Alternative Therapies 17 (3): 50–9. PMID 22164813. 
  9. ^ "Who was Marian Chace?" American Dance Therapy Association.
  10. ^ a b c d Levy, Fran J. '1988) Dance Movement Therapy: A Healing Art. Reston, VA: The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance.
  11. ^ a b "Dance Therapy". American Cancer Society.
  12. ^ Hanna, Judith (2007). "The Power of Dance: Health and Healing". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1 (4): 323–331. 
  13. ^ a b Meekums, Bonnie, Dance Movement Therapy, (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.).
  14. ^ Strassel, Juliane; Daniel Cherkin; Lotte Steuten; Karen Sherman; Hubertus Vrijhoef (May–June 2011). "A Systematic Review of the Evidence for the Effectiveness of Dance Therapy". Alternative Therapies 17 (3): 53. PMID 22164813. 
  15. ^ a b Strassel, JK; Cherkin, DC; Steuten, L; Sherman, KJ; Vrijhoef, HJ (May–Jun 2011). "A systematic review of the evidence for the effectiveness of dance therapy.". Alternative therapies in health and medicine 17 (3): 50–9. PMID 22164813. 
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Earhart, GM (Jun 2009). "Dance as therapy for individuals with Parkinson disease.". European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine 45 (2): 231–8. PMC 2780534. PMID 19532110. 
  20. ^ a b c "Who We Are". American Dance Therapy Association.
  21. ^ Payne, Helen (2006) Dance Movement Therapy: Theory, Research, and Practice. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge.
  22. ^ Payne, Helen (2004-03-09). Dance Movement Therapy: Theory and Practice. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203359266. 
  23. ^ "Undergraduate Coursework". Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  24. ^ Approved Graduate Programs in Dance/Movement Therapy.
  25. ^ Alternate Route Education in Dance/Movement Therapy.
  26. ^ "Alternative Therapy-Art Therapy, Dance Therapy, Music Therapy, and Imagery". Beaumont Health System. Beaumont Health System. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  27. ^
  28. ^

Further reading[edit]

  • Meekums, B. (2002). Dance Movement Therapy: a Creative Psychotherapeutic Approach. London: Sage.
  • Chodorow, J. (1991). Dance Therapy and Depth Psychology. London.
  • Lewis, P. (1984; 1986). Theoretical Approaches in Dance Movement Therapy. Vols I & II, USA: Kendall/Hunt.
  • Payne, H. (ed). (2006). Dance Movement Therapy: Theory, Research and Practice (2nd edn). Tavistock / Routledge.
  • Siegel, E. (1984). Dance Movement Therapy: Mirror of Ourselves: The Psychoanalytic Approach. New York: Human Science Press.
  • Stanton-Jones, K. (1992). An Introduction to Dance Movement Therapy in Psychiatry. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
  • North, M. (1990). Personality Assessment Through Movement. Northcote House.
  • Payne, H.L. (2000). Creative Movement and Dance in Groupwork. Oxon: Speechmark.
  • McCormack, D. (2003) An event of geographical ethics in spaces of affect. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 28, (4), 488–507.

External links[edit]