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Danielle Citron

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Danielle Citron
Citron at WikiConference USA in 2015
AwardsMacArthur Fellow (2019)
Fastcase 50 Award Honoree (2022)
Top 50 World Thinkers (Prospect Magazine UK, 2015)
Academic background
Alma materDuke University (BA)
Fordham University (JD)
Academic work
InstitutionsUniversity of Virginia School of Law
Main interestsPrivacy, Civil Rights, Gender and the Law
Notable works"'Hate Crimes in Cyberspace" (2014)
"The Fight for Privacy: Protecting Dignity, Identity, and Love in the Digital Age" (2022)

Danielle Keats Citron is a Jefferson Scholars Foundation Schenck Distinguished Professor in Law at the University of Virginia School of Law, where she teaches information privacy, free expression, and civil rights law.[1] Citron is the author of "The Fight for Privacy: Protecting Dignity, Identity, and Love in the Digital Age" (forthcoming October 2022) and "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace" (2014).[2][3] She also serves as the Vice President of the Cyber Civil Rights Initiative, an organization which provides assistance and legislative support to victims of online abuse.[4] Prior to joining UVA Law, Citron was an Austin B. Fletcher Distinguished Professor of Law at Boston University Law School, and was also the Morton & Sophia Macht Professor of Law at the University of Maryland School of Law.[5][6]


Citron graduated from Duke University, and the Fordham University School of Law.[7]

She is an Affiliate Scholar at the Stanford Center for Internet and Society,[8] an Affiliate Fellow at the Yale Information Society Project,[9] a Tech Fellow at NYU's Policing Project, and a member of the Principles Group for the Harvard-MIT Artificial Intelligence (AI) Fund.[10][11]

Citron is the author of Hate Crimes in Cyberspace (2014)[12] which was named one of the “20 Best Moments for Women in 2014” by Cosmopolitan magazine.[13] Her second book The Fight for Privacy: Protecting Dignity, Identity, and Love in the Digital Age will be released in October 2022.[14]

In 2017, she was elected as a member of the American Law Institute[15] and currently serves on the Advisory Board of ALI's Information Privacy Principles Project.[16] She is the Vice President and Board Member of the Cyber Civil Rights Initiative, a civil rights and civil liberties project named after her article Cyber Civil Rights (Boston U Law Review, 2009).[17][18] She serves on the advisory board of Teach Privacy[19] and Without My Consent.[20] She serves on Twitter's Trust and Safety Council,[21] and the Board of Directors for the Future of Privacy Forum.[22] She sits on the Electronic Privacy Information Center's Board of Directors, and was the Chair of the Board from 2017 through 2019.[23] In 2019, Citron was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship for her work in cyber harassment.[24]

Citron is an expert on online harassment,[25][26] and has written for The New York Times,[27] Slate,[28] The Atlantic,[29] The New Scientist,[30] Time,[31] and Al Jazeera.[32] She has been a guest on The Diane Rehm Show, The Kojo Nnamdi Show, and Slate's The Gist podcast.[33][34][35] She is also a Forbes contributor.[36] She has authored over 50 law review articles,[37] and she is ranked number 72 out of the 250 most-cited scholars on Hein Online.[38]

Citron helped Maryland State Senator Jon Cardin draft a bill criminalizing the non-consensual publication of nude images, which was passed into law in 2014.[39] From 2014 to December 2016, Citron served as an advisor to Vice President Kamala Harris (then California Attorney General).[40] She served as a member of Harris's Task Force to Combat Cyber Exploitation and Violence Against Women.[41]

Citron is a critic of Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, stating that it gives online platforms a "free pass" from having to do moderation, while market forces are driving a rise of "salacious, negative, and novel content" on the Internet.[42] In a 2017 Fordham Law Review article with Benjamin Wittes, Citron argued that "the internet will not break [from] denying bad samaritans § 230 immunity".[43] At a House Intelligence Committee hearing in June 2019 [44][45] and at a House Energy and Commerce Committee hearing in October 2019,[46] Citron proposed the conditioning of Section 230 protection on "reasonable" content moderation practices. The Electronic Frontier Foundation called this proposition "terrifying", arguing it would lead to excessive litigation risks, especially for small businesses.[47] On the other hand, Citron has expressed partial agreement with critics of the 2018 FOSTA act, in particular with regard to uncertainties resulting from the law's "knowing facilitation" standard.[48]

Selected works[edit]

  • Danielle Keats Citron (forthcoming October 2022). The Fight for Privacy: Protecting Dignity, Identity and Love in our Digital Age. Chatto & Windus. ISBN 9781784744847[49]
  • Danielle Keats Citron (2014). Hate Crimes in Cyberspace. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36829-3. [50][51][52][53]
Book Chapters
  • Danielle Keats Citron (2019). Susan Brison and Katharine Gelber, eds. "Why Combating Online Abuse Is Good For Free Speech", in Free Speech in the Digital Age. Oxford University Press
  • Danielle Keats Citron (with Quinta Jurecic) (2018). "Platform Justice: Content Moderation at an Inflection Point" in Hoover Institute Aegis Series.[54]
  • Danielle Keats Citron (with Liz Clark Rinehart) (2017). David Gray and Stephen Henderson, eds. "The Surveillance Implications of Combatting Cyber Harassment" in Cambridge Handbook of Surveillance Law.[55]
  • Danielle Keats Citron (2015). Marc Rotenberg, Jeramie Scott, and Julia Horwitz, eds. "Protecting Sexual Privacy in the Information Age" in Privacy in the Modern Age. New Press. ISBN 978-1620971079[56]
  • Danielle Keats Citron (2011). Martha Nussbaum & Saul Levmore (ed.). Civil Rights in the Information Age, in The Offensive Internet: Speech, Privacy and Reputation. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674064317.[57]
Op-Eds and News Articles



  1. ^ "Danielle K. Citron". University of Virginia School of Law. 2020-12-01. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  2. ^ "The Fight for Privacy". wwnorton.com. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  3. ^ "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace — Danielle Keats Citron". www.hup.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  4. ^ "What We Do: Cyber Civil Rights Initiative". Archived from the original on 2021-01-22. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  5. ^ "Danielle Citron Joins BU Law". www.bu.edu. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  6. ^ "Profile: Danielle Citron". University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law. Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2022-11-01.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  7. ^ "Danielle K. Citron". University of Virginia School of Law. 2020-12-01. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  8. ^ "Danielle Citron, Affiliate Scholar". Center for Internet and Society, Stanford University.
  9. ^ "Danielle Citron, Affiliated Fellows". Yale Information Society Project.
  10. ^ "Danielle Citron". The Policing Project. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  11. ^ "AI Initiative". AI Initiative. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  12. ^ "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace — Danielle Keats Citron". www.hup.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  13. ^ Filipovic, Jill (2014-12-03). "The 20 Best Moments for Women in 2014". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  14. ^ "The Fight for Privacy". wwnorton.com. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  15. ^ "Newly Elected Members | American Law Institute". American Law Institute. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  16. ^ "Current Projects, Principles of the Law, Data Privacy". The American Law Institute. Archived from the original on 2015-04-20. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  17. ^ "CCRI Board of Directors". Cyber Civil Rights Initiative. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  18. ^ Citron, Danielle (February 2009). "Cyber Civil Rights". Boston University Law Review. 89 (61): 61–125 – via Scholarly Commons at Boston University School of Law.
  19. ^ "Privacy Training | Data Security Training | Professor Daniel Solove Bio". TeachPrivacy. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  20. ^ "Advisory Board". Without My Consent. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  21. ^ "Twitter Safety Partners". Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  22. ^ "Future of Privacy Forum". fpf.org. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  23. ^ "EPIC Board and Staff". EPIC - Electronic Privacy Information Center. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  24. ^ "Danielle Citron: Legal Scholar, Class of 2019". MacArthur Foundation. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  25. ^ "Danielle Citron". Maryland Daily Record. 27 February 2015.
  26. ^ Rodricks, Dan; Himowitz, Mike (2014-12-15). "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace". Midday with Dan Rodricks. WYPR/NPR. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  27. ^ Citron, Danielle (December 3, 2014). "Free Speech Does Not Protect Cyberharassment". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  28. ^ "Danielle Citron, Contributor". Slate.
  29. ^ Citron, Danielle & Woodrow Hartzog (February 3, 2015). "The Decision That Could Finally Kill the Revenge-Porn Business". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  30. ^ Citron, Danielle (October 22, 2014). "To defeat trolls, we need to do more than jail them". The New Scientist. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  31. ^ Citron, Danielle (October 7, 2014). "Just Because a Hate Crime Occurs on the Internet Doesn't Mean It's Not a Hate Crime". Time. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  32. ^ Citron, Danielle (March 21, 2015). "Expand harassment laws to protect victims of online abuse". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  33. ^ "Women And Online Harassment". The Diane Rehm Show. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  34. ^ "Digital Dualism: The Fading Distinction Between Life On And Off Line - The Kojo Nnamdi Show". The Kojo Nnamdi Show. 2015-03-24. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  35. ^ Pesca, Mike (25 September 2014). "The Gist discusses online threats with Danielle Citron, and musical fades with William Weir". The Gist, Episode 100. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  36. ^ "Danielle Citron, Contributor". Forbes.
  37. ^ "Author Page for Danielle Keats Citron :: SSRN". papers.ssrn.com. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  38. ^ "ScholarRank". HeinOnline. Retrieved 2022-11-01.
  39. ^ Citron, Danielle Keats. "Revenge porn: A pernicious form of cyber gender harassment [Commentary]". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2016-07-15. Retrieved 2022-11-01.
  40. ^ "California AG goes all-out to fight "revenge porn"". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  41. ^ "Attorney General Kamala D. Harris, Tech Leaders and Advocates Launch Offensive in Fight Against Cyber Exploitation". State of California - Department of Justice - Office of the Attorney General. 2015-10-14. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  42. ^ Citron, Danielle (2019-10-16). "Tech Companies Get a Free Pass on Moderating Content. It's Time to Change That". Slate. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  43. ^ Citron, Danielle; Wittes, Benjamin (2017-11-01). "The Internet Will Not Break: Denying Bad Samaritans § 230 Immunity". Fordham Law Review. 86 (2): 401.
  44. ^ "Professor Citron Testifies Before Congress on "Deep Fakes"". EPIC - Electronic Privacy Information Center. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  45. ^ Kelly, Makena (2019-06-13). "Congress grapples with how to regulate deepfakes". The Verge. Retrieved 2019-06-18.
  46. ^ "Internet and Consumer Protection | C-SPAN.org". www.c-span.org. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  47. ^ Harding McGill, Margaret (2019-10-16). "House lawmakers take aim at law protecting Reddit, Google from user-generated content liability". Axios. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  48. ^ "FOSTA: The New Anti-Sex-Trafficking Legislation May Not End the Internet, But It's Not Good Law Either". Lawfare. 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  49. ^ "The Fight for Privacy". wwnorton.com. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  50. ^ Quarmby, Katherine (September 26, 2014). "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace by Danielle Keats Citron review – the internet is a brutal place". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  51. ^ Chemaly, Soraya (2014-09-02). ""Hate Crimes in Cyberspace" author: "Everyone is at risk, from powerful celebrities to ordinary people"". Salon.com. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  52. ^ Hill, Kashmir (2014-08-21). "How To Keep Internet Trolls And Harassers From Winning". Forbes. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
  53. ^ Nussbaum, Martha C. (2014-11-05). "Haterz Gonna Hate?". The Nation. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  54. ^ @qjurecic (2018-09-07). "Platform Justice: Content Moderation at an Inflection Point". Lawfare. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  55. ^ Citron, Danielle K. (2017). "The Surveillance Implications of Combatting Cyber Harassment". Cambridge University Press: 291.
  56. ^ Citron, Danielle K. (2015). "Protecting Sexual Privacy in the Information Age". New Press: 46.
  57. ^ Citron, Danielle (2010-01-01). "Civil Rights in the Information Age". Faculty Scholarship.
  58. ^ Knibbs, Kate. "How The Hell Are These Popular Spying Apps Not Illegal?". Retrieved 2017-06-19.
  59. ^ "IAPP Announces 2024 Privacy Award Winners".
  60. ^ "Danielle Citron".
  61. ^ "Fastcase Announces 2022 Fastcase 50 Award Honorees | Fastcase". Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  62. ^ "Protecting Privacy in the Digital Age".
  63. ^ "This Year's Must-Read Privacy Papers: The Future of Privacy Forum Announces Recipients of Annual Privacy Papers for Policymakers Award - Future of Privacy Forum".
  64. ^ "PLSC Paper Awards".
  65. ^ "PLSC Paper Awards".
  66. ^ "PLSC Paper Awards".
  67. ^ "World Thinkers 2015: Danielle Keats Citron". Prospect. London. February 16, 2015.
  68. ^ "Influential Marylanders". 10 December 2021.

External links[edit]