Danielle Citron

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Danielle Citron
Danielle Citron, 11 October 2015.JPG
Citron at Wikiconference USA in 2015
Academic background
Alma materDuke University,
Fordham University
Academic work
InstitutionsBoston University School of Law
Main interestsPrivacy
Notable worksHate Crimes in Cyberspace

Danielle Keats Citron is a Jefferson Scholars Foundation Schenck Distinguished Professor in Law at the University of Virginia School of Law where she teaches information privacy, free expression, and civil rights law.[1] Citron is the author of Hate Crimes in Cyberspace (2014)[2] which was named one of the “20 Best Moments for Women in 2014” by Cosmopolitan magazine.[3] She has published over 40 law review articles for publications such as Yale Law Journal, Boston University Law Review, Notre Dame Law Review, Washington University Law Review and more.[4] Her opinion pieces have appeared in the New York Times, Slate, The Atlantic, the Guardian.[5] She also serves as the Vice President of the Cyber Civil Rights Initiative, an organization which provides assistance and legislative support to victims of online abuse.[6] Prior to joining UVA Law, Citron was an Austin B. Fletcher Distinguished Professor of Law at Boston University School of Law, and was also the Morton & Sophia Macht Professor of Law at the University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law.[7]


Citron graduated from Duke University, and the Fordham University School of Law.[8] She is an Affiliate Scholar at the Center for Internet and Society,[9] an Affiliate Fellow at the Yale Information Society Project,[10] a Tech Fellow at NYU's Policing Project, and a member of the Principles Group for the Harvard-MIT Artificial Intelligence (AI) Fund.[11] In 2017, she was elected as a member of the American Law Institute[12] and currently serves on the Advisory Board of ALI's Information Privacy Principles Project.[13] She is the Vice President and Board Member of the Cyber Civil Rights Initiative, a civil rights and civil liberties project named after her article Cyber Civil Rights (Boston U Law Review, 2009).[14][15][failed verification] She serves on the advisory board of Teach Privacy,[16] SurvJustice,[17] the International Association of Privacy Professionals Privacy Bar,[18] and Without My Consent.[19] She serves on Twitter's Trust and Safety Council,[20] and the Board of Directors for the Future of Privacy Forum.[21] She was the Chair of the Electronic Privacy Information Center's Board of Directors (2017-2019) and currently[when?] serves on the board.[22] In 2019, Citron was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship for her work in cyber harassment.[23]

Citron is an expert on online harassment,[24][25] and has written for The New York Times,[26] Slate Magazine,[27] The Atlantic,[28] The New Scientist,[29] TIME,[30] and Al Jazeera.[31] She has been a guest on The Diane Rehm Show, The Kojo Nnamdi Show, and Slate Magazine's The Gist podcast.[32][33][34] She is also a Forbes contributor.[35] She has authored over 30 law review articles.[36]

Citron helped Maryland State Senator Jon Cardin draft a bill criminalizing the nonconsensual publication of nude images, which was passed into law in 2014.[37] From 2014 to December 2016, Citron served as an advisor to California Attorney General Kamala Harris.[38] She served as a member of AG Harris's Task Force to Combat Cyber Exploitation and Violence Against Women.[39]

Citron is a critic of Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, stating that it gives online platforms a "free pass" from having to do moderation, while market forces are driving a rise of "salacious, negative, and novel content" on the Internet.[40] In a 2017 Fordham Law Review paper with Benjamin Wittes, Citron argued that "the internet will not break [from] denying bad samaritans § 230 immunity".[41] At a House Intelligence Committee hearing in June 2019[42][43] and at a House Energy and Commerce Committee hearing in October 2019, Citron proposed to condition section 230 protection on "reasonable" content moderation practices, an idea which the Electronic Frontier Foundation called "terrifying", arguing it would lead to excessive litigation risks especially for small businesses.[44] On the other hand, Citron has expressed partial agreement with critics of the 2018 FOSTA act, in particular with regard to uncertainties resulting from the law's "knowing facilitation" standard.[45]

Selected works[edit]

  • Danielle Keats Citron (2014). Hate Crimes in Cyberspace. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36829-3. [46][47][48][49]
Book chapters
  • Danielle Keats Citron (2019). Susan Brison and Katharine Gelber, eds. "Why Combating Online Abuse Is Good For Free Speech," in Free Speech in the Digital Age. Oxford University Press
  • Danielle Keats Citron (with Quinta Jurecic) (2018). "Platform Justice: Content Moderation at an Inflection Point." in Hoover Institute Aegis Series.
  • Danielle Keats Citron (with Liz Clark Rinehart) (2017). David Gray and Stephen Henderson, eds. "The Surveillance Implications of Combatting Cyber Harassment." in Cambridge Handbook of Surveillance Law.
  • Danielle Keats Citron (2015). Marc Rotenberg, Jeramie Scott, and Julia Horwitz, eds. "Protecting Sexual Privacy in the Information Age" in Privacy in the Modern Age. New Press. ISBN 978-1620971079
  • Danielle Keats Citron (2011). Martha Nussbaum & Saul Levmore (ed.). Civil Rights in the Information Age, in The Offensive Internet: Speech, Privacy and Reputation. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674064317.
o Described as "one of the best works in Cyberlaw" in Jotwell.
o Winner of 2018 Privacy Papers for Policymakers Award (awarded to Top 5 privacy papers).
o Excerpted in Geoffrey Stone, Louis Seidman, Cass Sunstein, and Mark Tushnet, The First Amendment: Supplement (5th ed.).
o Recipient of the International Association of Privacy Professionals Award for Best Paper at the 2016 Privacy Law Scholars Conference.
o Winner of the 2016 Privacy Papers for Policymakers Award (awarded to Top 5 privacy papers).
o Discussed in Kadish, Schulhoffer & Barkow, Criminal Law and Processes (10th ed. 2016).
o Cited in A.A.C. v. Miller-Pomlee, 440 P.3d 106 (Or. Ct. App. Apr. 3, 2019).
o Recipient of the International Association of Privacy Professionals Award for Best Paper at the 2014 Privacy Law Scholars Conference.
o Cited in Executive Office of the President, Big Data: A Report on Algorithmic Systems, Opportunity, and Civil Rights (May 2016) and Federal Trade Commission, Big Data: A Tool for Inclusion or Exclusion (January 2016).
o Recipient of the Future of Privacy Award for Top Privacy Papers for Policymakers.
o Discussed in Daniel J. Solove & Paul Schwartz, Information Privacy Law (5th ed. 2015)
o Cited extensively in People v. Austin (Ill. Sup. Ct. Oct. 18, 2019).
o Cited by Patel v. Hussain (Tex. App. Ct. Jan. 21, 2016).
o Cited extensively in State v. VanBuren (Vt. Sup. Ct. September 3, 2018).
o Excerpted in William McGeveran, Privacy and Data Protection Law (Aspen 2016).
o Excerpted in Geoffrey Stone, Louis Seidman, Cass Sunstein, Mark Tushnet, and Pamela Karlan, Constitutional Law: Supplement (6th ed. 2016).
o Reprinted in The First Amendment Law Handbook (Rodney Smolla, ed. 2010).
o Excerpted in Daniel J. Solove & Paul Schwartz, Information Privacy Law (5th ed. 2015).
o Featured as the centerpiece of a symposium held by Denver University Law Review in Nov. 2009.
o Featured in online symposium at Concurring Opinions Blog in April 2009.
o Recommended in Daniel J. Solove & Paul Schwartz, Privacy Law Fundamentals (2d ed. 2013).



  1. ^ "Foundation funds pioneering law professor and preeminent public intellectual in the area of digital privacy | Jefferson Scholars Foundation". www.jeffersonscholars.org. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  2. ^ "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace — Danielle Keats Citron". www.hup.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  3. ^ "Cyber Civil Rights Initiative". Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  4. ^ "Cyber Civil Rights Initiative". Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  5. ^ "Cyber Civil Rights Initiative". Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  6. ^ "What We Do | Cyber Civil Rights Initiative". Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  7. ^ "Danielle Citron". University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law Faculty. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  8. ^ "Danielle Citron". University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law Faculty. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  9. ^ "Danielle Citron, Affiliate Scholar". Center for Internet and Society, Stanford University.
  10. ^ "Danielle Citron, Affiliated Fellows". Yale Information Society Project.
  11. ^ "AI Initiative". AI Initiative. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  12. ^ Institute, The American Law. "Newly Elected Members | American Law Institute". American Law Institute. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  13. ^ "Current Projects, Principles of the Law, Data Privacy". The American Law Institute. Archived from the original on 2015-04-20. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  14. ^ "CCRI Board of Directors & Advisors - Cyber Civil Rights Initiative". Cyber Civil Rights Initiative. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  15. ^ Citron, Danielle Keats (2008-12-18). "Cyber Civil Rights". Rochester, NY. SSRN 1271900. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ "Privacy Training | Data Security Training | Professor Daniel Solove Bio". TeachPrivacy. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  17. ^ "Advisors". SURVJUSTICE: 202-869-0699. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  18. ^ "International Association of Privacy Professionals". iapp.org. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  19. ^ "Advisory Board". Without My Consent. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  20. ^ "Twitter Safety Partners". Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  21. ^ "Future of Privacy Forum". fpf.org. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  22. ^ Center, Electronic Privacy Information. "EPIC - EPIC Board and Staff". epic.org. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  23. ^ "Danielle Citron: Legal Scholar, Class of 2019". MacArthur Foundation. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  24. ^ Daily Record Staff. "Danielle Citron". Maryland Daily Record.
  25. ^ Rodricks, Dan; Himowitz, Mike (2014-12-15). "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace". Midday with Dan Rodricks. WYPR/NPR. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  26. ^ Citron, Danielle. "Free Speech Does Not Protect Cyberharassment". The New York Times. Dec 3, 2014. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: location (link)
  27. ^ "Danielle Citron, Contributor". Slate.
  28. ^ Citron, Danielle & Woodrow Hartzog. "The Decision That Could Finally Kill the Revenge-Porn Business". The Atlantic. Feb 3, 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: location (link)
  29. ^ Citron, Danielle. "To defeat trolls, we need to do more than jail them". The New Scientist. Oct 22, 2014. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: location (link)
  30. ^ Citron, Danielle. "Just Because a Hate Crime Occurs on the Internet Doesn't Mean It's Not a Hate Crime". TIME. Oct 7, 2014. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: location (link)
  31. ^ Citron, Danielle. "Expand harassment laws to protect victims of online abuse". Al Jazeera. March 21, 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: location (link)
  32. ^ "Women And Online Harassment". The Diane Rehm Show. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  33. ^ "Digital Dualism: The Fading Distinction Between Life On And Off Line - The Kojo Nnamdi Show". The Kojo Nnamdi Show. 2015-03-24. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  34. ^ Pesca, Mike. "The Gist discusses online threats with Danielle Citron, and musical fades with William Weir". The Gist, Episode 100. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  35. ^ "Danielle Citron, Contributor". Forbes.
  36. ^ "Danielle Citron, Selected Publications". University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law Faculty. Archived from the original on 2015-04-16. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  37. ^ Citron, Danielle Keats. "Revenge porn: A pernicious form of cyber gender harassment [Commentary]". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  38. ^ "California AG goes all-out to fight "revenge porn"". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  39. ^ "Attorney General Kamala D. Harris, Tech Leaders and Advocates Launch Offensive in Fight Against Cyber Exploitation". State of California - Department of Justice - Office of the Attorney General. 2015-10-14. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  40. ^ Citron, Danielle (2019-10-16). "Tech Companies Get a Free Pass on Moderating Content. It's Time to Change That". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  41. ^ Citron, Danielle; Wittes, Benjamin (2017-11-01). "The Internet Will Not Break: Denying Bad Samaritans § 230 Immunity". Fordham Law Review. 86 (2): 401.
  42. ^ Center, Electronic Privacy Information. "EPIC - Professor Citron Testifies Before Congress on "Deep Fakes"". epic.org. Retrieved 2019-06-18.
  43. ^ Kelly, Makena (2019-06-13). "Congress grapples with how to regulate deepfakes". The Verge. Retrieved 2019-06-18.
  44. ^ Harding McGill, Margaret (2019-10-16). "House lawmakers take aim at law protecting Reddit, Google from user-generated content liability". Axios. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  45. ^ "FOSTA: The New Anti-Sex-Trafficking Legislation May Not End the Internet, But It's Not Good Law Either". Lawfare. 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  46. ^ Quarmby, Katherine. "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace by Danielle Keats Citron review – the internet is a brutal place". The Guardian - Books. Sept 26, 2014. Retrieved 2015-04-11.CS1 maint: location (link)
  47. ^ Chemaly, Soraya (2014-09-02). ""Hate Crimes in Cyberspace" author: "Everyone is at risk, from powerful celebrities to ordinary people"". Salon.com. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  48. ^ Hill, Kashmir (2014-08-21). "How To Keep Internet Trolls And Harassers From Winning". Forbes. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  49. ^ Nussbaum, Martha C (2014-11-05). "Haterz Gonna Hate?". The Nation. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  50. ^ Knibbs, Kate. "How The Hell Are These Popular Spying Apps Not Illegal?". Retrieved 2017-06-19.
  51. ^ https://www.macfound.org/fellows/1032/
  52. ^ https://www.umaryland.edu/champions/2017-18-champions/protecting-privacy-in-the-digital-age/
  53. ^ https://fpf.org/2018/12/17/this-years-must-read-privacy-papers-the-future-of-privacy-forum-announces-recipients-of-annual-privacy-papers-for-policymakers-award/
  54. ^ https://www.law.berkeley.edu/research/bclt/bcltevents/2019annual-privacy-law-scholars-conference/plsc-paper-awards/
  55. ^ https://www.law.berkeley.edu/research/bclt/bcltevents/2019annual-privacy-law-scholars-conference/plsc-paper-awards/
  56. ^ https://www.law.berkeley.edu/research/bclt/bcltevents/2019annual-privacy-law-scholars-conference/plsc-paper-awards/
  57. ^ http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/philosophy/world-thinkers-2015-danielle-keats-citron
  58. ^ http://thedailyrecord.com/influential-marylanders/

External links[edit]