Sir Daniel Gooch, Bt
Sir Daniel Gooch, 1866 engraving
(The Illustrated London News)
|Born||24 August 1816|
Bedlington, Northumberland, England
|Died||15 October 1889(aged 73)|
|Projects||Great Western Railway|
Transatlantic telegraph cable
Sir Daniel Gooch, 1st Baronet (24 August 1816 – 15 October 1889) was an English railway locomotive and transatlantic cable engineer and Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1865 to 1885. He was the first Superintendent of Locomotive Engines on the Great Western Railway from 1837 to 1864 and its chairman from 1865 to 1889.
Gooch was born in Bedlington, Northumberland, the son of John Gooch, an ironfounder, and his wife Anna Longridge. In 1831 his family moved to Tredegar Ironworks, Monmouthshire, South Wales, where his father had accepted a managerial post, and it was there that Daniel would begin training under Thomas Ellis senior, who together with Ironmaster Samuel Homfray and Richard Trevithick pioneered steam railway locomotion. Gooch wrote in his diaries "Large works of this kind are by far the best school for a young engineer to get a general knowledge of what he needs in after life." and "...I look back upon the time spent at Tredegar as by far the most important years of my life...". He trained in engineering with a variety of companies, including a period with Robert Stephenson and Company, in Newcastle upon Tyne, as a draughtsman. At the age of 20 he was recruited by Isambard Kingdom Brunel for the Great Western Railway, under the title "Superintendent of Locomotive Engines", taking office on 18 August 1837.
Whilst working in Newcastle he met his future wife, Margaret Tanner, the daughter of Henry Tanner, a Sunderland shipowner. He stayed in touch with Margaret when he moved south to work for Brunel.
In Gooch's earliest days with the Great Western Railway, he struggled to keep the miscellaneous collection of 7 ft 0 1⁄4 in (2,140 mm) broad gauge steam locomotives previously ordered by Brunel in working order. When working at Robert Stephenson and Company, he had helped design two 5 ft 6 in (1,680 mm) gauge locomotives for the New Orleans Railway, which had never been delivered. Gooch persuaded Brunel to buy the two locomotives, North Star and Morning Star, and had Stephenson convert them to 7-foot gauge before delivery. As the only reliable locomotives that the company had at that time, they were the basis of the GWR Star Class. He and Brunel improved the blastpipe arrangement of the North Star to improve its fuel efficiency. Eventually Gooch moved on from the Star class and designed the new GWR Firefly Class of 2-2-2 express passenger locomotives, introduced in 1840. In comparative trials by the Gauge Commissioners, Ixion of this class proved capable of speeds greater than its standard gauge challenger. In 1843 Gooch introduced a new form of locomotive valve gear.
In 1840, Gooch was responsible for identifying the site of Swindon Works and in 1846 for designing the first complete locomotive to be constructed there, Great Western, prototype of the GWR Iron Duke Class of 4-2-2 locomotives, which were able to achieve 70 miles per hour (110 km/h). Much renewed, they lasted to the end of the GWR broad gauge era. Though Gooch's locomotives were principally for the broad gauge, between 1854 and 1864 he also had to design a number of standard gauge classes for the GWR's new Northern Division. In 1864 he resigned from his post of Locomotive Superintendent, though he continued as a member of the GWR Board.
Cable engineer and other roles
From 1859 Gooch lived at Clewer Park in Windsor and was a Deputy Lieutenant for Berkshire. In 1865, he was recalled to the Great Western Railway Company as Chairman. He was also chief engineer of the Telegraph Construction & Maintenance Company. In this role, he was instrumental in laying the first successful transatlantic telegraph cable, using the SS Great Eastern (1865/66).
Later business activities
In 1866 Gooch was created a baronet in recognition of his cable work. In 1868 he became chairman of the Telegraph Construction & Maintenance Company after John Pender, the first chairman, resigned. He led the Great Western Railway out of near-bankruptcy and took a particular interest in construction of the Severn Tunnel. Final abandonment of the broad gauge did not take place until after his death at the age of 73.
Gooch married Margaret Tanner in 1838. Following her death in 1868, he married Emily Burder in 1870; she died in 1901. His brothers, John Viret Gooch, Thomas Longridge Gooch and William Frederick Gooch, were also railway engineers.
GWR Castle Class steam loco no. 5070 and British Rail Western Region class 47 diesel loco no. D1663 (later 47078) were both named Sir Daniel Gooch. Continuing with this tradition, the present Great Western Railway company has named class 800 no. 800004 after Gooch; it runs on the line that Gooch helped to create. A pub in Bayswater, London was named the Daniel Gooch; it closed in 2016
- Channon, Geoffrey (September 2013) . "Gooch, Sir Daniel". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/10939. Retrieved 3 February 2015. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Gooch, Daniel (1972). Memoirs & Diary. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-5609-7.
- Gooch, Daniel (1892). Diaries of Sir Daniel Gooch, Baronet. Internet Archive. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner. OCLC 12832410. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Griffiths, Derek (1987). Locomotive Engineers of the GWR. Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 0-85059-819-2.
- MacDermot, E.T. (1927). History of the Great Western Railway, vol. I: 1833-1863. Paddington: Great Western Railway.
- Mair, Robert Henry, ed. (1881). Debrett's Illustrated House of Commons and the Judicial Bench. Internet Archive. London: Dean & Son. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Seatrobe, J B (15 March 2012). "They were also MPs: Daniel Gooch (1816-1889)". Total Politics. Warners Group Publications. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- (24 September 2004), Sir Daniel Gooch. Retrieved 9 February 2005.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Gooch, Sir Daniel.|
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Daniel Gooch
- Gooch's letter proposing Swindon railway works - Gooch’s Historic letter to Brunel - A Piece of Paper That Changed A Town’s Destiny
- Photograph of Gooch taken in the 1860s. National Portrait Gallery.
- Portrait of Gooch. National Portrait Gallery, artist, Francis Grant, 1872.
| Superintendent of Locomotive Engines
on the Great Western Railway
1837 – 1864
| Chairman of the Great Western Railway
1865 – 1889
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Ambrose Lethbridge Goddard
| Member of Parliament for Cricklade
1865 – 1885
With: Ambrose Lethbridge Goddard 1865–1868
Frederick William Cadogan 1868–1874
Ambrose Lethbridge Goddard 1874–1880
Nevil Story-Maskelyne 1880–1885
(representation reduced to one member 1885)
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baronet
(of Clewer Park)
1866 – 1889
Henry Daniel Gooch